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1.  Autoinducers Act as Biological Timers in Vibrio harveyi 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e48310.
Quorum sensing regulates cell density-dependent phenotypes and involves the synthesis, excretion and detection of so-called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi strain ATCC BAA-1116 (recently reclassified as Vibrio campbellii), one of the best-characterized model organisms for the study of quorum sensing, produces and responds to three autoinducers. HAI-1, AI-2 and CAI-1 are recognized by different receptors, but all information is channeled into the same signaling cascade, which controls a specific set of genes. Here we examine temporal variations of availability and concentration of the three autoinducers in V. harveyi, and monitor the phenotypes they regulate, from the early exponential to the stationary growth phase in liquid culture. Specifically, the exponential growth phase is characterized by an increase in AI-2 and the induction of bioluminescence, while HAI-1 and CAI-1 are undetectable prior to the late exponential growth phase. CAI-1 activity reaches its maximum upon entry into stationary phase, while molar concentrations of AI-2 and HAI-1 become approximately equal. Similarly, autoinducer-dependent exoproteolytic activity increases at the transition into stationary phase. These findings are reflected in temporal alterations in expression of the luxR gene that encodes the master regulator LuxR, and of four autoinducer-regulated genes during growth. Moreover, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal a tight correlation between the HAI-1/AI-2 ratio as input and levels of receptor-mediated phosphorylation of LuxU as output. Our study supports a model in which the combinations of autoinducers available, rather than cell density per se, determine the timing of various processes in V. harveyi populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048310
PMCID: PMC3482212  PMID: 23110227
2.  Single cell analysis of Vibrio harveyi uncovers functional heterogeneity in response to quorum sensing signals 
BMC Microbiology  2012;12:209.
Background
Vibrio harveyi and closely related species are important pathogens in aquaculture. A complex quorum sensing cascade involving three autoinducers controls bioluminescence and several genes encoding virulence factors. Single cell analysis of a V. harveyi population has already indicated intercellular heterogeneity in the production of bioluminescence. This study was undertaken to analyze the expression of various autoinducer-dependent genes in individual cells.
Results
Here we used reporter strains bearing promoter::gfp fusions to monitor the induction/repression of three autoinducer-regulated genes in wild type conjugates at the single cell level. Two genes involved in pathogenesis - vhp and vscP, which code for an exoprotease and a component of the type III secretion system, respectively, and luxC (the first gene in the lux operon) were chosen for analysis. The lux operon and the exoprotease gene are induced, while vscP is repressed at high cell density. As controls luxS and recA, whose expression is not dependent on autoinducers, were examined. The responses of the promoter::gfp fusions in individual cells from the same culture ranged from no to high induction. Importantly, simultaneous analysis of two autoinducer induced phenotypes, bioluminescence (light detection) and exoproteolytic activity (fluorescence of a promoter::gfp fusion), in single cells provided evidence for functional heterogeneity within a V. harveyi population.
Conclusions
Autoinducers are not only an indicator for cell density, but play a pivotal role in the coordination of physiological activities within the population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-209
PMCID: PMC3511230  PMID: 22985329
Bioluminescence; Exoprotease; Type III secretion; Autoinducer; Division of labor; Subpopulation
3.  Substrate Specificity of and Product Formation by Muconate Cycloisomerases: an Analysis of Wild-Type Enzymes and Engineered Variants 
Muconate cycloisomerases play a crucial role in the bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds by converting cis,cis-muconate, the product of catechol ring cleavage, to (4S)-muconolactone. Chloromuconate cycloisomerases catalyze both the corresponding reaction and a dehalogenation reaction in the transformation of chloroaromatic compounds. This study reports the first thorough examination of the substrate specificity of the muconate cycloisomerases from Pseudomonas putida PRS2000 and Acinetobacter “calcoaceticus” ADP1. We show that they transform, in addition to cis,cis-muconate, 3-fluoro-, 2-methyl-, and 3-methyl-cis,cis-muconate with high specificity constants but not 2-fluoro-, 2-chloro-, 3-chloro-, or 2,4-dichloro-cis,cis-muconate. Based on known three-dimensional structures, variants of P. putida muconate cycloisomerase were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis to contain amino acids found in equivalent positions in chloromuconate cycloisomerases. Some of the variants had significantly increased specificity constants for 3-chloro- or 2,4-dichloromuconate (e.g., A271S and I54V showed 27- and 22-fold increases, respectively, for the former substrate). These kinetic improvements were not accompanied by a change from protoanemonin to cis,cis-dienelactone as the product of 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate conversion. The rate of 2-chloro-cis,cis-muconate turnover was not significantly improved, nor was this compound dehalogenated to any significant extent. However, the direction of 2-chloro-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerization could be influenced by amino acid exchange. While the wild-type enzyme discriminated only slightly between the two possible cycloisomerization directions, some of the enzyme variants showed a strong preference for either (+)-2-chloro- or (+)-5-chloromuconolactone formation. These results show that the different catalytic characteristics of muconate and chloromuconate cycloisomerases are due to a number of features that can be changed independently of each other.
PMCID: PMC106723  PMID: 9726873

Results 1-3 (3)