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author:("lieu, adélie")
1.  Tyrosine-containing peptides are precursors of tyramine produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strain IR BL0076 isolated from wine 
BMC Microbiology  2012;12:199.
Background
Biogenic amines are molecules with allergenic properties. They are found in fermented products and are synthesized by lactic acid bacteria through the decarboxylation of amino acids present in the food matrix. The concentration of biogenic amines in fermented foodstuffs is influenced by many environmental factors, and in particular, biogenic amine accumulation depends on the quantity of available precursors. Enological practices which lead to an enrichment in nitrogen compounds therefore favor biogenic amine production in wine. Free amino acids are the only known precursors for the synthesis of biogenic amines, and no direct link has previously been demonstrated between the use of peptides by lactic acid bacteria and biogenic amine synthesis.
Results
Here we demonstrate for the first time that a Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a red wine can produce the biogenic amine tyramine from peptides containing tyrosine. In our conditions, most of the tyramine was produced during the late exponential growth phase, coinciding with the expression of the tyrDC and tyrP genes. The DNA sequences of tyrDC and tyrP in this strain share 98% identity with those in Lactobacillus brevis consistent with horizontal gene transfer from L. brevis to L. plantarum.
Conclusion
Peptides amino acids are precursors of biogenic amines for Lactobacillus plantarum strain IR BL0076.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-199
PMCID: PMC3492074  PMID: 22963406
Tyramine; Peptides; Lactobacillus plantarum; Wine
2.  Characterization of the CtsR Stress Response Regulon in Lactobacillus plantarum ▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2009;192(3):896-900.
Lactobacillus plantarum ctsR was characterized. ctsR was found to be cotranscribed with clpC and induced in response to various abiotic stresses. ctsR deletion conferred a heat-sensitive phenotype with peculiar cell morphological features. The transcriptional pattern of putative CtsR regulon genes was examined in the ΔctsR mutant. Direct CtsR-dependent regulation was demonstrated by DNA-binding assays using recombinant CtsR and the promoters of the ctsR-clpC operon and hsp1.
doi:10.1128/JB.01122-09
PMCID: PMC2812460  PMID: 19933364
3.  Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e Biofilms: No Mushrooms but a Network of Knitted Chains▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2008;74(14):4491-4497.
Listeria monocytogenes is a food pathogen that can attach on most of the surfaces encountered in the food industry. Biofilms are three-dimensional microbial structures that facilitate the persistence of pathogens on surfaces, their resistance toward antimicrobials, and the final contamination of processed goods. So far, little is known about the structural dynamics of L. monocytogenes biofilm formation and its regulation. The aims of this study were, by combining genetics and time-lapse laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), (i) to characterize the structural dynamics of L. monocytogenes EGD-e sessile growth in two nutritional environments (with or without a nutrient flow), and (ii) to evaluate the possible role of the L. monocytogenes agr system during biofilm formation by tracking the spatiotemporal fluorescence expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system. In the absence of nutrient flow (static conditions), unstructured biofilms composed of a few layers of cells that covered the substratum were observed. In contrast, when grown under dynamic conditions, L. monocytogenes EGD-e biofilms were highly organized. Indeed, ball-shaped microcolonies were surrounded by a network of knitted chains. The spatiotemporal tracking of fluorescence emitted by the GFP reporter system revealed that agr expression was barely detectable under static conditions, but it progressively increased during 40 h under dynamic conditions. Moreover, spatial analysis revealed that agr was expressed preferentially in cells located outside the microcolonies. Finally, the in-frame deletion of agrA, which encodes a transcriptional regulator, resulted in a decrease in initial adherence without affecting the subsequent biofilm development.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00255-08
PMCID: PMC2493181  PMID: 18502930
4.  agr System of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e: Role in Adherence and Differential Expression Pattern▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2007;73(19):6125-6133.
In this study, we investigated the agrBDCA operon in the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. In-frame deletion of agrA and agrD resulted in an altered adherence and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, suggesting the involvement of the agr system of L. monocytogenes during the early stages of biofilm formation. Real-time PCR experiments indicated that the transcript levels of agrBDCA depended on the stage of biofilm development, since the levels were lower after the initial attachment period than during biofilm growth, whereas transcription during planktonic growth was not growth phase dependent. The mRNA quantification data also suggested that the agr system was autoregulated and pointed to a differential expression of the agr genes during sessile and planktonic growth. Although the reverse transcription-PCR experiments revealed that the four genes were transcribed as a single messenger, chemical half-life and 5′ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) experiments indicated that the full size transcript underwent cleavage followed by degradation of the agrC and agrA transcripts, which suggests a complex regulation of agr transcription.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00608-07
PMCID: PMC2075002  PMID: 17675424
5.  Distribution and Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Surface Waters of the South Nation River Watershed, Ontario, Canada▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2007;73(17):5401-5410.
Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen thought to be widely distributed in the environment. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolates from surface waters derived from catchments within the South Nation River watershed (Ontario, Canada). This watershed is dominated by urban and rural development, livestock and crop production, and wildlife habitats. From June to November 2005, a total of 314 surface water samples were collected biweekly from 22 discrete sampling sites characterized by various upstream land uses. Presumptive Listeria spp. were isolated using a selective enrichment and isolation procedure, and 75 L. monocytogenes isolates were identified based on colony morphology, hemolytic activity, and amplification of three pathogenicity genes: iap, inlA, and hlyA. Thirty-two of 314 (10%) surface water samples were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes, but detection ranged between 0 and 27% depending on the sampling date. Isolates belonging to serovar group 1/2a, 3a (50%) and group 4b, 4d, 4e (32%) were dominant. L. monocytogenes populations were resolved into 13 EcoRI ribotypes and 21 ApaI and 21 AscI pulsotypes. These had Simpson indexes of discrimination of up to 0.885. Lineage I-related isolates were dominant (61%) during the summer, whereas lineage II isolates were dominant (77%) in the fall. Isolates were, on average, resistant to 6.1 ± 2.1 antibiotics out of 17 tested. Half of the L. monocytogenes isolates exhibited potential virulence linked to the production of a functional internalin A, and some isolates were found to be moderately to highly virulent by in vitro Caco-2 plaque formation assay (up to 28% of entry). There was a statistically significant link between the occurrence of L. monocytogenes and proximity to an upstream dairy farm and degree of cropped land. Our data indicate that L. monocytogenes is widespread in the studied catchments, where it could represent a public health issue related to agricultural land use.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00354-07
PMCID: PMC2042075  PMID: 17630309

Results 1-5 (5)