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author:("Lu, huaibei")
1.  Misdiagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: a clinical analysis of 26 immunocompetent patients 
The clinical feature of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients is well studied in the past decades. While the manifestations of IPA in immunocompetent patients remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and radiological manifestations of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients without immunosuppression, as well as the reasons for the misdiagnosis of IPA. We retrieved and retrospectively reviewed the records of 102 patients from whom surgical lung specimens of chronic inflammatory granulomas were harvested. 26 patients were eventually diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis on Grocott methenamine silver staining. We investigated these patients in detail. We found that the rate of misdiagnosis before the lung surgery was as high as 73%. The most common symptom was hemoptysis, and the main feature in radiology was nodule or mass lesion. Air crescent sign or Halo sign were not common in our study. The atypical radiological manifestations and non-specific clinical findings make the diagnosis of IPA difficult and lead to a high misdiagnosis rate.
PMCID: PMC4307454  PMID: 25664007
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; immunocompetent; radiological features; clinical characteristics
2.  Molecular characterization of rifampicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a Chinese teaching hospital from Anhui, China 
BMC Microbiology  2012;12:240.
Background
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes a variety of infections and toxicoses. In recent years, the percentage of rifampicin-resistant S. aureus has increased rapidly in China. The aims of this study were to analyze 1) the level of rifampicin resistance in S. aureus and its correlation with mutations in the rpoB gene, and 2) the molecular characterization of rifampicin-resistant S. aureus isolates.
Results
88 rifampicin-resistant S. aureus isolates were collected for this study. Of the 88 isolates, 83 (94.3%) were high-level rifampicin resistant (MIC≥8 mg/L) while the remaining 5 isolates (5.7%) had a low-level resistance to rifampicin (MIC, 2 to 4 mg/L). Four amino acid substitutions were found in the 88 isolates, which were 481His/Asn (95.5%), 466Leu/Ser (87.5%), 477Ala/Asp (6.8%) and 486Ser/Leu (4.5%) respectively. All mutations were found to be present in cluster I of the rpoB gene. The low-level resistant isolates were found to have only one mutation, while the high-level resistant isolates had at least two or more mutations. The most common multiple mutations were 481His/Asn+466Leu/Ser(92.8%,77/83). The other multiple mutations found were 481His/Asn+477Ala/Asp (6.0%,5/83), and 481His/Asn+466Leu/Ser+477Ala/Asp (1.2%,1/83). Out of 28 high-level rifampicin-resistant S. aureus isolates, three molecular types were found, namely, ST239-MRSA-III-spa t030 (25/28, 89.3%), ST239-MRSA-III-spa t021 (2/28, 7.1%), and ST239-MRSA-III-spa t045 (1/28, 3.6%).
Conclusions
Rifampicin resistance in S. aureus was closely associated with mutations in the rpoB gene. High-level rifampicin-resistant S. aureus is one of the most important features in Anhui Provincial Hospital, and high-level rifampicin resistance in S. aureus is associated with multiple mutations of rpoB gene. The prevalence of high-level rifampicin-resistant S. aureus in Anhui may be associated with the spread of the ST239-MRSA III-spa t030 clone.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-240
PMCID: PMC3485161  PMID: 23082766
Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; Rifampicin resistance; rpoB gene; MLST

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