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1.  Tyrosine-containing peptides are precursors of tyramine produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strain IR BL0076 isolated from wine 
BMC Microbiology  2012;12:199.
Biogenic amines are molecules with allergenic properties. They are found in fermented products and are synthesized by lactic acid bacteria through the decarboxylation of amino acids present in the food matrix. The concentration of biogenic amines in fermented foodstuffs is influenced by many environmental factors, and in particular, biogenic amine accumulation depends on the quantity of available precursors. Enological practices which lead to an enrichment in nitrogen compounds therefore favor biogenic amine production in wine. Free amino acids are the only known precursors for the synthesis of biogenic amines, and no direct link has previously been demonstrated between the use of peptides by lactic acid bacteria and biogenic amine synthesis.
Here we demonstrate for the first time that a Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a red wine can produce the biogenic amine tyramine from peptides containing tyrosine. In our conditions, most of the tyramine was produced during the late exponential growth phase, coinciding with the expression of the tyrDC and tyrP genes. The DNA sequences of tyrDC and tyrP in this strain share 98% identity with those in Lactobacillus brevis consistent with horizontal gene transfer from L. brevis to L. plantarum.
Peptides amino acids are precursors of biogenic amines for Lactobacillus plantarum strain IR BL0076.
PMCID: PMC3492074  PMID: 22963406
Tyramine; Peptides; Lactobacillus plantarum; Wine
2.  Cyclopropanation of Membrane Unsaturated Fatty Acids Is Not Essential to the Acid Stress Response of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris ▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2011;77(10):3327-3334.
Cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) are synthetized in situ by the transfer of a methylene group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to a double bond of unsaturated fatty acid chains of membrane phospholipids. This conversion, catalyzed by the Cfa synthase enzyme, occurs in many bacteria and is recognized to play a key role in the adaptation of bacteria in response to a drastic perturbation of the environment. The role of CFAs in the acid tolerance response was investigated in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis MG1363. A mutant of the cfa gene was constructed by allelic exchange. The cfa gene encoding the Cfa synthase was cloned and introduced into the mutant to obtain the complemented strain for homologous system studies. Data obtained by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) validated that the mutant could not produce CFA. The CFA levels in both the wild-type and complemented strains increased upon their entry to stationary phase, especially with acid-adapted cells or, more surprisingly, with ethanol-adapted cells. The results obtained by performing quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments showed that transcription of the cfa gene was highly induced by acidity (by 10-fold with cells grown at pH 5.0) and by ethanol (by 9-fold with cells grown with 6% ethanol) in comparison with that in stationary phase. Cell viability experiments were performed after an acidic shock on the mutant strain, the wild-type strain, and the complemented strain, as a control. The higher viability level of the acid-adapted cells of the three strains after 3 h of shock proved that the cyclopropanation of unsaturated fatty acids is not essential for L. lactis subsp. cremoris survival under acidic conditions. Moreover, fluorescence anisotropy data showed that CFA itself could not maintain the membrane fluidity level, particularly with ethanol-grown cells.
PMCID: PMC3126440  PMID: 21421775
3.  CtsR Is the Master Regulator of Stress Response Gene Expression in Oenococcus oeni 
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(16):5614-5623.
Although many stress response genes have been characterized in Oenococcus oeni, little is known about the regulation of stress response in this malolactic bacterium. The expression of eubacterial stress genes is controlled both positively and negatively at the transcriptional level. Overall, negative regulation of heat shock genes appears to be more widespread among gram-positive bacteria. We recently identified an ortholog of the ctsR gene in O. oeni. In Bacillus subtilis, CtsR negatively regulates expression of the clp genes, which belong to the class III family of heat shock genes. The ctsR gene of O. oeni is cotranscribed with the downstream clpC gene. Sequence analysis of the O. oeni IOB 8413 (ATCC BAA-1163) genome revealed the presence of potential CtsR operator sites upstream from most of the major molecular chaperone genes, including the clp genes and the groES and dnaK operons. Using B. subtilis as a heterologous host, CtsR-dependent regulation of O. oeni molecular chaperone genes was demonstrated with transcriptional fusions. No alternative sigma factors appear to be encoded by the O. oeni IOB 8413 (ATCC BAA-1163) genome. Moreover, apart from CtsR, no known genes encoding regulators of stress response, such as HrcA, could be identified in this genome. Unlike the multiple regulatory mechanisms of stress response described in many closely related gram-positive bacteria, this is the first example where dnaK and groESL are controlled by CtsR but not by HrcA.
PMCID: PMC1196072  PMID: 16077106
4.  Evidence for Multiple Levels of Regulation of Oenococcus oeni clpP-clpL Locus Expression in Response to Stress 
Journal of Bacteriology  2004;186(7):2200-2205.
A locus containing the clpP and clpL genes in the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni was studied. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed different induction factors involved in expression of these genes during stress. According to the conditions, clpP and clpL genes could be transcripted as two distinct transcripts or cotranscripted. The clpP promoter depended on the CtsR regulator, but surprisingly the clpL promoter did not. The amount of the clpL transcript depended on mRNA stability. This clp ATPase gene is at least controlled at the posttranscriptional level.
PMCID: PMC374425  PMID: 15028706
5.  hrcA, Encoding the Repressor of the groEL Genes in Streptomyces albus G, Is Associated with a Second dnaJ Gene 
Journal of Bacteriology  1998;180(19):5129-5134.
Expression of the principal chaperones of the heat shock stimulon of Streptomyces albus G are under the negative control of different repressors. The dnaK operon is regulated by hspR, the last gene of the operon (dnaK-grpE-dnaJ-hspR). hsp18, encoding a member of the small heat shock protein family, is regulated by orfY, which is in the opposite orientation upstream of hsp18. The groES-groEL1 operon and the groEL2 gene are regulated differently. They present tandem copies of the CIRCE element found in the 5′ region of many heat shock genes and shown to act in Bacillus subtilis as an operator for a repressor encoded by hrcA (hrc stands for heat regulation at CIRCE). We report the identification in S. albus of a new heat shock operon containing hrcA and dnaJ homologs. Disruption of hrcA increased the transcription of the groES-groEL1 operon and of the groEL2 gene. These features were lost when the mutant was complemented in trans by an intact copy of hrcA. Despite considerable accumulation of the GroE chaperones in the hrcA mutant, there was no effect on formation of the aerial mycelium and sporulation, indicating that neither hrcA nor the level of groE gene expression is directly involved in the regulation of Streptomyces morphological differentiation.
PMCID: PMC107549  PMID: 9748446

Results 1-5 (5)