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1.  Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 
doi:10.1016/j.idc.2013.05.002
PMCID: PMC3800737  PMID: 24011834
EAEC; Shiga toxin; Hemolytic uremic syndrome; Bloody diarrhea; Food-borne illness; O104:H4; STEC
2.  Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Promotes Transepithelial Migration of Neutrophils Through a Conserved 12-Lipoxygenase Pathway 
Cellular microbiology  2011;14(1):120-132.
Summary
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) induces release of pro-inflammatory markers and disruption of intestinal epithelial barriers in vitro suggesting an inflammatory aspect to EAEC infection. However, the mechanisms underlying EAEC-induced mucosal inflammatory responses and the extent to which these events contribute to pathogenesis is not well characterized. Employing an established in vitro model we demonstrated that EAEC prototype strain 042 induces migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) across polarized T84 cell monolayers. This event was mediated through a conserved host cell signaling cascade involving the 12/15-LOX pathway and led to apical secretion of an arachidonic acid-derived lipid PMN chemoattractant, guiding PMNs across the epithelia to the site of infection. Moreover, supporting the hypothesis that inflammatory responses may contribute to EAEC pathogenesis, we found that PMN transepithelial migration promoted enhanced attachment of EAEC 042 to T84 cells. These findings suggest that EAEC-induced PMN infiltration may favor colonization and thus pathogenesis of EAEC.
doi:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2011.01706.x
PMCID: PMC4089036  PMID: 21951973
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli; host-pathogen interactions; inflammatory responses; neutrophils; 12-lipoxygenase
3.  Role of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Uropathogenesis 
Infection and Immunity  2013;81(4):1164-1171.
A multiresistant clonal Escherichia coli O78:H10 strain qualifying molecularly as enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) was recently shown to be the cause of a community-acquired outbreak of urinary tract infection (UTI) in greater Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1991. This marks the first time EAEC has been associated with an extraintestinal disease outbreak. Importantly, the outbreak isolates were recovered from the urine of patients with symptomatic UTI, strongly implying urovirulence. Here, we sought to determine the uropathogenic properties of the Copenhagen outbreak strain and whether these properties are conferred by the EAEC-specific virulence factors. We demonstrated that through expression of aggregative adherence fimbriae, the principal adhesins of EAEC, the outbreak strain exhibited pronouncedly increased adherence to human bladder epithelial cells compared to prototype uropathogenic strains. Moreover, the strain was able to produce distinct biofilms on abiotic surfaces, including urethral catheters. These findings suggest that EAEC-specific virulence factors increase uropathogenicity and may have played a significant role in the ability of the strain to cause a community-acquired outbreak of UTI. Thus, inclusion of EAEC-specific virulence factors is warranted in future detection and characterization of uropathogenic E. coli.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01376-12
PMCID: PMC3639612  PMID: 23357383
4.  The Fimbriae of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Induce Epithelial Inflammation In Vitro and in a Human Intestinal Xenograft Model  
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2012;206(5):714-722.
Background.Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are increasingly recognized as an important agent of inflammatory and often persistent diarrhea. Although previous studies report on the inflammatory aspects of EAEC pathogenesis, the mechanisms by which EAEC trigger these events are not well understood.
Methods.EAEC strains harboring mutations in known EAEC virulence determinants were tested in an in vitro model of transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and in human intestinal xenografts in severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID-HU-INT) mice, a novel model for studying EAEC disease in vivo.
Results.Expression of aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAFs), the principal adhesins of EAEC, was required for EAEC-induced PMN transepithelial migration in vitro. Moreover, constructed plasmids encoding AAF gene clusters demonstrated that the AAF adhesins are sufficient for triggering this event in a nonpathogenic E. coli background. Furthermore, with use of the SCID-HU-INT mouse model, severe tissue damage and infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the human tissue after EAEC infection. These pathological marks were strongly related to AAF expression, thus clearly confirming our in vitro findings.
Conclusions.The present work establishes EAEC as an important inflammatory pathogen and the AAF adhesins as inducers of potentially detrimental immune responses.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jis417
PMCID: PMC3491746  PMID: 22723643
5.  A new understanding of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as an inflammatory pathogen 
Cell Adhesion & Migration  2012;6(5):413-418.
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important cause of endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease worldwide. Although not classically considered an inflammatory pathogen in the style of Shigella and Salmonella species, clinical data from patients suggests that inflammatory responses may play an important role during EAEC disease. However, the specific role of inflammation during EAEC pathogenesis has not been investigated in detail. To better understand how EAEC may induce inflammation, we have focused our attention on the intimate interactions between EAEC and the host epithelium and the subsequent induction of host cell signaling events leading to innate immune responses. Here, we discuss our recent findings on the signaling pathway by which EAEC promotes transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the role of aggregative adherence fimbriae in triggering this event and the implementation of human intestinal xenografts in immunodeficient mice for studying EAEC pathogenesis in vivo. Our findings suggest that EAEC shares conserved mechanisms of inducing PMN recruitment with other intestinal pathogens, providing new insight into the potential pathological consequences of EAEC-induced inflammation.
doi:10.4161/cam.21241
PMCID: PMC3496678  PMID: 23076052
enteroaggregative Escherichia coli; inflammation; 12-lipoxygenase; aggregative adherence fimbriae; human intestinal xenografts
6.  Novel screening assay for in vivo selection of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes promoting gastrointestinal colonisation 
BMC Microbiology  2012;12:201.
Background
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infections. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a key step in the development of infections; yet the specific factors important for K. pneumoniae to colonize and reside in the GI tract of the host are largely unknown. To identify K. pneumoniae genes promoting GI colonisation, a novel genomic-library-based approach was employed.
Results
Screening of a K. pneumoniae C3091 genomic library, expressed in E. coli strain EPI100, in a mouse model of GI colonisation led to the positive selection of five clones containing genes promoting persistent colonisation of the mouse GI tract. These included genes encoding the global response regulator ArcA; GalET of the galactose operon; and a cluster of two putative membrane-associated proteins of unknown function. Both ArcA and GalET are known to be involved in metabolic pathways in Klebsiella but may have additional biological actions beneficial to the pathogen. In support of this, GalET was found to confer decreased bile salt sensitivity to EPI100.
Conclusions
The present work establishes the use of genomic-library-based in vivo screening assays as a valuable tool for identification and characterization of virulence factors in K. pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-201
PMCID: PMC3463446  PMID: 22967317
Klebsiella pneumoniae; Genomic library; Mouse model of gastrointestinal colonisation
7.  The oxido-reductase enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) governs Salmonella Typhimurium-induced neutrophil transepithelial migration 
Cellular Microbiology  2014;16(9):1339-1353.
Summary
Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leucocytes; PMN) transmigration across mucosal surfaces contributes to dysfunction of epithelial barrier properties, a characteristic underlying many mucosal inflammatory diseases. Using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) as a prototypic proinflammatory insult, we have previously reported that the eicosanoid hepoxilin A3 (HXA3), an endogenous product of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) activity, is secreted from the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium to establish a chemotactic gradient that guides PMN across the epithelial surface. Since little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms that regulate 12-LOX during S. Typhimurium infection, we investigated this pathway. We found that expression of phospholipid glutathione peroxidase (GPX4), which is known to have an inhibitory effect on 12-LOX activity, is significantly decreased at both the mRNA and protein level during infection with S. Typhimurium. Moreover, employing intestinal epithelial cell monolayers expressing siRNA against GPX4 mRNA, S. Typhimurium-induced PMN migration was significantly increased compared with the non-specific siRNA control cells. Conversely, in cells engineered to overexpress GPX4, S. Typhimurium-induced PMN migration was significantly decreased, which is consistent with the finding that partial depletion of GPX4 by RNAi resulted in a significant increase in HXA3 secretion during S. Typhimurium infection. Mechanistically, although we found Salmonella entry not to be required for the induced decrease in GPX4, the secreted effector, SipA, which is known to induce epithelial responses leading to stimulation of HXA3, governed the decrease in GPX4 in a process that does not lead to an overall increase in the levels of ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that S. Typhimurium induces apical secretion of HXA3 by decreasing the expression of phospholipid GPX, which in turn leads to an increase in 12-LOX activity, and hence HXA3 synthesis.
doi:10.1111/cmi.12290
PMCID: PMC4146641  PMID: 24617613

Results 1-7 (7)