To examine a potential association between snoring and glaucoma in a population-based setting.
The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 subjects with an age of 50+ years. The participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination. Glaucoma was determined according to the ophthalmoscopic appearance of the optic nerve head. Snoring assessed in an interview was graded into “severe snoring”, “moderate snoring”, and “no snoring”.
Data on snoring and glaucoma were available for 3146 subjects. Snoring was reported for 1787 (66.8%) subjects, with moderate snoring reported for 1384 (44.0%) subjects and severe snoring for 403 (12.8%) subjects. In multivariate analysis, prevalence of severe snoring was significantly associated with male gender (P = 0.002; regression coefficient B: 0.36; Odds ratio (OR): 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.81)), higher body mass index (P<0.001; B: 0.12; OR: 1.13 (95%CI: 1.09, 1.16)), higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001; B: 0.01; OR: 1.01 (95%CI: 1.005, 1.02)), younger age (P = 0.007; B: −0.018; OR: 0.98 (95%CI: 0.97, 0.995)), and higher cognitive function (P = 0.03; B: 0.04; OR: 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004, 1.08)), however it was not significantly associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.10; B: −0.63; OR: 0.53 (95%CI: 0.25, 1.12)). Prevalence of severe snoring was neither significantly associated with the prevalence of angle-closure glaucoma (P = 0.65), retinal vein occlusions (P = 0.24), neuroretinal rim area (P = 0.19), retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (P = 0.16) nor vertical cup/disc ratio (P = 0.64).
Severe snoring was not significantly associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma or retinal vein occlusions after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and cognitive function score. Our population-based study did not reveal that snoring was a risk factor for glaucoma and thus did not provide a reason to assess or to treat snoring in patients with glaucoma.
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Shiraia sp. strain Slf14 (China Center for Type Culture Collection [CCTCC] no. 209294), which is used to produce huperzine A and hypocrellin A. The genome sequence will allow for the characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial properties.
To examine potential associations between body height, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a population-based setting.
The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range:50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP[mmHg] = 0.44×Body Mass Index[kg/m2]+0.16×Diastolic Blood Pressure[mmHg]-0.18×Age[Years]-1.91
Data of IOP and CSFP were available for 3353 (96.7%) subjects. Taller body height was associated with higher CSFP (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta:0.13; regression coefficient B:0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI):0.25,0.33) after adjusting for male gender, urban region of habitation, higher educational level, and pulse rate. If TLCPD instead of CSFP was added, taller body height was associated with lower TLCPD (P<0.001;beta:−0.10;B:−0.20;95%CI:−0.25,−0.15). Correspondingly, higher CSFP was associated with taller body height (P = 0.003;beta:0.02;B:0.01;95%CI:0.00,0.02), after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and blood concentration of cholesterol. If IOP was added to the model, higher CSFP was associated with higher IOP (P<0.001;beta:0.02;B:0.02;95%CI:0.01,0.03). TLCPD was associated with lower body height (P = 0.003;beta:−0.04;B −0.02,95%CI:−0.04,−0.01) after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse, blood concentrations of triglycerides, axial length, central corneal thickness, corneal curvature radius, and anterior chamber depth. Adding the prevalence of OAG to the multivariate analysis revealed, that taller body height was associated with a lower OAG prevalence (P = 0.03;beta:−0.03;B:−1.20;95%CI:−2.28,−0.12) after adjusting for educational level and gender.
Taller body height was associated with higher CSFP and lower TLCPD (and vice versa), after adjusting for systemic and ocular parameters. Parallel to the associations between a higher prevalence of glaucoma with a lower CSFP or higher TLCPD, taller body height was associated with a lower prevalence of OAG.
The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is still a serious threat to the swine industry. However, the pathogenic mechanism of HP-PRRSV remains unclear. We infected host porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with the virulent HuN4 strain and the attenuated HuN4-F112 strain and then utilized fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen for intracellular proteins that were differentially expressed in host cells infected with the two strains. There were 153 proteins with significant different expression (P<0.01) observed, 42 of which were subjected to mass spectrometry, and 24 proteins were identified. PAM cells infected with the virulent strain showed upregulated expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), and proteasome subunit alpha type 6 (PSMA6), which were downregulated in cells infected with the attenuated strain. The upregulation of PKM2 provides sufficient energy for viral replication, and the upregulation of HSPB1 inhibits host cell apoptosis and therefore facilitates mass replication of the virulent strain, while the upregulation of PSMA6 facilitates the evasion of immune surveillance by the virus. Studying on those molecules mentioned above may be able to help us to understand some unrevealed details of HP-PRRSV infection, and then help us to decrease its threat to the swine industry in the future.
The morbidity and mortality of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) were similar to those of systolic heart failure, but the pathogenesis of HFpEF remains poorly understood. It was demonstrated that, in systolic heart failure, microRNA-21 (miR-21) could inhibit the apoptosis of cardiac fibroblasts, leading to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, but the role of miR-21 in HFpEF remains unknown. By employing cell culture technique, rat myocardiocytes and cardiac fibroblasts were obtained. The expression of miR-21 in the two cell types under different conditions was compared and we found that the miR-21 expression was significantly higher in cardiac fibroblasts than in myocardiocytes. We established a rat HFpEF model and harvested the tissues of cardiac apex for pathological examination, Northern blotting and so forth. We found that miR-21 expression was significantly higher in model rats than in sham-operated rats, and the model rats developed the cardiac atrophy and cardiac fibrosis. After injection of miR-21 antagonist, the the cardiac atrophy and cardiac fibrosis were conspicuously ameliorated. Both in vivo and in vitro, inhibition of miR-21 expression resulted in reduced Bcl-2 expression while over-expression of miR-21 led to elevation of Bcl-2 expression. Our study suggested that miR-21 promoted the development of HFpEF by up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and thereby suppressing the apoptosis of cardiac fibrosis.
Cardiac fibrosis; miR-21; Bcl-2; HFpEF
This study aimed to identify major proteins in the pathogenesis of coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) in diabetic minipigs with sirolimus-eluting stenting, and to investigate the roles of key candidate molecules, particularly ADAM10, in human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs).
Methods and Results
The stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of 15 diabetic and 26 non-diabetic minipigs, and angiography was repeated at six months. The intima of one vascular segment with significant ISR and one with non-ISR in diabetic minipigs were isolated and cultured in conditioned medium (CM). The CM was analyzed by LC-MS/MS to uncover proteins whose levels were significantly increased (≥1.5-fold) in ISR than in non-ISR tissues. After literature searching, we focused on the identified proteins, whose biological functions were most potentially related to ISR pathophysiology. Among them, ADAM10 was significantly increased in diabetic and non-diabetic ISR tissues as compared with non-ISR controls. In cell experiments, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of ADAM10 promoted growth and migration of HASMCs. The effects of ADAM10 were more remarkable in high-glucose culture than in low-glucose culture. Using shRNA and an inhibitor of γ-secretase (GSI), we found that the influences of ADAM10 were in part mediated by Notch1 and notch 3 pathway, which up-regulated Notch downstream genes and enhanced nuclear translocation of the small intracellular component of Notch1 and Notch3.
This study has identified significantly increased expression of ADAM10 in the ISR versus non-ISR segment in diabetic minipigs and implicates ADAM10 in the enhanced neointimal formation observed in diabetes after vascular injury.
This study aims to compare the perioperative parameters and clinical results between microendoscopy laminoforaminotomy (MELF) and cervical arthroplasty (CA) in the treatment of one-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy in a retrospective study.
From 2003 to 2007, a total of 97 patients with one-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were treated. Forty-five patients underwent CA. Fifty-two patients underwent MELF. Patient demographics and operative data were collected with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Perioperative parameters were compared. Clinical assessment in terms of neck disability index (NDI), short form (SF)-36, and visual analogue scale (VAS) of arm pain and neck pain was performed prior to surgery and at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery.
Fluoroscopy time (CA, 60.3 s; MELF, 12.1 s; P < 0.01) and surgical time (CA, 95.1 min; MELF, 24.0 min; P < 0.01) were significantly longer in the CA cases. Shorter hospitalized days (CA, 1.1 days; MELF, 0.13 days; P < 0.01) and less estimated blood loss (EBL; CA, 75.8 ml; MELF, 31.9 ml; P < 0.01) were observed in the MELF group. Both CA and MELF groups showed significant improvement in NDI, VAS of neck pain and arm pain, and SF-36 (P < 0.05 for each) at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, but there was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05).
As alternatives of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), both CA and MELF can produce satisfactory clinical outcomes. MELF has the additional benefits of less blood loss, less surgical time, less X-ray time, and shorter hospital stay.
Microendoscopy; Laminoforaminotomy; Arthroplasty; Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy
PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a PKC (protein kinase C)-binding protein, which is essential for synaptic plasticity. The trafficking of PKCα-PICK1 complex to plasma membrane is critical for the internalization of GluR2 and induction of long-term depression. ICA69 (islet cell autoantigen 69 kDa) is identified as a major binding partner of PICK1. While heteromeric BAR domain complex is suggested to underlie the interaction between PICK1 and ICA69, the role of C-terminal domain of ICA69 (ICAC) in PICK1-ICA69 complex is unknown.
We found that ICAC interacted with PICK1 and regulated the trafficking of PICK1-PKCα complex. ICAC and ΔICAC (containing BAR domain) might function distinctly in the association of ICA69 with PICK1. While ΔICAC domain inclined to form clusters, the distribution of ICAC was diffuse. The trafficking of PICK1 to plasma membrane mediated by activated PKCα was inhibited by ICA69. This action might ascribe to ICAC, because overexpression of ICAC, but not ΔICAC, interrupted PKCα-mediated PICK1 trafficking. Notably, infusion of maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion protein, MBP-ICA69 or MBP-ICAC, in cerebellar Purkinje cells significantly inhibited the induction of long-term depression at parallel fiber- and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses.
Our experiments showed that ICAC is an important domain for the ICA69-PICK1 interaction and plays essential roles in PICK1-mediated neuronal plasticity.
A nano-thick solid-like water film on solid surfaces plays an important role in various fields, including biology, materials science, atmospheric chemistry, catalysis and astrophysics. Visualising the water nanofilm has been a challenge due to its dynamic nature and nanoscale thickness. Here we report an ion diffusion method to address this problem using a membrane formed with a BSA-Na2CO3 (BSA, bovine serum albumin) mixture. After a solid-like water nanofilm deposits onto the membrane, Na+ and CO32− ions diffuse into the film to form a solid Na2CO3 phase in its place. Consequently, the morphology of the nanofilm can be visualised by the space filled by the Na2CO3. Using this method, we successfully observed polygon-like, ribbon-like and spot-like nanofilms at 193 K, 253 K and room temperature, respectively. Our method may provide a tool for characterising confined water films ranging from a few nanometres to hundreds of nanometres in thickness.
Regulatory T cells (Treg) are important for maintaining immune homeostasis. Adoptive transfer of Tregs is protective in renal disease models in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. However the involvement of TCR recognition of renal antigens remains to be clarified. To address this question, we made use of Tregs from the DO11.10 mouse (a TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse), that recognise the non-murine antigen Ovalbumin (OVA) and therefore are not activated by renal antigens. DO11.10 Tregs were assessed functionally in vitro and demonstrated equivalent suppression to WT BALB/c Tregs. Adriamycin Nephropathy (AN) was induced in mice which had been transfused with CD4+CD25+Tregs isolated from DO11.10 or BALB/c mice. To eliminate the memory/activation state as a cause of differences in activity, the protective capacity of DO11.10 Tregs pre-activated with OVA in vivo was assessed. Transfer of WT BALB/c Tregs significantly attenuated the development of AN with less glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy and macrophage infiltration as compared to AN mice without Treg transfer. However, mice receiving either naïve or pre-activated DO11.10 Tregs were not protected from AN. The lack of protection by DO11.10 Tregs was not due to failure to traffic to the affected kidney. These results suggest that antigen recognition in the kidney is important for Treg protection against injury.
DO11.10 Tregs; antigen specificity; Adriamycin Nephropathy
The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway carries out a wide range of biological functions such as patterning of the embryonic neural tube and expansion of cerebellar granule cell precursors. We previously have found that the Shh signaling receptors, Patched1 (Ptch1) and Smoothened (Smo), are expressed in hippocampal neurons of developing and adult rats, suggesting the continued presence of Shh signaling in postmitotic, differentiated neurons. Here, we report that Ptch1 and Smo are present in the processes and growth cones of immature neurons in the developing cerebellum, and that, in the mature cerebellum, Ptch1 and Smo are expressed by several types of neurons including Purkinje cells, granule cells, and interneurons. Within these neurons, Ptch1 and Smo are predominantly localized in the postsynaptic side of the synapses, a distribution pattern similar to that found in hippocampal neurons. Our findings provide morphological evidence that Shh signaling events are not confined to neuronal precursors and are likely to have ongoing roles within the postmitotic neurons of the developing and adult cerebellum.
Sonic hedgehog; Patched; Smoothened; Cerebellar neuron; Synapse
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare hematological neoplasm that develops either de novo or concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This neoplasm can also be an initial manifestation of relapse in a previously treated AML that is in remission. A 44-year-old male patient was diagnosed with testis MS in a local hospital in August 2010. After one month, bone marrow biopsy and aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of AML. Allogeneic mobilization peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed, with the sister of the patient as donor, after complete remission (CR) was achieved by chemotherapy. Five months after treatment, an adrenal mass was detected by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Radiotherapy was performed for the localized mass after a multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion. The patient is still alive as of May 2013, with no evidence of recurrent MS or leukemia.
Myeloid sarcoma (MS); acute myeloid leukemia (AML); allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; multidisciplinary team (MDT)
The gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) is an inhabitant of the porcine upper respiratory tract and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia (PP). In recent years, knowledge about the proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression that occurs in lung and lymph node of the APP-infected swine has been advanced. However, systematic gene expression profiles on hilar nodes from pigs after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have not yet been reported. The transcriptional responses were studied in hilar nodes (HN) from swine experimentally infected with APP and the control groupusing Agilent Porcine Genechip, including 43,603 probe sets. 9,517 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed (DE) at the p ≤ 0.01 level by comparing the log2 (normalized signal) of the two groups named treatment group (TG) and controls (CG). Eight hundred and fifteen of these DE transcripts were annotated as pig genes in the GenBank database (DB). Two hundred and seventy-two biological process categories (BP), 75 cellular components and 171 molecular functions were substantially altered in the TG compared to CG. Many BP were involved in host immune responses (i.e., signaling, signal transmission, signal transduction, response to stimulus, oxidation reduction, response to stress, immune system process, signaling pathway, immune response, cell surface receptor linked signaling pathway). Seven DE gene pathways (VEGF signaling pathway, Long-term potentiation, Ribosome, Asthma, Allograft rejection, Type I diabetes mellitus and Cardiac muscle contraction) and statistically significant associations with host responses were affected. Many cytokines (including NRAS, PI3K, MAPK14, CaM, HSP27, protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit and alpha isoform), mediating the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and promoting survival and vascular permeability, were activated in TG, whilst many immunomodulatory cytokines were suppressed. The significant changes in the expression patterns of the genes, GO terms, and pathways, led to a decrease of antigenic peptides with antigen presenting cells presented to T lymphocytes via the major histocompatibility complex, and alleviated immune response induced APP of HN. The immune response ability of HN in the APP-infected pigs was weakened; however, cell proliferation and migration ability was enhanced.
porcine pleuropneumonia; infection; Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae; Agilent Porcine Genechip; microarray analyses; cytokine; host defense response
Background. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown its revolutionary power in seeking the influenced loci on complex diseases genetically. Thousands of replicated loci for common traits are helpful in diseases risk assessment. However it is still difficult to elucidate the variations in these loci that directly cause susceptibility to diseases by disrupting the expression or function of a protein currently. Results. We evaluate the expression features of disease related genes and find that different diseases related genes show different expression perturbation sensitivities in various conditions. It is worth noting that the expression of some robust disease-genes doesn't show significant change in their corresponding diseases, these genes might be easily ignored in the expression profile analysis. Conclusion. Gene ontology enrichment analysis indicates that robust disease-genes execute essential function in comparison with sensitive disease-genes. The diseases associated with robust genes seem to be relatively lethal like cancer and aging. On the other hand, the diseases associated with sensitive genes are apparently nonlethal like psych and chemical dependency diseases.
Endogenous S-nitrosylation of proteins, a principal mechanism of cellular signaling in eukaryotes, has not been observed in microbes. We report that protein S-nitrosylation is an obligate concomitant of anaerobic respiration on nitrate in Escherichia coli. Endogenous S-nitrosylation during anaerobic respiration is controlled by the transcription factor OxyR, previously thought to operate only under aerobic conditions. Deletion of OxyR resulted in large increases in protein S-nitrosylation, and S-nitrosylation of OxyR induced transcription from a regulon that is distinct from the regulon induced by OxyR oxidation. Furthermore, products unique to the anaerobic regulon protected against S-nitrosothiols, and anaerobic growth of E. coli lacking OxyR was impaired on nitrate. Thus, OxyR serves as a master regulator of S-nitrosylation, and alternative posttranslational modifications of OxyR control distinct transcriptional responses.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac) at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16.
Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses.
The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had <8 pre-vaccination neutralization titers (Nt) against the B4 vaccine strain. After the first EV71vac immunization, 95% of vaccinees have >4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants) against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8) against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16.
EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials.
Solitary plasmacytoma (SP) is a rare tumor with low incidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features, treatment strategies, and relative prognostic factors of 66 patients with SP. These patients made up 10.25% of the 644 patients with plasma cell dyscrasias treated at the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital over the past 12 years. SP always presented with either solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP) or extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), as determined by the location of the lesions. SBP occurred most frequently in the vertebral column and EMP in the upper respiratory tract. In addition to other factors, tumor size, serum M protein level, urinary Bence Jones protein level, and disease progression toward multiple myeloma were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). Larger tumor size (≥5 cm) was associated with poor prognosis of local control, multiple myeloma–free survival, overall survival and progression-free survival for SBP patients. Radiotherapy and serum β2 microglobulin <3.5 mg/L were favorable prognostic factors for local control, multiple myeloma-free survival, and progression-free survival in patients with EMP.
solitary bone plasmacytoma; extramedullary plasmacytoma; clinical characteristics; prognosis; radiotherapy
Clathrin assembly proteins AP180 and CALM regulate the assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), which mediate diverse intracellular trafficking processes, including synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling at the synapse. Although studies using several invertebrate model systems have indicated a role for AP180 in SV recycling, less is known about AP180’s or CALM’s function in the synapse of mammalian neurons. In this study, we examined synapses of rat hippocampal neurons in which the level of AP180 or CALM had been reduced by RNA interference (RNAi). Using light microscopy, we visualized synaptic puncta in these AP180- or CALM-reduced neurons by co-expressing Synaptophysin::EGFP (Syp::EGFP). We found that neurons with reduced AP180 or reduced CALM had smaller Syp::EGFP-illuminated puncta. Using electron microscopy, we further examined the ultrastructure of the AP180- or CALM-reduced presynaptic terminals. We found that SVs became variably enlarged in both the AP180-reduced and CALM-reduced presynaptic terminals. Lower AP180 and CALM also reduced the density of SVs and the size of SV clusters. Our findings demonstrate that in the presynaptic terminals of hippocampal neurons, AP180 and CALM have a similar role in regulating synaptic vesicles. This overlapping activity may be necessary for high-precision and high-efficacy SV formation during endocytosis.
AP180; CALM; Hippocampal synapse; Synaptic vesicle
The septin gene belongs to a highly conserved family of polymerizing GTP-binding cytoskeletal proteins. SEPTs perform cytoskeletal remodeling, cell polarity, mitosis, and vesicle trafficking by interacting with various cytoskeletons. Our previous studies have indicated that SEPTIN12+/+/+/− chimeras with a SEPTIN12 mutant allele were infertile. Spermatozoa from the vas deferens of chimeric mice indicated an abnormal sperm morphology, decreased sperm count, and immotile sperm. Mutations and genetic variants of SEPTIN12 in infertility cases also caused oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. We suggest that a loss of SEPT12 affects the biological function of microtublin functions and causes spermiogenesis defects. In the cell model, SEPT12 interacts with α- and β-tubulins by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP). To determine the precise localization and interactions between SEPT12 and α- and β-tubulins in vivo, we created SEPTIN12-transgene mice. We demonstrate how SEPT12 interacts and co-localizes with α- and β-tubulins during spermiogenesis in these mice. By using shRNA, the loss of SEPT12 transcripts disrupts α- and β-tubulin organization. In addition, losing or decreasing SEPT12 disturbs the morphogenesis of sperm heads and the elongation of sperm tails, the steps of which are coordinated and constructed by α- and β-tubulins, in SEPTIN12+/+/+/− chimeras. In this study, we discovered that the SEPTIN12-microtubule complexes are critical for sperm formation during spermiogenesis.
spermiogenesis; SEPT12; microtubules
Saikosaponin-d (SSd), a monomer terpenoid purified from the Chinese herbal drug Radix bupleuri, has multiple effects, including anticancer properties. However, the effect of SSd on tumors exposed to radiation is largely unknown. To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of SSd and its possible mechanism, we combined SSd with radiation therapy to treat SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells under oxia and hypoxia.
Cell growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution were examined after treatment with SSd alone, radiation alone, and their combinations under oxia and hypoxia. The protein and mRNA levels of p53, Bcl2, and BAX were measured using western blot analysis and RT-PCR, respectively.
Treatment with SSd alone and radiation alone inhibited cell growth and increased apoptosis rate at the concentration used. These effects were enhanced when SSd was combined with radiation. Moreover, SSd potentiated the effects of radiation to induce G0/G1 arrest in SMMC-7721 cells, and reduced the G2/M-phase population under hypoxia. However, under oxia, SSd only potentiated the effects of radiation to induce G0/G1 arrest, but not G2/M-phase arrest. These effects of SSd alone, radiation alone, and their combination, were accompanied by upregulated expression of p53 and BAX and downregulation of Bcl2 expression under oxia and hypoxia.
SSd potentiates the effects of radiation on SMMC-7721 cells; thus, it is a promising radiosensitizer. The radiosensitizing effect of SSd may contribute to its effect on the G0/G1 and G2/M checkpoints of the cell cycle.
To examine a potential association between longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), arterial blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in a population-based setting.
The longitudinal population-based Beijing Eye Study included 2355 subjects with an age of 45+ years who were examined in 2006 and in 2011. The participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination including tonometry and measurement of arterial blood pressure and BMI.
Data on IOP, arterial blood pressure and BMI measured in 2006 and in 2011 were available for 2257 (95.8%) subjects with a mean age of 59.5±9.7 years. The mean change in IOP was −1.25±2.26 mm Hg, mean change in mean blood pressure −7.4±12.1 mmHg, and mean change in BMI was 0.01±2.04 kg/m2. In multivariate analysis, the 5-year change in IOP was significantly associated with a higher change in mean blood pressure (P<0.001; standardized regression coefficient Beta:0.11; regression coefficient B:0.02; 95% confidence interval (CI):0.01,0.03) after adjusting for younger age (P<0.001;Beta:−0.18;B:−0.04;95% CI:−0.05,−0.03), shorter body stature (P = 0.002;Beta:−0.06;B:−0.06;95% CI:−0.03,−0.01), thicker central corneal thickness (P<0.001;Beta:0.19;B:0.02;95% CI:0.01,0.02), deeper anterior chamber depth (P = 0.01;Beta:0.05;B:0.33;95% CI:0.07,0.60), and lower intraocular pressure at baseline (P<0.001;Beta:−0.56;B:−0.42;95% CI:−0.45,−0.39). If the analysis included only longitudinal parameters, the change in IOP was significantly associated with a higher change in mean arterial blood pressure (P<0.001;Beta:0.10;B:0.02;95% CI:0.01,0.03) and a higher change in body mass index (P<0.04;Beta:0.04;B:0.04;95% CI:0.01,0.09).
In the 5-year follow-up of our population-based sample, a change in IOP was associated with a corresponding change in arterial blood pressure and with a corresponding change in body mass index. These longitudinal data support the notion of a physiological relationship between arterial blood pressure, intraocular pressure and body mass index. These findings may be of interest for the discussion of the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history.
The benzopyran compound obtained by cultivating a mangrove-derived strain, Streptomyces xiamenensis strain 318, shows multiple biological effects, including anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophic scar properties. To increase the diversity in the structures of the available benzopyrans, by means of biosynthesis, the strain was screened for spontaneous rifampicin resistance (Rif), and a mutated rpsL gene to confer streptomycin resistance (Str), was introduced into the S. xiamenensis strain M1-94P that originated from deep-sea sediments. Two new benzopyran derivatives, named xiamenmycin C (1) and D (2), were isolated from the crude extracts of a selected Str-Rif double mutant (M6) of M1-94P. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified by analyzing extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibit the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (WI26), and 1 exhibits better anti-fibrotic activity than xiamenmycin. Our study presents the novel bioactive compounds isolated from S. xiamenensis mutant strain M6 constructed by ribosome engineering, which could be a useful approach in the discovery of new anti-fibrotic compounds.
Streptomyces xiamenensis; ribosome engineering; benzopyran; anti-fibrosis
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncomir overexpressed in most human tumors where it promotes malignant growth and progression by acting on multiple targets. Here we broaden the impact of miR-21 in cancer by demonstrating that it regulates formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote tumorigenesis. Key targets of miR-21 in mediating this function were SOD3 and TNF-a. We found that miR-21 inhibited the metabolism of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, produced either by endogenous basal activities or exposure to ionizing radiation, by directing attenuating SOD3 or by an indirect mechanism that limited TNF-a production, thereby reducing SOD2 levels. Importantly, both effects contributed to an elevation of IR-induced cell transformation. Our findings therefore establish that miR-21 promotes tumorigenesis to a large extent through its regulation of cellular ROS levels.
miR-21; SOD; TNFα; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS); ionizing radiation
Alkylphenols, such as nonylphenol (NP) and 4-octylphenol (4-OP), have the potential to disturb immune system due to their weak estrogen-like activity, an effect with potential serious public health impact due to the worldwide distribution of these substances. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) can secrete large amounts of type I IFNs and are critical in immune regulation. However, there has been limited study about the influence of alkylphenols on the function of pDCs.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alkylphenols on pDC functions in vitro and in vivo and then further explored the involved signaling pathways and epigenetic changes.
Circulating pDCs from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with alkylphenols with or without CpG stimulation. Alkylphenol-associated cytokine responses, signaling events, histone modifications and viral activity were further examined. In NP-exposed mice, the effect of NP on splenic pDC function and allergic lung inflammation were also assessed.
The results showed that NP increased the expression of TNF-α, but suppressed IL-10 production in the range of physiological doses, concomitant with activation of the MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway and enhanced levels of acetylated histone 3 as well as histone 4 at the TNFA gene locus. Further, in CpG-stimulated pDCs, NP suppressed type I IFNs production, associated with down-regulation of IRF-7 and MKK1/2-ERK-Elk-1 pathways and led to the impaired anti-enterovirus 71 activity in vitro. Additionally, splenic pDCs from NP-exposed mice showed similar cytokine changes upon CpG stimulation under conditions relevant to route and level of exposure in humans. NP treatment also enhanced allergic lung inflammation in vivo.
Alkylphenols may influence pDCs’ functions via their abilities to induce expression of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and to suppress regulatory cytokines, including IL-10, IFN-α and IFN-β, suggesting the potential impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on immune regulation.