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author:("trurap, Seth")
1.  Nanoliposomes Protect against AL Amyloid Light Chain Protein-Induced Endothelial Injury 
Journal of liposome research  2013;24(1):69-73.
A newly-recognized pathogenic mechanism underlying light chain amyloidosis (AL) involves endothelial dysfunction and cell injury caused by misfolded light chain proteins (LC). Nanoliposomes (NL) are artificial phospholipid vesicles that could attach to misfolded proteins and reduce tissue injury.
To test whether co-treatment with NL reduce LC-induced endothelial dysfunction and cell death.
Abdominal subcutaneous adipose arterioles from 14 non-AL subjects were cannulated; dilator response to acetylcholine and papaverine were measured at baseline and following 1-hour exposure to LC (20 μg/mL, 2 purified from AL subjects’ urine, 1 from human recombinant LC [AL-09]) ± NL (phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/phosphatidic acid 70/25/5 molar ratio) or NL alone. Human aortic artery endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to Oregon Green-labeled LC±NL for 24 hours and intracellular LC and apoptosis (Hoechst stain) were measured. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was performed on AL-09 LC±NL to follow changes in secondary structure and protein thermal stability.
LC caused impaired dilation to acetylcholine that was restored by NL (control-94.0±1.8%, LC-65.0±7.1%, LC+NL-95.3±1.8%, p≤0.001 LC vs. control or LC+NL). NL protection was inhibited by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester. NL increased the beta sheet structure of LC, reduced endothelial cell internalization of LC and protected against LC-induced endothelial cell death.
LC induced human adipose arteriole endothelial dysfunction and endothelial cell death, which were reversed by co-treatment with NL. This protection may partly be due to enhancing LC protein structure and reducing LC internalization. Nanoliposomes represent a promising new class of agents to ameliorate tissue injury from protein misfolding diseases such as AL.
PMCID: PMC3925072  PMID: 24236475
nanoliposomes; lipid nanoparticles; amyloid; heart failure; endothelial function
2.  Protective role of clusterin in preserving endothelial function in AL amyloidosis 
Atherosclerosis  2012;225(1):220-223.
Misfolded immunoglobulin light chain proteins (LC) in light chain amyloidosis (AL) are toxic to vascular tissues. We tested the hypothesis that chaperone protein clusterin preserves endothelial function and cell survival during LC exposure.
LC (20 μg/mL) were given to human aortic endothelial cells (EC) for 24-hours and clusterin protein/gene expression and secretion were measured. DNA fragmentation was measured with/without recombinant clusterin (Clu, 300 ng/mL). Adipose arterioles (non-AL subjects) were tested for dilator responses to acetylcholine/papaverine at baseline and after 1-hour of LC±Clu.
LC reduced EC clusterin secretion, protein and gene expression while increasing DNA fragmentation. Clu attenuated LC-induced DNA fragmentation and restored dilator response to acetylcholine (logEC50: control −7.05±0.2, LC+Clu −6.53±0.4, LC −4.28±0.7, p<0.05 vs. control, LC+Clu).
LC induced endothelial cell death and dysfunction while reducing clusterin protein/gene expression and secretion. Exogenous clusterin attenuated LC toxicity. This represents a new pathobiologic mechanism and therapeutic target for AL amyloidosis.
PMCID: PMC3478430  PMID: 22981431
amyloid; endothelial function; chaperone protein
3.  Systemic and microvascular oxidative stress induced by light chain amyloidosis 
Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a plasma cell dyscrasia associated with production of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chains (LC). Despite its often fatal course, the mechanism of injury remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that AL is associated with oxidative stress by comparing serum protein carbonyl (a marker of protein oxidation and oxidative stress) in AL subjects (n=23, 60±11 years) vs. controls (n=9, 54± 2 years); we also measured superoxide production (n=11) and dilator response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, n=6) in isolated non-AL human adipose arterioles exposed to LC (20 μg/mL) purified from AL subjects for 1 h vs. control. Protein carbonyl was higher in AL patients (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.003±0.003 nmol/mg control, p=0.002). Post-exposure to LC proteins, arteriole superoxide was higher (1.89±0.36 times control, p=0.03) with impaired dilation to SNP (10−4 M, 54±6 vs. 86±4%, p=0.01, logEC50 −3.7±0.2 vs. −6.7±0.6, p=0.002). AL is associated with systemic oxidative stress and brief acute exposure to AL light chain proteins induces oxidative stress and microvascular dysfunction in human adipose arterioles. This novel mechanism of injury may be important in AL pathophysiology.
PMCID: PMC2974792  PMID: 19446898
Amyloid; Heart failure; Microvascular dysfunction; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species; Cardiomyopathy
4.  Prognostic implication of late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac MRI in light chain (AL) amyloidosis on long term follow up 
Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia associated with poor survival especially in the setting of heart failure. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac MRI was recently found to correlate with myocardial amyloid deposition but the prognostic role is not established. The aim is to determine the prognostic significance of LGE in AL by comparing long term survival of AL patients with and without LGE.
Twenty nine consecutive patients (14 females; 62 ± 11 years) with biopsy-proven AL undergoing cardiac MRI with gadolinium as part of AL workup were included. Survival was prospectively followed 29 months (median) following MRI and compared between those with and without LGE by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses.
LGE was positive in 23 subjects (79%) and negative in 6 (21%). Left ventricular ejection fraction was 66 ± 17% in LGE-positive and 69 ± 12% in LGE-negative patients (p = 0.8). Overall 1-year mortality was 36%. On follow-up, 14/23 LGE-positive and none of LGE-negative patients died (log rank p = 0.0061). Presenting New York Heart Association heart failure class was also associated with poor survival (p = 0.0059). Survival between two LGE groups stratified by heart failure class still showed a significant difference by a stratified log-rank test (p = 0.04).
Late gadolinium enhancement is common and is associated with poor long-term survival in light chain amyloidosis, even after adjustment for heart failure class presentation. The prognostic significance of late gadolinium enhancement in this disease may be useful in patient risk-stratification.
PMCID: PMC2686669  PMID: 19416541
5.  Intraventricular dyssynchrony in light chain amyloidosis: a new mechanism of systolic dysfunction assessed by 3-dimensional echocardiography 
Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a rare but often fatal disease due to intractable heart failure. Amyloid deposition leads to diastolic dysfunction and often preserved ejection fraction. We hypothesize that AL is associated with regional systolic dyssynchrony. The aim is to compare left ventricular (LV) regional synchrony in AL subjects versus healthy controls using 16-segment dyssynchrony index measured from 3-dimension-al (3D) echocardiography.
Cardiac 3D echocardiography full volumes were acquired in 10 biopsy-proven AL subjects (60 ± 3 years, 5 females) and 10 healthy controls (52 ± 1 years, 5 females). The LV was subdivided into 16 segments and the time from end-diastole to the minimal systolic volume for each of the 16 segments was expressed as a percent of the cycle length. The standard deviations of these times provided a 16-segment dyssynchrony index (16-SD%). 16-SD% was compared between healthy and AL subjects.
Left ventricular ejection fraction was comparable (control vs. AL: 62.4 ± 0.6 vs. 58.6 ± 2.8%, p = NS). 16-SD% was significantly higher in AL versus healthy subjects (5.93 ± 4.4 vs. 1.67 ± 0.87%, p = 0.003). 16-SD% correlated with left ventricular mass index (R 0.45, p = 0.04) but not to left ventricular ejection fraction.
Light chain amyloidosis is associated with left ventricular regional systolic dyssynchrony. Regional dyssynchrony may be an unrecognized mechanism of heart failure in AL subjects.
PMCID: PMC2525629  PMID: 18687125

Results 1-5 (5)