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1.  Nasopupillary Asymmetry 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:347826.
Purpose. To establish the prevalence of nasopupillary asymmetry (difference in nasopupillary distances) in the population and its relation with the interpupillary distance. Methods. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted by reviewing of 1262 medical records. The values of nasopupillary asymmetry and the interpupillary distance were obtained. A statistical analysis was made and the correlation between these variables was established. Results. Seventy-nine percent of the population presented some degree of nasopupillary asymmetry. The interpupillary distance had a very low correlation with the nasopupillary asymmetry (r = 0.074, P = 0.0). Conclusion. It is advisable to use the nasopupillary distance of each eye as a standard measurement.
doi:10.1155/2014/347826
PMCID: PMC4269086  PMID: 25544953
2.  Developmental stage-specific transformation of neural progenitors 
Cell Cycle  2013;13(3):343-344.
doi:10.4161/cc.27511
PMCID: PMC3956525  PMID: 24335438
gliomas; neural stem cells; temporal specification; mouse models; radial glial cells
3.  HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS Analysis and Biological Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from the Colombian Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox 
Marine Drugs  2013;11(12):4815-4833.
The marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox produces antipredatory and allelopathic triterpenoid glycosides as part of its chemical defense repertoire against predators, competitors, and fouling organisms. These molecules are responsible for the pharmacological potential found in the glycosides present in this species. In order to observe the glycochemical diversity present in E. ferox, a liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyse a complex polar fraction of this marine sponge was performed. This gave valuable information for about twenty-five compounds three of which have been previously reported and another three which were found to be composed of known aglycones. Furthermore, a group of four urabosides, sharing two uncommon substitutions with carboxyl groups at C-4 on the terpenoid core, were identified by a characteristic fragmentation pattern. The oxidized aglycones present in this group of saponins can promote instability, making the purification process difficult. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle modulation, a cell cloning efficiency assay, as well as its hemolytic activity were evaluated. The cytotoxic activity was about IC50 40 µg/mL on Jurkat and CHO-k1 cell lines without exhibiting hemolysis. Discussion on this bioactivity suggests the scanning of other biological models would be worthwhile.
doi:10.3390/md11124815
PMCID: PMC3877889  PMID: 24317472
Ectyoplasia ferox; marine sponge; triterpenoid glycosides; mass spectrometry
4.  In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Ether Lipid Edelfosine against Leishmania spp. and SbV-Resistant Parasites 
Background
The leishmaniases are a complex of neglected tropical diseases caused by more than 20 Leishmania parasite species, for which available therapeutic arsenal is scarce and unsatisfactory. Pentavalent antimonials (SbV) are currently the first-line pharmacologic therapy for leishmaniasis worldwide, but resistance to these compounds is increasingly reported. Alkyl-lysophospoholipid analogs (ALPs) constitute a family of compounds with antileishmanial activity, and one of its members, miltefosine, has been approved as the first oral treatment for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, its clinical use can be challenged by less impressive efficiency in patients infected with some Leishmania species, including L. braziliensis and L. mexicana, and by proneness to develop drug resistance in vitro.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We found that ALPs ranked edelfosine>perifosine>miltefosine>erucylphosphocholine for their antileishmanial activity and capacity to promote apoptosis-like parasitic cell death in promastigote and amastigote forms of distinct Leishmania spp., as assessed by proliferation and flow cytometry assays. Effective antileishmanial ALP concentrations were dependent on both the parasite species and their development stage. Edelfosine accumulated in and killed intracellular Leishmania parasites within macrophages. In vivo antileishmanial activity was demonstrated following oral treatment with edelfosine of mice and hamsters infected with L. major, L. panamensis or L. braziliensis, without any significant side-effect. Edelfosine also killed SbV-resistant Leishmania parasites in in vitro and in vivo assays, and required longer incubation times than miltefosine to generate drug resistance.
Conclusions/Significance
Our data reveal that edelfosine is the most potent ALP in killing different Leishmania spp., and it is less prone to lead to drug resistance development than miltefosine. Edelfosine is effective in killing Leishmania in culture and within macrophages, as well as in animal models infected with different Leishmania spp. and SbV-resistant parasites. Our results indicate that edelfosine is a promising orally administered antileishmanial drug for clinical evaluation.
Author Summary
Leishmaniasis represents a major international health problem, has a high morbidity and mortality rate, and is classified as an emerging and uncontrolled disease by the World Health Organization. The migration of population from endemic to nonendemic areas, and tourist activities in endemic regions are spreading the disease to new areas. Unfortunately, treatment of leishmaniasis is far from satisfactory, with only a few drugs available that show significant side-effects. Here, we show in vitro and in vivo evidence for the antileishmanial activity of the ether phospholipid edelfosine, being effective against a wide number of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Our experimental mouse and hamster models demonstrated not only a significant antileishmanial activity of edelfosine oral administration against different wild-type Leishmania spp., but also against parasites resistant to pentavalent antimonials, which constitute the first line of treatment worldwide. In addition, edelfosine exerted a higher antileishmanial activity and a lower proneness to generate drug resistance than miltefosine, the first drug against leishmaniasis that can be administered orally. These data, together with our previous findings, showing an anti-inflammatory action and a very low toxicity profile, suggest that edelfosine is a promising orally administered drug for leishmaniasis, thus warranting clinical evaluation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001612
PMCID: PMC3323514  PMID: 22506086
5.  In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of the Utility of Dimethyl and Diethyl Carbaporphyrin Ketals in Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis▿† 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(10):4755-4764.
Carbaporphyrin ketals are porphyrinoid compounds in which a pyrrole ring of a typical porphyrin macrocycle has been replaced by a ketal-substituted indene ring. It was recently demonstrated that these compounds are effective in vitro against Leishmania tarentolae. Their in vitro effectiveness is increased when they are exposed to visible light; they act as photosensitizers capable of mediating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Following on this evidence, the effectiveness and cytotoxicity of the dimethyl and diethyl carbaporphyrin ketals (CKOMe and CKOEt, respectively) were determined in vitro using pathogenic Leishmania species with and without exposure to visible light (2 and 4 h). The effectiveness against various pathogenic Leishmania species was determined to be in a micromolar range. Additionally, the effect of encapsulating the carbaporphyrin ketals in liposome formulations was tested. Liposomal delivery diminished their toxicity, while the effectiveness was enhanced upon exposure to visible light (photodynamic effect). The cytotoxicity levels for human U937 cells and hamster peritoneal macrophages were in the ranges of 0.3 to 9 μM and 7 to 330 μM, respectively. When tested in vivo, using a hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model of cutaneous leishmaniasis, CKOMe was active even in the dark, suggesting that the compound, once metabolized in the animal tissue, produces an active ingredient that does not seem to be photosensitive. Reduction in lesion size, histopathologic analyses, and smears confirmed the in vivo effectiveness of the compound, since the parasitic load was diminished without noticeable toxic effects.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00671-11
PMCID: PMC3186979  PMID: 21788471
6.  Mouse Models to Interrogate the Implications of the Differentiation Status in the Ontogeny of Gliomas 
Oncotarget  2011;2(8):590-598.
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal of human primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, with a median survival of 14-16 months despite optimal surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. A reason for this dismal prognosis is insufficient understanding of the ontogeny of GBMs, which are highly heterogeneous at a pathological level. This pathological diversity, between and within GBMs as well as varying grades of gliomas, has not been fully explained solely on the grounds of oncogenic stimulus. Interaction with the tumor microenvironment is likely a source of this pathological heterogeneity, as well as the inherent characteristics of the tumor cell of origin. Currently, controversy exists on whether the initial transformed cell is a differentiated astrocyte, progenitor or neural stem cell. Putative Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), which have features of normal stem cell plus the ability to recapitulate the tumor phenotype in vivo in small numbers, have been identified from a variety of solid human cancers, including GBMs. Evidence suggesting that regions harboring normal stem cells in the adult CNS, such as the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus, are more prone to viral and chemical oncogenesis, is supportive of the hypothesis that brain tumors arise from stem cells. However, it is still to be determined whether the appearance of brain tumor stem cells (BTSC) is the cause or consequence of tumor initiation and progression. This review discusses emerging evidence highlighting the relevance of the state of differentiation and regional heterogeneity in the ontogeny of GBM. This is an area of high interest in cancer in general, with potential significant therapeutic and prognostic implications.
PMCID: PMC3248213  PMID: 21896959
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM); Tumor Heterogeneity; Tumor Microenvironment; Brain Tumor Stem Cells (BTSC)
7.  Theoretical generalization of normal and sick coronary arteries with fractal dimensions and the arterial intrinsic mathematical harmony 
BMC Medical Physics  2010;10:1.
Background
Fractal geometry is employ to characterize the irregular objects and had been used in experimental and clinic applications. Starting from a previous work, here we made a theoretical research based on a geometric generalization of the experimental results, to develop a theoretical generalization of the stenotic and restenotic process, based on fractal geometry and Intrinsic Mathematical Harmony.
Methods
Starting from all the possibilities of space occupation in box-counting space, all arterial prototypes differentiating normality and disease were obtained with a computational simulation. Measures from 2 normal and 3 re-stenosed arteries were used as spatial limits of the generalization.
Results
A new methodology in animal experimentation was developed, based on fractal geometric generalization. With this methodology, it was founded that the occupation space possibilities in the stenotic process are finite and that 69,249 arterial prototypes are obtained as a total.
Conclusions
The Intrinsic Mathematical Harmony reveals a supra-molecular geometric self-organization, where the finite and discrete fractal dimensions of arterial layers evaluate objectively the arterial stenosis and restenosis process.
doi:10.1186/1756-6649-10-1
PMCID: PMC2954867  PMID: 20846449
8.  In Vitro and In Vivo Cytotoxicities and Antileishmanial Activities of Thymol and Hemisynthetic Derivatives 
The in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of thymol and structural derivatives in comparison to those of Glucantime were studied. The results showed here suggest that thymol and hemisynthetic derivatives have promising antileishmanial potential and could be considered as new lead structures in the search for novel antileishmanial drugs.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.4.1652-1655.2005
PMCID: PMC1068650  PMID: 15793164

Results 1-8 (8)