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1.  Effects of multiparity and prolonged breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density: a community-based cross-sectional study 
BMC Women's Health  2009;9:19.
Background
Studies conducted in Western countries have shown that bone loss associated with pregnancy and breast-feeding is recovered after weaning. However, it is not clear whether recovery takes place after repeated pregnancies followed by prolonged periods of breast-feeding; especially in developing countries where nutritional intake is comparatively low.
This study was designed to examine the effects of multiparity and prolonged breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density (BMD) in a community-based sample of 210 Sri Lankan women, aged between 46 and 98 years.
Methods
BMD of the lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reproductive history was recorded by using a questionnaire. Women were, first, divided into groups according to parity (nulliparous, 1–2, 3–4, and 5 or more children), and BMDs in different groups were compared, initially unadjusted and then adjusted for age. Same subjects were subdivided, again, according to the total duration of breast-feeding (0, 1–48, 49–96, and 97 months or more) and similar analysis was carried out.
Results
Women who had 5 or more children and women who had breast-fed for 97 months or more were older than the other women (p < 0.01) but no differences in height, weight or BMI were observed among the groups. Age adjusted BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of women grouped according to parity were not significantly different. Neither was there any difference between lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD in groups based on duration of breast-feeding.
Conclusion
From this population-based study conducted in a developing country, we infer that history of multiparity or prolonged breast-feeding has no detrimental effects on maternal BMD in post-menopausal age.
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-9-19
PMCID: PMC2720947  PMID: 19570205
2.  Bone turnover markers are correlated with total skeletal uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) 
Background
Skeletal uptake of 99mTc labelled methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) is used for producing images of pathological bone uptake due to its incorporation to the sites of active bone turnover. This study was done to validate bone turnover markers using total skeletal uptake (TSU) of 99mTc-MDP.
Methods
22 postmenopausal women (52–80 years) volunteered to participate. Scintigraphy was performed by injecting 520 MBq of 99mTc-MDP and taking whole body images after 3 minutes, and 5 hours. TSU was calculated from these two images by taking into account the urinary loss and soft tissue uptake. Bone turnover markers used were bone specific alkaline phosphatase (S-Bone ALP), three different assays for serum osteocalcin (OC), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (S-TRACP5b), serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (S-CTX-I) and three assays for urinary osteocalcin (U-OC).
Results
The median TSU of 99mTc-MDP was 23% of the administered activity. All bone turnover markers were significantly correlated with TSU with r-values from 0.52 (p = 0.013) to 0.90 (p < 0.001). The two resorption markers had numerically higher correlations (S-TRACP5b r = 0.90, S-CTX-I r = 0.80) than the formation markers (S-Total OC r = 0.72, S-Bone ALP r = 0.66), but the difference was not statistically significant. TSU did not correlate with age, weight, body mass index or bone mineral density.
Conclusion
In conclusion, bone turnover markers are strongly correlated with total skeletal uptake of 99mTc-MDP. There were no significant differences in correlations for bone formation and resorption markers. This should be due to the coupling between formation and resorption.
doi:10.1186/1756-6649-9-3
PMCID: PMC2674029  PMID: 19331678

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