The high sensitivity but low specificity of breast MRI has prompted exploration of breast 1H MRS for breast cancer detection. However, several obstacles still prevent the routine application of in vivo breast 1H MRS, including poor spatial resolution, long acquisition time associated with conventional multi-voxel MRS imaging (MRSI) techniques, and the difficulty of “extra” lipid suppression in a magnetic field with relatively poor achievable homogeneity compared to the brain. Using a combination of a recently developed echo-filter (EF) suppression technique and an elliptical sampling scheme, we demonstrate the feasibility of overcoming these difficulties. It is robust (the suppression technique is insensitive to magnetic field inhomogeneity), fast (acquisition time of about 12 min) and offers high spatial resolution (up to 0.6 cm3 per voxel at 1.5 T with a TE of only 60 ms). This approach should be even better at 3 T with higher resolution and/or shorter TE.
Breast cancer; Magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Echo-filter; Short TE; High spatial resolution
Increasing epidemiological evidence has indicated that inherited variations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number affect the genetic susceptibility of many malignancies in a tumour-specific manner and that DNA methylation also plays an important role in controlling gene expression during the differentiation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous study demonstrated that HCC tissues showed a lower 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) content when compared to tumour-adjacent tissues, but the relationship among 5-hmC, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and mtDNA content in HCC patients is still unknown. This study aimed to clarify the correlation among mtDNA content, 5-mC and 5-hmC by quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that 5-hmC correlated with tumour size [odds ratio (OR) 0.847, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.746–0.962, P = 0.011], and HCC patients with a tumour size ≥5.0 cm showed a lower 5-hmC content and higher levels of fasting plasma aspartate aminotransferase, the ratio of alanine amiotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alpha-fetoprotein than those with a tumour size <5 cm (all P<0.05). We further revealed that the mtDNA content of HCC tumour tissues was 225.97(105.42, 430.54) [median (25th Percentile, 75th Percentile)] and was negatively correlated with 5-mC content (P = 0.035), but not 5-hmC content, in genomic DNA from HCC tumour tissues.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the absence of an estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, is associated with an early recurrence of disease and poor outcome. Furthermore, the majority of deaths in breast cancer patients are from metastases instead of from primary tumors. In this study, MCF-7 (an estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell line), MDA-MB-231 (a human TNBC cell line) and 4T1 (a mouse TNBC cell line) were used to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR) combined with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC)) and to determine the underlying mechanisms of these effects in vitro and in vivo. We also evaluated the ability of SAHA to inhibit the metastasis of 4T1 cells. We found that IR combined with SAHA showed increased therapeutic efficacy when compared with either treatment alone in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. Moreover, the combined treatment enhanced DNA damage through the inhibition of DNA repair proteins. The combined treatment was induced primarily through autophagy and ER stress. In an orthotopic breast cancer mouse model, the combination treatment showed a greater inhibition of tumor growth. In addition, SAHA inhibited the migration and invasion abilities of 4T1 cells and inhibited breast cancer cell migration by inhibiting the activity of MMP-9. In an in vivo experimental metastasis mouse model, SAHA significantly inhibited lung metastasis. SAHA not only enhances radiosensitivity but also suppresses lung metastasis in breast cancer. These novel findings suggest that SAHA alone or combined with IR could serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.
A major goal of biomedical research has been the identification of molecular mechanisms that can enhance memory. Here we report a novel signaling pathway that regulates the conversion from short- to long-term memory. The mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), which contains the key regulatory protein Rictor (Rapamycin-Insensitive Companion of mTOR), was discovered only recently, and little is known about its physiological role. We show that conditional deletion of rictor in the postnatal murine forebrain greatly reduces mTORC2 activity and selectively impairs both long-term memory (LTM) and the late (but not the early) phase of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Actin polymerization is reduced in the hippocampus of mTORC2-deficient mice and its restoration rescues both L-LTP and LTM. More importantly, a compound that selectively promotes mTORC2 activity converts early-LTP into late-LTP and enhances LTM. These findings indicate that mTORC2 could be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.
mTOR complexes; actin assembly; spatial memory; fear memory; cognitive enhancer
We investigated the subcellular distribution of NEP protein and activity in brains of human individuals with no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia, as well as double transgenic mice and human neuronal cell line treated with Aβ and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Total cortical neuronal-related NEP was significantly increased in MCI compared to NCI brains. NeuN was decreased in both MCI and AD, consistent with neuronal loss occurring in MCI and AD. Negative relationship between NEP protein and NeuN in MCI brains, and positive correlation between NEP and pan-cadherin in NCI and MCI brains, suggesting the increased NEP expression in NCI and MCI might be due to membrane associated NEP in non-neuronal cells. In subcellular extracts, NEP protein decreased in cytoplasmic fractions in MCI and AD, but increased in membrane fractions, with a significant increase in the membrane/cytoplasmic ratio of NEP protein in AD brains. By contrast, NEP activity was decreased in AD. Similar results were observed in AD-mimic transgenic mice. Studies of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma showed an up-regulation of NEP protein in the cytoplasmic compartment induced by HNE and Aβ; however, NEP activity decreased in cytoplasmic fractions. Activity of NEP in membrane fractions increased at 48 hours and then significantly decreased after treatment with HNE and Aβ. The cytoplasmic/membrane ratio of NEP protein increased at 24 hours and then decreased in both HNE and Aβ treated cells. Both HNE and Aβ up-regulate NEP expression, but NEP enzyme activity did not show the same increase, possibly indicating immature cytoplasmic NEP is less active than membrane associated NEP. These observations indicate that modulation of NEP protein levels and its subcellular location influence the net proteolytic activity and this complex association might participate in deficiency of Aβ degradation that is associated with amyloid deposition in AD.
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β; Aβ degrading enzymes; neprilysin; subcellular compartments; Aβ clearance
Contemporary data are lacking with respect to the incidence rates of, factors associated with, and impact of cardiac arrest from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia (VF-CA) on hospital survival in patients admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The objectives of this multinational study were to characterize trends in the magnitude of in-hospital VF-CA complicating an ACS and to describe its impact over time on hospital prognosis.
In 59 161 patients enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Study between 2000 and 2007, we determined the incidence, prognosis, and factors associated with VF-CA.
Overall, 3618 patients (6.2%) developed VF-CA during their hospitalization for an ACS. Incidence rates of VF-CA declined over time. Patients who experienced VF-CA were on average older and had a greater burden of cardiovascular disease, yet were less likely to receive evidence-based cardiac therapies than patients in whom VF-CA did not occur. Hospital death rates were 55.3% and 1.5% in patients with and without VF-CA, respectively. There was a greater than 50% decline in the hospital death rates associated with VF-CA during the years under study. Patients with a VF-CA occurring after 48 h were at especially high risk for dying during hospitalization (82.8%).
Despite reductions in the magnitude of, and short-term mortality from, VF-CA, VF-CA continues to exert an adverse effect on survival among patients hospitalized with an ACS. Opportunities exist to improve the identification and treatment of ACS patients at risk for VF-CA to reduce the incidence of, and mortality from, this serious arrhythmic disturbance.
acute coronary syndrome; cardiac arrest; mortality; ventricular fibrillation
The type 1 sigma receptor (σR1) is a nonopiate and nonphencyclidine binding site that has numerous pharmacological and physiological functions. In some studies, agonists for σR1 have been shown to afford neuroprotective against overstimulation of the NMDA receptor. σR1 expression has been demonstrated recently in retinal ganglion cells (RGC). RGCs undergo apoptosis early in diabetic retinopathy via NMDA receptor overstimulation. In the present study we asked whether RGCs cultured under hyperglycemic conditions and RGCs of diabetic mice continue to express σ1. RGCs were cultured 48 h in RPMI medium containing either 45 mM glucose or 11 mM glucose plus 34 mM mannitol (osmolar control). C57BL/6 mice were made diabetic using streptozotocin. The retina was dissected from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice 3, 6 and 12 weeks post-onset of diabetes. σR1 was analyzed in cells using semiquantitative RT-PCR and in tissues σR1 by semiquantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, western blot analysis and immunolocalization. The RT-PCR analysis of cultured RGCs showed that σR1 mRNA is expressed under hyperglycemic conditions at levels similar to control cells. Similarly, analysis of retinas of diabetic mice showed no difference in levels of mRNA encoding σR1 compared to retinas of control mice. In situ hybridization analysis showed that expression patterns of σR1 mRNA in the ganglion cell layer were similar between diabetic and control mice. Western blot analysis suggested that levels of σR1 in retina were similar between diabetic and control retinas. Immunohistochemical analysis of σR1 showed a similar pattern of σR1 protein expression between control and diabetic retina. These studies demonstrate that σR1 is expressed under hyperglycemic conditions in vitro and in vivo.
sigma receptor; retinal ganglion cells; retina; diabetes; diabetic retinopathy
CCN6 is an extracellular matrix protein that exerts tumor suppressive functions in breast cancer, where its decreased expression is a feature of advanced disease. However, neither its role nor mechanism of action in breast cancer metastasis has been established. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which constitute ligands of the TGF-β superfamily, are multifunctional cytokines that induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell invasion and metastasis. In this study, we identify a CCN6-BMP4-TAK1 kinase signaling pathway that controls the ability of the p38 MAP kinase to regulate acinar morphogenesis and invasion of breast cells. ShRNA-mediated attenuation of CCN6 in human mammary epithelial (HME) cells led to BMP4 upregulation as a major response to exposure to the TGF-β superfamily. CCN6 attenuation also induced BMP4-mediated activation of the Smad-independent TAK1 and p38 kinases. Conversely, ectopic expression of CCN6 in breast cancer cells antagonized BMP4-mediated TAK1/p38 activation and invasive capacity, both by binding BMP4 protein as well as decreasing BMP4 protein levels. Effects on BMP4 and p38 were confirmed in vivo where they correlated with decreased metastasis. In clinical specimens, we found that CCN6 expression was inversely associated with BMP4 and phospho-p38 levels in 69% of invasive breast carcinomas examined, consistent with the functional results. Together our findings identify a novel modifier pathway through which CCN6 acts to limit breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
CCN6; WISP3; invasion; metastasis; BMP4; p38 MAP kinase
Oxidative stress is one of the major factors that trigger photoreceptor apoptosis. To investigate whether resveratrol, a potent antioxidant and small molecule activator of the FoxO pathway, would be neuroprotective against photoreceptor cell death in a rodent model of retinal detachment.
Retinal detachment was created in adult Brown Norway rats by subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate. The animals were treated daily with vehicle or resveratrol (20mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection. Photoreceptor death was assessed by counting the number of apoptotic cells with TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and measurement of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness 3 days after RD. Changes in expression of FoxO1a, FoxO3a, and FoxO4 were analyzed by western blot. The activity of caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, spectrin and their cleavage forms were studied.
Three days after retinal detachment, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9 were significantly activated in the detached retina. Spectrin cleavage products at 120 and 145 kDa were also detected. Both caspase and calpain activation are involved in apoptotic photoreceptor cell death in detached retinas. Treatment with resveratrol increases FoxO1a, FoxO3a, and FoxO4 protein expression in detached retinas only. Resveratrol treatment decreases activation of intrinsic and extrinsic caspase apoptotic pathways triggered by RD. The number of TUNEL-positive cells decreases from 1301±51 cells/mm2 in control groups to 430±35 cells/mm2 in treatment groups (p<0.05). Resveratrol treatment also demonstrates 59% less ONL thickness loss compared to controls.
Resveratrol treatment up-regulates the FoxO family and blocks Caspase3, 8, and 9 activation. Resveratrol has the potential to be used as a novel therapeutic agent for preventing vision loss in diseases characterized by photoreceptor detachment.
The utilization of self-microemulsifying premicroemulsion systems (SMEPMS) as templates for preparing poorly water-soluble compounds in the nanosized range represents a promising strategy. Fenofibrate was formulated with n-butyl L-lactate, Tween 80, and a number of cosurfactants (ethanol, 1-propanol, and PEG 600), diluted with the water phase (either water or saccharide solution) and then subjected to a freeze-drying (FD) process to obtain SMEPMS nanosized particulates. Results demonstrated that the particle size after resuspension of these FD SMEPMS nanosized particulates in water was too large, so the addition of saccharide solutions (lactose, mannitol, glucose, sucrose, and trehalose) as the solid carrier to prevent particles from aggregating seemed to be necessary and workable due to steric hindrance and repulsion. However, instability of these resuspended FD nanosized particulates after 30–90 minutes still occurred, and the addition of 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate in the resuspending medium was able to retard the aggregation and maintain the particle size within the nano-range. Evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction also confirmed the results. It was concluded that using an SMEPMS formulation with PEG 600 as the cosurfactant, and in the presence of a suitable saccharide as an anticaking agent and FD process were able to produce fenofibrate nanoparticles.
fenofibrate; saccharides; freeze-drying; nanoparticles
A critical limiting factor of chemotherapy is the unacceptably high toxicity. The use of nanoparticle based drug carriers has significantly reduced the side effects and facilitated the delivery of drugs. Source of the remaining side effect includes (1) the broad final in vivo distribution of the administrated nanoparticles, and (2) strong basal drug release from nanoparticles before they could reach the tumor. Despite the advances in pH-triggered release, undesirable basal drug release has been a constant challenge under in vivo conditions. In this study, functionalized single walled carbon nanohorn supported immunoliposomes were assembled for paclitaxel delivery. The immunoliposomes were formulated with polyethylene glycol, thermal stable and pH sensitive phospholipids. Each nanohorn was found to be encapsulated within one immunoliposome. Results showed a highly pH dependent release of paclitaxel in the presence of serum at body temperature with minimal basal release under physiological conditions. Upon acidification, paclitaxel was released at a steady rate over 30 days with a cumulative release of 90% of the loaded drug. The drug release results proved our hypothesized double controlled release mechanism from the nanoparticles. Other results showed the nanoparticles have doubled loading capacity compared to that of traditional liposomes and higher affinity to breast cancer cells overexpressing Her2 receptors. Internalized nanoparticles were found in lysosomes.
NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase is a key component of the P450 mono-oxygenase drug-metabolizing system. There is evidence for a conformational equilibrium involving large-scale domain motions in this enzyme. We now show, using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering, that delivery of two electrons to cytochrome P450 reductase leads to a shift in this equilibrium from a compact form, similar to the crystal structure, toward an extended form, while coenzyme binding favors the compact form. We present a model for the extended form of the enzyme based on nuclear magnetic resonance and SAXS data. Using the effects of changes in solution conditions and of site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the conversion to the extended form leads to an enhanced ability to transfer electrons to cytochrome c. This structural evidence shows that domain motion is linked closely to the individual steps of the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 reductase, and we propose a mechanism for this.
•Cytochrome P450 reductase is in equilibrium between compact and extended forms•The position of the equilibrium depends on the redox state of the enzyme•The extended form favors electron transfer to cytochrome c•Domain motion is linked closely to the individual steps of the catalytic cycle
Solution scattering experiments by Huang et al. connect domain movement in cytochrome P450 reductase to individual steps in the catalytic cycle. The domain movement necessary for enzyme turnover is not achieved simply by random diffusion; rather, it is linked closely to the individual steps of the catalytic cycle.
Platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) is a newly recognized growth factor known to regulate many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, transformation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Recent studies have shown that PDGF-D and its cognate receptor PDGFR-β are expressed in prostate tumor tissues, suggesting that PDGF-D might play an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. However, the biological role of PDGF-D in tumorigenesis remains elusive. In this study, we found that PDGF-D–overexpressing PC3 cells (PC3 cells stably transfected with PDGF-D cDNA and referred to as PC3 PDGF-D) exhibited a rapid growth rate and enhanced cell invasion that was associated with the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and reduced Akt activity. Rapamycin repressed mTOR activity and concomitantly resulted in the activation of Akt, which could attenuate the therapeutic effects of mTOR inhibitors. In contrast, B-DIM (BR-DIM from Bioresponse, Inc.; a chemopreventive agent) significantly inhibited both mTOR and Akt in PC3 PDGF-D cells, which were correlated with decreased cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, conditioned medium from PC3 PDGF-D cells significantly increased the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was inhibited by B-DIM treatment concomitant with reduced full-length and active form of PDGF-D. Our results suggest that B-DIM could serve as a novel and efficient chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent by inactivation of both mTOR and Akt activity in PDGF-D–overexpressing prostate cancer.
Two cationic, amphipathic peptoids (poly-N-substituted glycines) were developed as new molecular transporters, which have extensive cellullar uptake and utilize different internalization mechanisms from purely cationic polyguanidine comparators.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism and is associated with coronary artery calcification, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether circulating FGF23 concentration is independently associated with the severity and extent of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.
A cross-sectional design was used to examine the relationship between serum FGF23 and the severity and extent of coronary artery stenosis in 2076 patients undergoing coronary angiography (1263 male and 813 female, mean aged 62.5 years). Subgroup analyses were performed to assess the associations between FGF23 and coronary arterial plaque characteristics evaluated by intravascular ultrasound and 12-month incidence of target vessel revascularization (TVR) and target lesion revascularization (TLR).
We found a stepwise increase of serum FGF23 concentrations in patients with mild, moderate, severe stenosis or with increased number of stenotic vessels compared with those without stenosis (P<0.001). Serum FGF23 concentration was positively correlated with stenosis scores as the global index of the severity and extent of coronary artery stenosis in both male and female (r = 0.315 and r = 0.291, P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses, serum FGF23 concentration was a significant determinant of the stenosis scores independent of other traditional risk factors (standardized β = 0.326, P<0.001). Furthermore, subgroup analyses found FGF23 was significantly associated with plaque and dense calcium volumes. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that serum FGF23 levels were significantly independent predictors of TVR and TLR.
We report an independent association between circulating FGF23 concentration and the severity and extent of coronary artery stenosis in the coronary angiographic patients. Future studies are needed to elucidate the potential biological mechanisms and whether FGF23 is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor.
Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is an indigenous traditional herb in Southern Asia. Its powdered root has been processed to produce health supplements, but no detailed toxicology report is available. In this study, neither mutagenicity nor clastogenicity was noted, and acute oral LD50 was more than 6 g/kg b.w. After 4-week subacute and 13-week subchronic exposure paradigms (0, 0.6, 1.2, and 2 g/kg b.w./day), adverse effects attributable to test compound were not observed with respect to body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, macropathology, or histopathology. However, the treatment significantly reduced prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cholesterol levels, especially in males (P < 0.05). These changes were judged as pharmacological effects, and they are beneficial to health. The calculated acceptable daily intake (ADI) was up to 1.2 g/adult/day. This information will be useful for product development and safety management.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of collagen composition on engraftment of progenitor cells within infarcted myocardium.
We previously reported that intramyocardial penetration of stem/progenitor cells in epicardial patches was enhanced when collagen was reduced in hearts overexpressing adenylyl cyclase-6 (AC6). In this study we hypothesized an alternative strategy wherein overexpression of microRNA-29b (miR-29b), inhibiting mRNAs that encode cardiac fibroblast proteins involved in fibrosis, would similarly facilitate progenitor cell migration into infarcted rat myocardium.
In vitro: A tri-cell patch (Tri-P) consisting of cardiac sodium-calcium exchanger-1 (NCX1) positive iPSC (iPSCNCX1+), endothelial cells (EC), and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) was created, co-cultured, and seeded on isolated peritoneum. The expression of fibrosis-related genes was analyzed in cardiac fibroblasts (CFb) by qPCR and Western blot. In vivo: Nude rat hearts were administered mimic miRNA-29b (miR-29b), miRNA-29b inhibitor (Anti-29b), or negative mimic (Ctrl) before creation of an ischemically induced regional myocardial infarction (MI). The Tri-P was placed over the infarcted region 7 days later. Angiomyogenesis was analyzed by micro-CT imaging and immunofluorescent staining. Echocardiography was performed weekly.
The number of green fluorescent protein positive (GFP+) cells, capillary density, and heart function were significantly increased in hearts overexpressing miR-29b as compared with Ctrl and Anti-29b groups. Conversely, down-regulation of miR-29b with anti-29b in vitro and in vivo induced interstitial fibrosis and cardiac remodeling.
Overexpression of miR-29b significantly reduced scar formation after MI and facilitated iPSCNCX1+ penetration from the cell patch into the infarcted area, resulting in restoration of heart function after MI.
Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes human schistosomiasis, a significant cause of morbidity in China and the Philippines. Here we present a draft genomic sequence for the worm, which is the first reported for any flatworm, indeed for the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The genome provides a global insight into the molecular architecture and host interaction of this complex metazoan pathogen, revealing that it can exploit host nutrients, neuroendocrine hormones and signaling pathways for growth, development and maturation. Having a complex nervous system and a well developed sensory system, S. japonicum can accept stimulation of the corresponding ligands as a physiological response to different environments, such as fresh water or the tissues of its intermediate and mammalian hosts. Numerous proteinases, including cercarial elastase, are implicated in mammalian skin penetration and haemoglobin degradation. The genomic information will serve as a valuable platform to facilitate development of new interventions for schistosomiasis control.
Thanks to the microarray technology, our understanding of transcriptome evolution at the genome level has been considerably advanced in the past decade. Yet, further investigation was challenged by several technical limitations of this technology. Recent innovation of next-generation sequencing, particularly the invention of RNA-seq technology, has shed insightful lights on resolving this problem. Though a number of statistical and computational methods have been developed to analyze RNA-seq data, the analytical framework specifically designed for evolutionary genomics remains an open question. In this article we develop a new method for estimating the genome expression distance from the RNA-seq data, which has explicit interpretations under the model of gene expression evolution. Moreover, this distance measure takes the data overdispersion, gene length variation, and sequencing depth variation into account so that it can be applied to multiple genomes from different species. Using mammalian RNA-seq data as example, we demonstrated that this expression distance is useful in phylogenomic analysis.
transcriptome evolution; RNA-seq; genome expression distance
We report a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of novel graphene-polysulfide (GPS) anode materials, which consists of conducting graphene network and homogeneously distributed polysulfide in between and chemically bonded with graphene sheets. Such unique architecture not only possesses fast electron transport channels, shortens the Li-ion diffusion length but also provides very efficient Li-ion reservoirs. As a consequence, the GPS materials exhibit an ultrahigh reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and superior long-term cycling performance in terms of 1600, 550, 380 mAh g−1 after 500, 1300, 1900 cycles with a rate of 1, 5 and 10 A g−1 respectively. This novel and simple strategy is believed to work broadly for other carbon-based materials. Additionally, the competitive cost and low environment impact may promise such materials and technique a promising future for the development of high-performance energy storage devices for diverse applications.
An alternative synthesis of Glc-β-(1→4)-GlcNAc oxazoline was described and its enzymatic reaction with the endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Arthrobacter protophormiae (Endo-A) was re-investigated. Under normal transglycosylation conditions with a catalytic amount of enzyme, Endo-A showed only marginal activity for transglycosylation with the disaccharide oxazoline, consistent with our previous observations. However, when used in a relatively large quantity, Endo-A could promote the transglycosylation of the disaccharide oxazoline to a GlcNAc-Asn acceptor. In addition to the initial transglycosylation product, a series of large oligosaccharides were also formed due to the tandem transglycosylation to the terminal glucose residues in the intermediate products. In the absence of an external acceptor, Endo-A could polymerize the disaccharide oxazoline to form oligo- and polysaccharides having the -4Glcβ-(1→4)-GlcNAcβ1– repeating units. This is the first example of an endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase promoted polymerization of activated oligosaccharide substrates. This enzymatic polymerization may find useful applications for the synthesis of novel artificial polysaccharides.
Transglycosylation; Enzymatic polymerization; Endoglycosidase; Carbohydrate oxazoline derivative; Glycopeptides
Antioxidants have been shown to enhance the proliferation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in vitro, although the detailed mechanism(s) and potential side effects are not fully understood.
In this study, human ADMSCs cultured in ImF-A medium supplemented with antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine and ascorbic acid-2-phosphate) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) were compared with ADMSCs cultured with FGF-2 alone (ImF) or with FGF-2 under 5% pO2 conditions (ImF-H).
During log-phase growth, exposure to ImF-A resulted in a higher percentage of ADMSCs in the S phase of the cell cycle and a smaller percentage in G0/G1 phase. This resulted in a significantly reduced cell-doubling time and increased number of cells in the antioxidant-supplemented cultures compared with those supplemented with FGF-2 alone, an approximately 225% higher cell density after 7 days. Western blotting showed that the levels of the CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 decreased after ImF-A treatment, whereas CDK2, CDK4, and CDC2 levels clearly increased. In addition, ImF-A resulted in significant reduction in the expression of CD29, CD90, and CD105, whereas relative telomere length, osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and chondrogenesis were enhanced. The results were similar for ADMSCs treated with antioxidants and those under hypoxic conditions.
Antioxidant treatment promotes entry of ADMSCs into the S phase by suppressing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and results in rapid cell proliferation similar to that observed under hypoxic conditions.
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; Antioxidant; Fibroblast growth factor-2; Hypoxia
The objective of this study was to explore the potential of CO2 single contrast in-line phase contrast imaging (PCI) for pre-clinical small intestine investigation. The absorption and phase contrast images of CO2 gas production were attained and compared. A further increase in image contrast was observed in PCI. Compared with CO2-based absorption contrast imaging (ACI), CO2-based PCI significantly enhanced the detection of mucosal microstructures, such as pits and folds. The CO2-based PCI could provide sufficient image contrast for clearly showing the intestinal mucosa in living mice without using barium. We concluded that CO2-based PCI might be a novel and promising imaging method for future studies of gastrointestinal disorders.
AIM: To undertake a meta-analysis on the value of urinary trypsinogen activation peptide (uTAP) in predicting severity of acute pancreatitis on admission.
METHODS: Major databases including Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all relevant studies from January 1990 to January 2013. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and the diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) with 95%CI were calculated for each study and were compared to other systems/biomarkers if mentioned within the same study. Summary receiver-operating curves were conducted and the area under the curve (AUC) was evaluated.
RESULTS: In total, six studies of uTAP with a cut-off value of 35 nmol/L were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of uTAP for predicting severity of acute pancreatitis, at time of admission, was 71% and 75%, respectively (AUC = 0.83, DOR = 8.67, 95%CI: 3.70-20.33). When uTAP was compared with plasma C-reactive protein, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR were 0.64 vs 0.67, 0.77 vs 0.75, 0.82 vs 0.79 and 6.27 vs 6.32, respectively. Similarly, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR of uTAP vs Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II within the first 48 h of admission were found to be 0.64 vs 0.69, 0.77 vs 0.61, 0.82 vs 0.73 and 6.27 vs 4.61, respectively.
CONCLUSION: uTAP has the potential to act as a stratification marker on admission for differentiating disease severity of acute pancreatitis.
Acute pancreatitis; Urinary trypsinogen activation peptide; C-reactive protein; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score; Meta-analysis