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1.  Striated Muscle as Implantation Site for Transplanted Pancreatic Islets 
Journal of Transplantation  2011;2011:352043.
Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment for selected patients with brittle type 1 diabetes. In the clinical setting, intraportal transplantation predominates. However, due to extensive early islet cell death, the quantity of islets needed to restore glucose homeostasis requires in general a minimum of two donors. Moreover, the deterioration of islet function over time results in few insulin-independent patients after five-year followup. Specific obstacles to the success of islet transplantation include site-specific concerns for the liver such as the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction, islet lipotoxicity, low oxygen tension, and poor revascularization, impediments that have led to the developing interest for alternative implantation sites over recent years. Within preclinical settings, several alternative sites have now been investigated and proven favorable in various aspects. Muscle is considered a very promising site and has physiologically properties and technical advantages that could make it optimal for islet transplantation.
PMCID: PMC3235886  PMID: 22174984
2.  Decreased defluorination using the novel beta-cell imaging agent [18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 in pigs examined by PET 
EJNMMI Research  2011;1:33.
Fluorine-18 dihydrotetrabenazine [DTBZ] analogues, which selectively target the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 [VMAT2], have been extensively studied for in vivo quantification of beta cell mass by positron-emission tomography [PET]. This study describes a novel deuterated radioligand [18F]fluoroethyl [FE]-DTBZ-d4, aimed to increase the stability against in vivo defluorination previously observed for [18F]FE-DTBZ.
[18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 was synthesized by alkylation of 9-O-desmethyl-(+)-DTBZ precursor with deuterated [18F]FE bromide ([18F]FCD2CD2Br). Radioligand binding potential [BP] was assessed by an in vitro saturation homogenate binding assay using human endocrine and exocrine pancreatic tissues. In vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics [PK/PD] was studied in a porcine model by PET/computed tomography, and the rate of defluorination was quantified by compartmental modeling.
[18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 was produced in reproducible good radiochemical yield in 100 ± 20 min. Radiochemical purity of the formulated product was > 98% for up to 5 h with specific radioactivities that ranged from 192 to 529 GBq/μmol at the end of the synthesis. The in vitro BP for VMAT2 in the islet tissue was 27.0 ± 8.8, and for the exocrine tissue, 1.7 ± 1.0. The rate of in vivo defluorination was decreased significantly (kdefluorination = 0.0016 ± 0.0007 min-1) compared to the non-deuterated analogue (kdefluorination = 0.012 ± 0.002 min-1), resulting in a six fold increase in half-life stability.
[18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 has similar PK and PD properties for VMAT2 imaging as its non-deuterated analogue [18F]FE-DTBZ in addition to gaining significantly increased stability against defluorination. [18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 is a prime candidate for future preclinical and clinical studies on focal clusters of beta cells, such as in intramuscular islet grafts.
PMCID: PMC3284452  PMID: 22214308
beta cell mass; dihydrotetrabenazine; PET; VMAT2
3.  Assessment of receptor occupancy-over-time of two dopamine transporter inhibitors by [11C]CIT and target controlled infusion 
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences  2011;116(2):100-106.
Occupancy-over-time was determined for two dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors through modeling of their ability to displace the PET ligand [11C]CIT. The tracer was held at a pseudo steady state in a reference tissue by target controlled infusion.
Rhesus monkeys (n = 5) were given [11C]CIT and studied with a PET scanner. Tracer uptake in the reference tissue cerebellum was held at a pseudo steady state by use of target controlled infusion. The pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics(PK/PD) of [11C]CIT was assessed through the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM). Bupropion (n = 2) and GBR-12909 (n = 2) receptor occupancies were estimated through modeling of their effects on [11C]CIT displacement.
There was a high uptake of [11C]CIT in striatum, which contains a high DAT density. The reference tissue cerebellum had a comparatively low uptake. The modeling of [11C]CIT PK/PD properties in striatum showed high binding potential (BP = 5.34 ± 0.78). Both DAT inhibitors caused immediate displacement of [11C]CIT after administration. The occupancy-over-time was modeled as a mono-exponential function, describing initial maximal occupancy (Occ0) and rate of ligand–receptor dissociation (koff). GBR-12909 showed irreversible binding (koff = 0) after an initial occupancy of 76.1%. Bupropion had a higher initial occupancy (84.5%) followed by a release half-life of 33 minutes (koff = 0.021).
The proposed model can be used for assessment of in-vivo occupancy-over-time of DAT ligands by use of target controlled infusion of [11C]CIT. The concept of assessing drug–receptor interactions by studying perturbations of a PET tracer from a pseudo steady state can be transferred to other CNS systems.
PMCID: PMC3078538  PMID: 21443419
CCIP; [11C]CIT; DAT inhibitor; SRTM; TCI
4.  A computerized Infusion Pump for control of tissue tracer concentration during Positron Emission Tomography in vivo Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic measurements 
A computer controlled infusion pump (UIPump) for regulation of target tissue concentration of radioactive compounds was developed for use in biological research and tracer development for PET.
Based on observed tissue or plasma kinetics after a bolus injection of the tracer an algorithm calculates the infusion needed to obtain a specified target kinetic curve. A computer feeds this infusion scheme into an infusion pump connected to an animal via a venous catheter. The concept was validated using [11C]Flumazenil administrated to Sprague-Dawley rats where the whole brain distribution and kinetic of the tracer was measured over time using a microPET-scanner. The accuracy and precision of the system was assessed by producing steady-state levels of the tracer and by mimicking kinetics after oral administration.
Various kinetic profiles could be generated, including rapid achievement of constant levels, or step-wise increased levels. The resulting tissue curves had low deviation from the target curves according to the specified criteria: AUC (%): 4.2 ± 2.8, Maximal deviation (%): 13.6 ± 5.0 and R2: 0.95 ± 0.02.
The UIPump-system is suitable for use in PET-research for assessment of PK/PD properties by simulation of different tracer tissue kinetics in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2430701  PMID: 18513382

Results 1-4 (4)