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1.  Study of the cytotoxicity of asiaticoside on rats and tumour cells 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:220.
Background
Cancer chemoprevention is considered one of the most promising areas in current cancer research, and asiaticoside, which is derived from the plant Centella asiatica, has a relative lack of systemic toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether asiaticoside is effective against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenicity in vitro (MCF-7 and other cells) and in vivo (DMBA-induced rat cancer).
Methods
An MTT assay was performed involving the treatment of MCF-7 cells for 48 h with H2O2 alone and H2O2 + different asiaticoside concentrations. Flow cytometry was performed, and the level of caspase 3, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) were quantified. Adult female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups designated I (control), II (DMBA-induced cancer), III (pre- and post-treatment with asiaticoside (200 μg/animal) in DMBA-induced cancer), IV (post-treatment with asiaticoside in DMBA-induced cancer), and V (treated with asiaticoside alone, drug control). Twelve weeks post-DMBA, rats developed mammary tumours. Rats either were sacrificed or imaged with MIBI. Histological examination of tumour tissues was performed. Tumour MIBI uptake ratios were determined. The data are expressed as the means ± standard deviation. Appropriate t-test and ANOVA statistical methods were used to compare data.
Results
The IC50 of asiaticoside for MCF-7 cells was determined to be 40 μM. Asiaticoside has potential for hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity, and the caspase-3 activity increased with increasing asiaticoside dose in MCF-7 cells treated for 48 h. The expression of the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly decreased and correlated with MIBI uptake ratios in vitro and in vivo after asiaticoside administration.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates that asiaticoside is effective in vitro and in vivo in inducing apoptosis and enhancing anti-tumour activity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-220
PMCID: PMC3986932  PMID: 24667059
Asiaticoside; DMBA; Tumour; Proliferation; Apoptosis; Rats
2.  Assessment of Tracer 99mTc(V)-DMSA Uptake as a Measure of Tumor Cell Proliferation In Vitro 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54361.
Purpose
To examine whether 99mTc(V)-DMSA could be used as a non-invasive measure of cancer cell proliferation.
Methods
Human breast cancer MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and pII, and prostate cancer PC-3 cell lines were grown to 30, 50 and 100% confluency and pulsed with 99mTc(V)-DMSA in media for 60 min at 37°C. DNA synthesis was analysed by quantification of the S phase using flow cytometry, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation and expression of proliferation markers PCNA and Ki-67 using realtime PCR. One way ANOVA was used to compare groups.
Results
In all cell lines rates of 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake were inversely related to cell density. This was paralleled by similar trends in S phase proportions, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation and expression of PCNA and Ki-67.
Conclusion
Rates of 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake into different types of tumour cells correlate well with cell density that is useful as a non-invasive measure of tumour cellular proliferation in vivo.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054361
PMCID: PMC3545874  PMID: 23335999
3.  Perfusion scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO detects early cerebrovascular changes in the diabetic rat 
Background
99mTc-HMPAO is a well-established isotope useful in the detection of regional cerebral blood flow. Diabetes gives rise to arterial atherosclerotic changes that can lead to significant end organ dysfunction, prominently affecting perfusion to the heart, kidneys, eyes and brain. In the current study, we investigated the role of 99mTc-HMPAO cerebral perfusion scans in detecting early vascular changes in the diabetic brain.
Methods
Cerebral perfusion studies were performed on both control and streptozotocin-(STZ) induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Rat brain imaging using a gamma camera was performed for each group 0.5, 2, 4, and 24 hours post 99mTc-HMPAO injection. Data processing for each cerebral perfusion scan was performed by drawing a region of interest (ROI) circumferentially around the brain (B). Background (BKG) due to signal from the soft tissue of each rat was subtracted. Brain 99mTc-HMPAO uptake minus background counts (net brain counts; NBC) were then compared between the two groups.
Results
The NBC (mean ± SD) for the STZ group were statistically significantly higher (p = 0.0004) than those of the control group at each of the time points studied.
Conclusion
99mTc-HMPAO brain scan may be useful in the detection of early atherosclerotic changes in the diabetic rat brain.
doi:10.1186/1756-6649-8-1
PMCID: PMC2322850  PMID: 18559077

Results 1-3 (3)