Fibroblast proliferation and differentiation are central in atrial fibrillation (AF)–promoting remodeling. Here, we investigated fibroblast regulation by Ca2+-permeable transient receptor potential canonical-3 (TRPC3) channels.
Methods and Results
Freshly isolated rat cardiac fibroblasts abundantly expressed TRPC3 and had appreciable nonselective cation currents (INSC) sensitive to a selective TPRC3 channel blocker, pyrazole-3 (3 μmol/L). Pyrazole-3 suppressed angiotensin II-induced Ca2+ influx, proliferation, and α-smooth muscle actin protein expression in fibroblasts. Ca2+ removal and TRPC3 blockade suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation inhibition reduced fibroblast proliferation. TRPC3 expression was upregulated in atria from AF patients, goats with electrically maintained AF, and dogs with tachypacing-induced heart failure. TRPC3 knockdown (based on short hairpin RNA [shRNA]) decreased canine atrial fibroblast proliferation. In left atrial fibroblasts freshly isolated from dogs kept in AF for 1 week by atrial tachypacing, TRPC3 protein expression, currents, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and extracellular matrix gene expression were all significantly increased. In cultured left atrial fibroblasts from AF dogs, proliferation rates, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation were increased and were suppressed by pyrazole-3. MicroRNA-26 was downregulated in canine AF atria; experimental microRNA-26 knockdown reproduced AF-induced TRPC3 upregulation and fibroblast activation. MicroRNA-26 has NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) binding sites in the 5′ promoter region. NFAT activation increased in AF fibroblasts, and NFAT negatively regulated microRNA-26 transcription. In vivo pyrazole-3 administration suppressed AF while decreasing fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix gene expression.
TRPC3 channels regulate cardiac fibroblast proliferation and differentiation, likely by controlling the Ca2+ influx that activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. AF increases TRPC3 channel expression by causing NFAT-mediated downregulation of microRNA-26 and causes TRPC3-dependent enhancement of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation. In vivo, TRPC3 blockade prevents AF substrate development in a dog model of electrically maintained AF. TRPC3 likely plays an important role in AF by promoting fibroblast pathophysiology and is a novel potential therapeutic target.
arrhythmia; calcium; ion channels; fibrillation; remodeling
Stressors contribute to thrombosis and insulin resistance. Since obesity-related adipose inflammation is also involved in these pathological states, we assumed that stress correlates with adipose inflammation. Male mice were subjected to 2-week intermittent restraint stress. Expression of plasma lipids, monocyte/macrophage markers (CD11b, CD68, and F4/80), proinflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6), adiponectin, heat shock protein 70.1 (HSP70.1), and coagulation factors (plasminogen activation inhibitor-1 [PAI-1] and tissue factor [TF]) in blood and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) was determined using immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and RT-PCR, respectively. Glucose metabolism was assessed by glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) and insulin tolerance tests, and expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in WAT. To examine effects of MCP-1 blockade, animals were treated with control or neutralizing antibody, or transplanted with control or 7ND (dominant-negative form of MCP-1)-overexpressing adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs). Stress increased monocyte accumulation, free fatty acids, proinflammatory cytokine, and HSP70.1 and reduced adiponectin. Adipose stromal cells highly expressed MCP-1. The stress-induced adipose inflammation increased PAI-1 and TF but did not give rise to thrombus formation. Without any changes in GTT, stress worsened insulin sensitivity and decreased IRS-1 and GLUT4 in WAT. Neutralizing antibody and 7ND-ADSCs reversed stress-induced adipose inflammation, procoagulant state, and insulin resistance. Stress evoked adipose inflammation to increase coagulation factors and impair insulin sensitivity through adipose-derived MCP-1.
Adiponectin plays a protective role in the development of obesity-linked disorders. We demonstrated that adiponectin exerts beneficial actions on acute ischemic injury in mice hearts. However, the effects of adiponectin treatment in large animals and its feasibility in clinical practice have not been investigated. This study investigated the effects of intracoronary administration of adiponectin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in pigs.
Methods and Results
The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded in pigs for 45 minutes and then reperfused for 24 hours. Recombinant adiponectin protein was given as a bolus intracoronary injection during ischemia. Cardiac functional parameters were measured by a manometer-tipped catheter. Apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 transcripts were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Serum levels of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites and biological antioxidant potential were measured. Adiponectin protein was determined by immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Intracoronary administration of adiponectin protein led to a reduction in myocardial infarct size and improvement of left ventricular function in pigs after I/R. Injected adiponectin protein accumulated in the I/R-injured heart. Adiponectin treatment resulted in decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and increased interleukin-10 mRNA levels in the myocardium after I/R. Adiponectin-treated pigs had reduced apoptotic activity in the I/R-injured heart and showed increased biological antioxidant potential levels and decreased derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolite levels in the blood stream after I/R.
These data suggest that adiponectin protects against I/R injury in a preclinical pig model through its ability to suppress inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Administration of intracoronary adiponectin could be a useful adjunctive therapy for acute myocardial infarction.
adiponectin; myocardial infarction; reperfusion
Angiogenic cell therapy represents a novel strategy for ischemic diseases, but some patients show poor responses. We investigated the therapeutic potential of an induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell sheet created by a novel magnetite tissue engineering technology (Mag-TE) for reparative angiogenesis. Mouse iPS cell-derived Flk-1+ cells were incubated with magnetic nanoparticle-containing liposomes (MCLs). MCL-labeled Flk-1+ cells were mixed with diluted extracellular matrix (ECM) precursor and a magnet was placed on the reverse side. Magnetized Flk-1+ cells formed multi-layered cell sheets according to magnetic force. Implantation of the Flk-1+ cell sheet accelerated revascularization of ischemic hindlimbs relative to the contralateral limbs in nude mice as measured by laser Doppler blood flow and capillary density analyses. The Flk-1+ cell sheet also increased the expressions of VEGF and bFGF in ischemic tissue. iPS cell-derived Flk-1+ cell sheets created by this novel Mag-TE method represent a promising new modality for therapeutic angiogenesis.
Acute coronary syndrome is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a myocyte-derived secreted protein that is upregulated in the heart in response to ischemic insult. Here, we investigated the therapeutic impact of FSTL1 on acute cardiac injury in small and large preclinical animal models of ischemia/reperfusion and dissected its molecular mechanism.
Methods and Results
Administration of human FSTL1 protein significantly attenuated myocardial infarct size in a mouse or pig model of ischemia/reperfusion, which was associated with a reduction of apoptosis and inflammatory responses in the ischemic heart. Administration of FSTL1 enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the ischemia/reperfusion–injured heart. In cultured cardiac myocytes, FSTL1 suppressed apoptosis in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory genes through its ability to activate AMP-activated protein kinase. Ischemia/reperfusion led to enhancement of bone morphogenetic protein-4 expression and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation in the heart, and FSTL1 suppressed the increased phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in ischemic myocardium. Treating cardiac myocytes with FSTL1 abolished the bone morphogenetic protein-4 –stimulated increase in apoptosis, Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, and proinflammatory gene expression. In cultured macrophages, FSTL1 diminished lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory genes via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and abolished bone morphogenetic protein-4 – dependent induction of proinflammatory mediators.
Our data indicate that FSTL1 can prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory response through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase– and bone morphogenetic protein-4 – dependent mechanisms, suggesting that FSTL1 could represent a novel therapeutic target for post-myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome.
apoptosis; inflammation; ischemia; myocytes; cardiac; reperfusion
Although contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a major complication associated with angiography, the prophylaxis is not well established. Use of a low dose of carperitide for preventing CIAKI remains controversial. We examined the protective effect of carperitide on CIAKI after coronary angiography with a small contrast volume in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with coronary artery disease.
We randomly assigned 112 consecutive patients to a carperitide or a control group. The contrast volume was kept under 150 ml. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CIAKI defined by a serum creatinine of ≥25% or a serum creatinine of ≥0.5 mg/dl from baseline within 48 h. The secondary endpoint was a change in renal function at 1 week after the procedure. Results: The baseline characteristics and contrast volumes (carperitide group: 67.4 ± 38.2 ml vs. control group: 64.8 ± 20.5 ml, p = 0.661) were comparable in the two groups. The incidence of CIAKI was similar in the two groups (carperitide group: 8.5% vs. control group: 5.7%, p = 0.564). A multivariate analysis revealed that a hypotension ≥20 mm Hg was a significant predictor of developing CIAKI in the carperitide group (p = 0.015). The incidence of CIAKI in the carperitide group without hypotension was rare, but not significantly different (carperitide group: 2.4% vs. control group: 5.7%, p = 0.432). Conclusions: This study indicated that the use of a small contrast volume suppressed the incidence of CIAKI and that carperitide had no prophylactic effect against CIAKI. Our results also revealed the impact of hypotension on the development of CIAKI in the carperitide group.
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury; Carperitide; Chronic kidney disease; Contrast medium volume
Polarization in motile cells requires the coordination of several key signaling molecules, including RhoA small GTPases and phosphoinositides. It is found that SHIP2 interacts with RhoA in a GTP-dependent manner and this interaction is required for proper localization of PI(3,4,5)P3 and regulation of cell polarization and migration.
Cell migration is essential for various physiological and pathological processes. Polarization in motile cells requires the coordination of several key signaling molecules, including RhoA small GTPases and phosphoinositides. Although RhoA participates in a front–rear polarization in migrating cells, little is known about the functional interaction between RhoA and lipid turnover. We find here that src-homology 2–containing inositol-5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) interacts with RhoA in a GTP-dependent manner. The association between SHIP2 and RhoA is observed in spreading and migrating U251 glioma cells. The depletion of SHIP2 attenuates cell polarization and migration, which is rescued by wild-type SHIP2 but not by a mutant defective in RhoA binding. In addition, the depletion of SHIP2 impairs the proper localization of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, which is not restored by a mutant defective in RhoA binding. These results suggest that RhoA associates with SHIP2 to regulate cell polarization and migration.
Lifestyle-related diseases represented by metabolic syndrome develop as results of complex interaction. By using health check-up data from two large studies collected during a long-term follow-up, we searched for risk factors associated with the development of metabolic syndrome.
In our original study, we selected 77 case subjects who developed metabolic syndrome during the follow-up and 152 healthy control subjects who were free of lifestyle-related risk components from among 1803 Japanese male employees. In a replication study, we selected 2196 case subjects and 2196 healthy control subjects from among 31343 other Japanese male employees. By means of a bioinformatics approach using a fuzzy neural network (FNN), we searched any significant combinations that are associated with MetS. To ensure that the risk combination selected by FNN analysis was statistically reliable, we performed logistic regression analysis including adjustment.
We selected a combination of an elevated level of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) and an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count as the most significant combination of risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome. The FNN also identified the same tendency in a replication study. The clinical characteristics of γ-GTP level and WBC count were statistically significant even after adjustment, confirming that the results obtained from the fuzzy neural network are reasonable. Correlation ratio showed that an elevated level of γ-GTP is associated with habitual drinking of alcohol and a high WBC count is associated with habitual smoking.
This result obtained by fuzzy neural network analysis of health check-up data from large long-term studies can be useful in providing a personalized novel diagnostic and therapeutic method involving the γ-GTP level and the WBC count.
Data mining; Combinational risk factor; Fuzzy neural network; Glutamyltranspeptidase; Lifestyle disease; Personalized diagnostic method; White blood cell
Lymphedema is one of the serious clinical problems that can occur after surgical resection of malignant tumors such as breast cancer or intra‐pelvic cancers. However, no effective treatment options exist at present. Here, we report that implantation of adipose‐derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) can induce lymphangiogenesis in a mouse model of reparative lymphedema.
Methods and Results
ADRCs were isolated from C57BL/6J mice. To examine the therapeutic efficacy of ADRC implantation in vivo, we established a new mouse model of tail lymphedema. Lymphedema was improved significantly by local injection of ADRCs (P<0.05). Histological analysis revealed that lymphatic capillary density was greater in the ADRC group than in the phosphate‐buffered saline control group (P<0.01). Tissue expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C mRNA and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor C were greater in the ADRC group than in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). ADRCs released vascular endothelial growth factor C, which directly stimulated lymphangiogenesis. Implantation of ADRCs also enhanced recruitment of bone marrow–derived M2 macrophages, which served as lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells.
Implantation of autologous ADRCs could be a useful treatment option for patients with severe lymphedema via mediation of lymphangiogenesis. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000877 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.000877.)
adipose tissue; adipose‐derived regenerative cells; lymphedema; lymphangiogenesis; vascular endothelial growth factor C; macrophages
Omentin is an adipocytokine that is abundantly expressed in visceral fat tissue. We investigated the association of omentin with the number of metabolic risk factors.
The study population comprised 201 Japanese men who underwent annual health checkups. Plasma omentin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We divided the subjects into 4 groups according to omentin levels. A reduction of plasma omentin levels significantly correlated with an increase in the mean number of metabolic risk factors such as increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure and glucose intolerance.
Circulating omentin levels negatively correlated with the multiplicity of metabolic risk factors, suggesting that omentin acts as a biomarker of metabolic disorders.
Omentin; Adipocytokine; Metabolic disorders; Risk factors; Biomarkers
Advanced age is associated with decreased stem cell activity. However, the effect of aging on the differentiation capacity of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into cardiovascular cells has not been fully clarified. We investigated whether iPS cells derived from young and old mice are equally capable of differentiating into vascular progenitor cells, and whether these cells regulate vascular responses in vivo. iPS cells from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (young) or 21 month-old mouse bone marrow (old) were used. Fetal liver kinase-1 positive (Flk-1+) cells, as a vascular progenitor marker, were induced after 3 to 4 days of culture from iPS cells derived from young and old mice. These Flk-1+ cells were sorted and shown to differentiate into VE-cadherin+ endothelial cells and α-SMA+ smooth muscle cells. Tube-like formation was also successfully induced in both young and old murine Flk-1+ cells. Next, hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced, and purified Flk-1+ cells were directly injected into ischemic hindlimbs of nude mice. Revascularization of the ischemic hindlimb was significantly accelerated in mice transplanted with Flk-1+ cells derived from iPS cells from either young or old mice, as compared to control mice as evaluated by laser Doppler blood flowmetry. The degree of revascularization was similar in the two groups of ischemic mice injected with iPS cell-derived Flk-1+ cells from young or old mice. Transplantation of Flk-1+ cells from both young and old murine iPS cells also increased the expression of VEGF, HGF and IGF mRNA in ischemic tissue as compared to controls. iPS cell-derived Flk-1+ cells differentiated into vascular progenitor cells, and regulated angiogenic vascular responses both in vitro and in vivo. These properties of iPS cells derived from old mice are essentially the same as those of iPS cells from young mice, suggesting the functionality of generated iPS cells themselves to be unaffected by aging.
The interactions between the renin-angiotensin system and neovascularization in atherosclerotic plaque development are unclear. We investigated the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE−/−) mice with a special focus on plaque neovascularization. ApoE−/− mice fed a high-fat diet were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups and administered vehicle or olmesartan for 12 weeks. Quantification of plaque areas at the aortic root and in the thoracic and abdominal aorta revealed that, in all 3 of the regions, olmesartan reduced intimal neovessel density and the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. Olmesartan increased the levels of collagen and elastin, reduced the level of macrophages in the aortic root, and reduced the mRNA and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 in aortic roots and thoracic aortas. Aortic ring assay revealed that olmesartan-treated ApoE−/− mice had a markedly lower angiogenic response than that of untreated ApoE−/− mice. Bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cell-like c-Kit+ cells from olmesartan-treated ApoE−/− mice showed marked impairment of cellular functions and lower expression of TLR2/TLR4 and MMP-2 compared with those of untreated controls. MMP-2 deficiency reduced intimal neovessel density and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Olmesartan and small-interfering RNA targeting TLR2 reduced the levels of TLR2, and MMP-2 mRNA induced angiotensin II in cultured endothelial cells. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism appears to inhibit intimal neovascularization in ApoE−/− mice, partly by reducing TLR2/TLR4-mediated inflammatory action and MMP activation, thus decreasing atherosclerotic plaque growth and increasing plaque instability.
plaque growth; angiogenesis; toll-like receptor; matrix metalloproteinases
Although increasing evidence indicates that an adipokine adiponectin exerts protective actions on heart, its effects on coronary angiogenesis following pressure overload have not been examined previously. Because disruption of angiogenesis during heart growth leads to contractile dysfunction and heart failure, we hypothesized that adiponectin modulates cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload through its ability to regulate adaptive angiogenesis.
Methods and Results
Adiponectin-knockout (APN-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to pressure overload caused by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). APN-KO mice exhibited greater cardiac hypertrophy, pulmonary congestion, left ventricular (LV) interstitial fibrosis and LV systolic dysfunction after TAC surgery compared with WT mice. APN-KO mice also displayed reduced capillary density in the myocardium after TAC, which was accompanied by a significant decrease in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Inhibition of AMPK in WT mice resulted in aggravated LV systolic function, attenuated myocardial capillary density and decreased VEGF expression in response to TAC. The adverse effects of AMPK inhibition on cardiac function and angiogenic response following TAC were diminished in APN-KO mice relative to WT mice. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated VEGF delivery reversed the TAC-induced deficiencies in cardiac microvessel formation and ventricular function observed in the APN-KO mice. In cultured cardiac myocytes, adiponectin treatment stimulated VEGF production, which was inhibited by inactivation of AMPK signaling pathway.
Adiponectin deficiency can accelerate the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure during pressure overload through disruption of AMPK-dependent angiogenic regulatory axis.
adiponectin; AMPK; cardiac angiogenesis; pressure overload; heart failure
Several growth factors are effective for salvaging myocardium and limiting infarct size in experimental studies with small animals. Their benefit in large animals and feasibility in clinical practice remains to be elucidated. We investigated the cardioprotective effect of midkine (MK) in swine subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). I/R was created by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 45 min using a percutaneous over-the-wire balloon catheter. MK protein was injected as a bolus through the catheter at the initiation of reperfusion [MK-treated (MKT) group]. Saline was injected in controls (CONT). Infarct size/area at risk (24 h after I/R) in MKT was almost five times smaller than in CONT. Echocardiography in MKT revealed a significantly higher percent wall thickening of the interventricular septum, a higher left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening, and a lower E/e′ (ratio of transmitral to annular flow) compared with CONT. LV catheterization in MKT showed a lower LV end-diastolic pressure, and a higher dP/dtmax compared with CONT. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-positive myocytes and CD45-positive cell infiltration in the peri-infarct area were significantly less in MKT than in CONT. Here, we demonstrate that a single intracoronary injection of MK protein in swine hearts at the onset of reperfusion dramatically reduces infarct size and ameliorates systolic/diastolic LV function. This beneficial effect is associated with a reduction of apoptotic and inflammatory reactions. MK application during percutaneous coronary intervention may become a promising adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes.
midkine; ischemia/reperfusion injury; intracoronary injection; acute coronary syndrome
The Gipie/GRP78 interaction serves as a molecular switch for the regulation of the apoptotic signaling pathway, which appears to contribute to the protection of endothelial cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis.
Continued exposure of endothelial cells to mechanical/shear stress elicits the unfolded protein response (UPR), which enhances intracellular homeostasis and protect cells against the accumulation of improperly folded proteins. Cells commit to apoptosis when subjected to continuous and high endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress unless homeostasis is maintained. It is unknown how endothelial cells differentially regulate the UPR. Here we show that a novel Girdin family protein, Gipie (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein [GRP78]-interacting protein induced by ER stress), is expressed in endothelial cells, where it interacts with GRP78, a master regulator of the UPR. Gipie stabilizes the interaction between GRP78 and the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1) at the ER, leading to the attenuation of IRE1-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Gipie expression is induced upon ER stress and suppresses the IRE1-JNK pathway and ER stress-induced apoptosis. Furthermore we found that Gipie expression is up-regulated in the neointima of carotid arteries after balloon injury in a rat model that is known to result in the induction of the UPR. Thus our data indicate that Gipie/GRP78 interaction controls the IRE1-JNK signaling pathway. That interaction appears to protect endothelial cells against ER stress-induced apoptosis in pathological contexts such as atherosclerosis and vascular endothelial dysfunction.
Exercise stimulates the vascular response in pathological conditions, including ischemia; however, the molecular mechanisms by which exercise improves the impaired hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)-1α–mediated response to hypoxia associated with aging are poorly understood. Here, we report that swimming training (ST) modulates the vascular response to ischemia in aged (24-month-old) mice.
Methods and Results
Aged wild-type mice (MMP-2+/+) that maintained ST (swimming 1 h/d) from day 1 after surgery were randomly assigned to 4 groups that were treated with either vehicle, LY294002, or deferoxamine for 14 days. Mice that were maintained in a sedentary condition served as controls. ST increased blood flow, capillary density, and levels of p-Akt, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, Fit-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in MMP-2+/+ mice. ST also increased the numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and their function associated with activation of HIF-1α. All of these effects were diminished by LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; enhanced by deferoxamine, an HIF-1α stabilizer; and impaired by knockout of MMP-2. Finally, bone marrow transplantation confirmed that ST enhanced endothelial progenitor cell homing to ischemic sites in aged mice.
ST can improve neovascularization in response to hypoxia via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–dependent mechanism that is mediated by the HIF-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor/MMP-2 pathway in advanced age.
exercise; angiogenesis; physiological; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; hypoxia-inducible factor 1; α subunit; aging; neovascularization; physiological
The beneficial cardiac effects of some Ca2+ channel blockers have been attributed to blood pressure reduction, but these pleiotropic effects require further investigation. We compared the effects of benidipine, which has beneficial cardiac effects, and nitrendipine, which does not, in an animal model of hypertensive diastolic heart failure (DHF).
Methods and results
Male Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet from age 7 weeks to induce hypertension and were either vehicle or orally administered benidipine (3 mg/kg daily) or nitrendipine (10 mg/kg daily) from age 10 to 18 weeks. Control rats were maintained on a low-salt diet. In vehicle-treated rats, left-ventricular (LV) fractional shortening was preserved but LV end-diastolic pressure was increased, indicative of DHF. Benidipine and nitrendipine had similar antihypertensive effects and reduced both LV weight and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Benidipine reduced LV diastolic stiffness and mortality to a greater extent than did nitrendipine. Benidipine, but not nitrendipine, also reduced lung weight. The extent of interstitial fibrosis and the abundance of mRNAs for prohypertrophic, profibrotic, or proinflammatory genes in the left ventricle were reduced by benidipine and nitrendipine. Benidipine, but not nitrendipine, increased capillary density and restored the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the left ventricle.
Benidipine reduced LV diastolic stiffness and increased survival, effects likely attributable predominantly to promotion of coronary angiogenesis rather than to attenuation of interstitial fibrosis. Benidipine may thus be more effective than purely L-type Ca2+ channel blockers in preventing hypertensive DHF.
angiogenesis; cardiac stiffness; diastolic heart failure; hypoxia-induced factor-α; L-type Ca2+ channel
The mineralocorticoid receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic cardiorenal disease. Statins improve renal remodeling and dysfunction in patients with proteinuric kidney diseases. We aimed to clarify the beneficial effects and mechanisms of action of statins in renal insufficiency.
Methods and results
Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet were treated from 12 to 20 weeks of age with vehicle, the reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor apocynin, the synthetic cathepsin inhibitor E64d, or a low or high dosage of pitavastatin (1 or 3 mg/kg daily). Rats fed a low-salt diet served as controls. Rats on the high-salt diet developed massive proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis; these changes were attenuated by both doses of pitavastatin. The amounts of mRNAs or proteins for mineralocorticoid receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, osteopontin, macrophage infiltration, and NADPH subunits (gp91phox, p22phox, and Rac1) were significantly higher in the failing kidneys of vehicle-treated rats than in the kidneys of control rats. Either dose of pitavastatin significantly attenuated these changes. These effects of pitavastatin were mimicked by those of apocynin and E64d. Pretreatment with pitavastatin and apocynin inhibited mRNA and protein of mineralocorticoid receptor induced by angiotensin II in cultured podocytes.
The beneficial effects of pitavastatin are likely attributable, at least in part, to attenuation of the mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent inflammatory mediator, matrix protein, and cathepsin expressions induced by AT1R-mediated NADPH oxidase activation in the kidneys of a salt-induced hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rat model.
hypertension; mineralocorticoid receptor; oxidative stress; renal insufficiency; salt; statin
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are the novel stem cell population induced from somatic cells. It is anticipated that iPS will be used in the expanding field of regenerative medicine. Here, we investigated whether implantation of fetal liver kinase-1 positive (Flk-1+) cells derived from iPS cells could improve angiogenesis in a mouse hind limb model of ischemia.
Flk-1+ cells were induced from iPS cells after four to five days of culture. Hind limb ischemia was surgically induced and sorted Flk-1+ cells were directly injected into ischemic hind limbs of athymic nude mice. Revascularization of the ischemic hind limb was accelerated in mice that were transplanted with Flk-1+ cells compared with control mice, which were transplanted with vehicle, as evaluated by laser Doppler blood flowmetry. Transplantation of Flk-1+ cells also increased expression of VEGF mRNA in ischemic tissue compared to controls.
Direct local implantation of iPS cell-derived Flk-1+ cells would salvage tissues from ischemia. These data indicate that iPS cells could be valuable in the therapeutic induction of angiogenesis.
The etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly complex, with both genetic and environmental factors being thought to play an important role. Although MetS has been recognized as a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), the genetic risk for MI in individuals with or without MetS has remained uncharacterized. We examined a possible association of genetic variants with MI in individuals with or without MetS separately. The study population comprised 4,424 individuals, including 1,918 individuals with MetS (903 subjects with MI and 1,015 controls) and 2,506 individuals without MetS (499 subjects with MI and 2,007 controls). The 150 polymorphisms examined in the present study were selected by genome-wide association studies of MI and ischemic stroke with the use of Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 500K Array Set. Initial screening by the Chi-square test revealed that the C→T polymorphism (rs1794429) of LRPAP1, the A→G polymorphism (rs12373237) of LAMA3 and the A→G polymorphism (rs3782257) of NCOR2 were significantly (false discovery rate of <0.05) associated with MI for individuals with MetS, and that the C→G polymorphism (rs13051704) of TFF1 was significantly related to MI for individuals without MetS. Subsequent multivariable logistic analysis with adjustment for covariates revealed that rs1794429 of LRPAP1 (recessive model; P=0.0218; odds ratio=0.71) and rs3782257 of NCOR2 (dominant model; P=0.0057; odds ratio=1.94) were significantly associated with MI among individuals with MetS, and that rs13051704 of TFF1 (additive model; P=0.0100; odds ratio=0.55) was significantly associated with MI among individuals without MetS. The genetic variants that confer susceptibility to MI differ between individuals with or without MetS. Stratification of subjects according to the presence or absence of MetS may thus be important for personalized prevention of MI based on genetic information.
genetics; polymorphism; myocardial infarction; coronary heart disease; metabolic syndrome
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting from interactions between lipids, macrophages and arterial wall cells. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in the activation of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined whether pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling using a γ-Secretase inhibitor (GSI) can reduce atherosclerotic lesion formation. Notch-related molecules were significantly increased in aortas from apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. In particular, macrophages in the plaques showed strong expression of Notch1 and a downstream transcriptional factor, Hes-1. A GSI (LY411,575, 0.2, and 1.0 mg/kg/day) or vehicle control was then administered to ApoE−/− mice fed Western diet for 8 weeks before measuring the expression of Notch-related molecules. Systemic administration of GSI suppressed Notch signaling in vivo and reduced total plaque areas and fatty streak content in the aortic sinus in a dose-dependent manner without serious adverse effects. The GSI also suppressed the migratory activity of macrophages and reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, resulting in significantly decreased macrophage infiltration in the atherosclerotic plaques. These results provided new insight into the anti-atherogenic properties of GSI in Apo E−/− mice fed Western diet.
Atherosclerosis; Inflammation; γ-Secretase inhibitor
To investigate the mechanism responsible for the increased cardiac stiffness associated with hypertensive heart failure in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats and the effects of treatment with the combination of a calcium channel blocker [azelnidipine (AZE)] and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker [olmesartan (OLM)].
DS rats fed a high-salt diet from 7 weeks of age were treated (or not) from 12 to 19 weeks of age with the vasodilator hydralazine, OLM plus AZE, or the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Rats fed a low-salt diet served as controls.
Treatment with OLM plus AZE attenuated changes in the expression of collagen isoforms and a decrease in the ratio of elastin to collagen in the left ventricle and prevented the increase in myocardial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction in DS rats in a manner independent of the hypotensive effect of these drugs. Such treatment also inhibited the expression and activation of elastolytic proteases (including cathepsins S and K and metalloproteinases-2, -9, and -12), NADPH oxidase–dependent superoxide production, and inflammatory changes in the failing myocardium. All these effects were mimicked by treatment with apocynin.
The changes in collagen isoform expression and the decrease in the elastin to collagen ratio in the failing myocardium likely account for the increase in diastolic stiffness in this model of hypertensive heart failure. Administration of angiotensin receptor and calcium channel blockers prevented these changes in a manner independent of the hypotensive effect of these drugs by inhibiting the increase in elastolytic activity induced by activation of NADPH oxidase.
cardiac stiffness; heart failure; collagen; elastin; oxidative stress; elastase
We have investigated the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a carcinogen of tobacco smoke and an agonist for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), on hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Ischemia was induced by femoral artery ligation in wild-type and AHR-null mice, and the animals were subjected to oral administration of B[a]P (125 mg/kg) once a week. Exposure to B[a]P up-regulated the expression of metallothionein in the ischemic hindlimb and markedly inhibited ischemia-induced angiogenesis in wild-type mice. The amounts of interleukin-6 and of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in the ischemic hindlimb of wild-type mice were reduced by exposure to B[a]P. These various effects of B[a]P were markedly attenuated in AHR-null mice. Our observations suggest that the loss of the inhibitory effect of B[a]P on ischemia-induced angiogenesis apparent in AHR-null mice may be attributable to maintenance of interleukin-6 expression and consequent promotion of angiogenesis through up-regulation of VEGF expression.
Angiogenesis; Hypoxia; Smoking; Benzo[a]pyrene; Peripheral vascular disease; Metallothionein; Interleukin-6
Managed ventricular pacing (MVP) and Search AV+ are representative dual-chamber pacing algorithms for minimizing ventricular pacing (VP). This randomized, crossover study aimed to examine the difference in ability to reduce percentage of VP (%VP) between these two algorithms.
Methods and results
Symptomatic bradyarrhythmia patients implanted with a pacemaker equipped with both algorithms (Adapta DR, Medtronic) were enrolled. The %VPs of the patients during two periods were compared: 1 month operation of either one of the two algorithms for each period. All patients were categorized into subgroups according to the atrioventricular block (AVB) status at baseline: no AVB (nAVB), first-degree AVB (1AVB), second-degree AVB (2AVB), episodic third-degree AVB (e3AVB), and persistent third-degree AVB (p3AVB). Data were available from 127 patients for the analysis. For all patient subgroups, except for p3AVB category, the median %VPs were lower during the MVP operation than those during the Search AV+ (nAVB: 0.2 vs. 0.8%, P < 0.0001; 1AVB: 2.3 vs. 27.4%, P = 0.001; 2AVB: 16.4% vs. 91.9%, P = 0.0052; e3AVB: 37.7% vs. 92.7%, P = 0.0003).
Managed ventricular pacing algorithm, when compared with Search AV+, offers further %VP reduction in patients implanted with a dual-chamber pacemaker, except for patients diagnosed with persistent loss of atrioventricular conduction.
Algorithm; Pacemaker; Minimizing ventricular pacing; Atrioventricular block
In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.
Coronary artery disease; percutaneous coronary intervention; myocardial injury; pharmacology.