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1.  Mobile, Cloud, and Big Data Computing: Contributions, Challenges, and New Directions in Telecardiology 
Many studies have indicated that computing technology can enable off-site cardiologists to read patients’ electrocardiograph (ECG), echocardiography (ECHO), and relevant images via smart phones during pre-hospital, in-hospital, and post-hospital teleconsultation, which not only identifies emergency cases in need of immediate treatment, but also prevents the unnecessary re-hospitalizations. Meanwhile, several studies have combined cloud computing and mobile computing to facilitate better storage, delivery, retrieval, and management of medical files for telecardiology. In the future, the aggregated ECG and images from hospitals worldwide will become big data, which should be used to develop an e-consultation program helping on-site practitioners deliver appropriate treatment. With information technology, real-time tele-consultation and tele-diagnosis of ECG and images can be practiced via an e-platform for clinical, research, and educational purposes. While being devoted to promote the application of information technology onto telecardiology, we need to resolve several issues: (1) data confidentiality in the cloud, (2) data interoperability among hospitals, and (3) network latency and accessibility. If these challenges are overcome, tele-consultation will be ubiquitous, easy to perform, inexpensive, and beneficial. Most importantly, these services will increase global collaboration and advance clinical practice, education, and scientific research in cardiology.
doi:10.3390/ijerph10116131
PMCID: PMC3863891  PMID: 24232290
mobile computing; cloud computing; telecardiology; electrocardiograph; echocardiography; medical images; big data
2.  A cloud computing based 12-lead ECG telemedicine service 
Background
Due to the great variability of 12-lead ECG instruments and medical specialists’ interpretation skills, it remains a challenge to deliver rapid and accurate 12-lead ECG reports with senior cardiologists’ decision making support in emergency telecardiology.
Methods
We create a new cloud and pervasive computing based 12-lead Electrocardiography (ECG) service to realize ubiquitous 12-lead ECG tele-diagnosis.
Results
This developed service enables ECG to be transmitted and interpreted via mobile phones. That is, tele-consultation can take place while the patient is on the ambulance, between the onsite clinicians and the off-site senior cardiologists, or among hospitals. Most importantly, this developed service is convenient, efficient, and inexpensive.
Conclusions
This cloud computing based ECG tele-consultation service expands the traditional 12-lead ECG applications onto the collaboration of clinicians at different locations or among hospitals. In short, this service can greatly improve medical service quality and efficiency, especially for patients in rural areas. This service has been evaluated and proved to be useful by cardiologists in Taiwan.
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-12-77
PMCID: PMC3461479  PMID: 22838382
ECG; Telecardiology; Cloud computing; Pervasive computing
3.  The Clinical Application of a PACS-Dependent 12-Lead ECG and Image Information System in E-Medicine and Telemedicine 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2009;23(4):501-513.
This study presents a software technology to transform paper-based 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) examination into (1) 12-lead ECG electronic diagnoses (e-diagnoses) and (2) mobile diagnoses (m-diagnoses) in emergency telemedicine. While Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-based images are commonly used in hospitals, the development of computerized 12-lead ECG is impeded by heterogeneous data formats of clinically used 12-lead ECG instrumentations, such as Standard Communications Protocol (SCP) ECG and Extensible Markup Language (XML) ECG. Additionally, there is no data link between clinically used 12-lead ECG instrumentations and mobile devices. To realize computerized 12-lead ECG examination procedures and ECG telemedicine, this study develops a DICOM-based 12-lead ECG information system capable of providing clinicians with medical images and waveform-based ECG diagnoses via Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). First, a waveform-based DICOM-ECG converter transforming clinically used SCP-ECG and XML-ECG to DICOM is applied to PACS for image- and waveform-based DICOM file manipulation. Second, a mobile Structured Query Language database communicating with PACS is installed in physicians’ mobile phones so that they can retrieve images and waveform-based ECG ubiquitously. Clinical evaluations of this system indicated the following. First, this developed PACS-dependent 12-lead ECG information system improves 12-lead ECG management and interoperability. Second, this system enables the remote physicians to perform ubiquitous 12-lead ECG and image diagnoses, which enhances the efficiency of emergency telemedicine. These findings prove the effectiveness and usefulness of the PACS-dependent 12-lead ECG information system, which can be easily adopted in telemedicine.
doi:10.1007/s10278-009-9231-7
PMCID: PMC3046657  PMID: 19711129
ECG; DICOM; PACS; telemedicine

Results 1-3 (3)