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1.  Applying Theory to Understand and Modify Nurse Intention to Adhere to Recommendations regarding the Use of Filter Needles: An Intervention Mapping Approach 
Nursing Research and Practice  2014;2014:356153.
The manipulation of glass ampoules involves risk of particle contamination of parenteral medication, and the use of filter needles has often been recommended in order to reduce the number of particles in these solutions. This study aims to develop a theory-based intervention to increase nurse intention to use filter needles according to clinical guideline recommendations produced by a large university medical centre in Quebec (Canada). Using the Intervention Mapping framework, we first identified the psychosocial determinants of nurse intention to use filter needles according to these recommendations. Second, we developed and implemented an intervention targeting nurses from five care units in order to increase their intention to adhere to recommendations on the use of filter needles. We also assessed nurse satisfaction with the intervention. In total, 270 nurses received the intervention and 169 completed the posttest questionnaire. The two determinants of intention, that is, attitude and perceived behavioral control, were significantly higher after the intervention, but only perceived behavioral control remained a predictor of intention. In general, nurses were highly satisfied with the intervention. This study provides support for the use of Intervention Mapping to develop, implement, and evaluate theory-based interventions in order to improve healthcare professional adherence to clinical recommendations.
doi:10.1155/2014/356153
PMCID: PMC4121269  PMID: 25120927
2.  A Systematic Review of the Key Indicators for Assessing Telehomecare Cost-Effectiveness 
Telehomecare is considered one of the most successful applications of telehealth. However, despite increasing evidence of telehomecare benefits, the diffusion of these services is still limited. Decision-makers need strong evidence in order to expand the development of telehomecare to various populations, regions, and health conditions. The objective of this review is to provide a basis for decision-making by identifying common indicators from the literature on telehomecare. A comprehensive review of the literature on the cost-effectiveness of telehomecare was conducted in specialized bibliographic databases. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. First, selected studies were analyzed to identify and classify the indicators that better addressed the cost-effectiveness impacts of telehomecare projects. Then, a synthesis of the evidence was done by exploring the relative cost-effectiveness of telehomecare applications. The analyses show that there is fair evidence of cost-effectiveness for many telehomecare applications. However, the heterogeneity among cost-effectiveness indicators in the applications reviewed and the methodological limitations of the studies impede the possibility of generalizing the findings. This suggests the need for a set of common indicators that could be applied for assessing the cost-effectiveness of telehomecare projects. This review provides knowledge on the indicators available for assessing cost-effectiveness in telehomecare projects. It appears that the specific context in which the projects take place, meaning different patients, environments, technologies, and healthcare systems, should be taken into account when selecting indicators for assessing telehomecare cost-effectiveness.
doi:10.1089/tmj.2008.0009
PMCID: PMC4005790  PMID: 19035798 CAMSID: cams378
telehomecare; cost-effectiveness; literature review
3.  Interventions for promoting information and communication technologies adoption in healthcare professionals 
Background
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are defined as digital and analogue technologies that facilitate the capturing, processing, storage and exchange of information via electronic communication. ICTs have the potential to improve information management, access to health services, quality of care, continuity of services, and cost containment. Knowledge is lacking on conditions for successful ICT integration into practice.
Objectives
To carry out a systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to promote the adoption of ICT by healthcare professionals.
Search methods
Specific strategies, defined with the help of an information specialist, were used to search the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register and additional relevant databases. We considered studies published from January 1990 until October 2007.
Selection criteria
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before/after studies (CBAs), and interrupted time series (ITS) that reported objectively measured outcomes concerning the effect of interventions to promote adoption of ICT in healthcare professionals’ practices.
Data collection and analysis
Two reviewers independently assessed each potentially relevant study for inclusion. We resolved discrepancies by discussion or a third reviewer. Two teams of two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. A meta-analysis of study outcomes was not possible, given the small number of included studies and the heterogeneity of intervention and outcomes measures. We conducted qualitative analyses, and have presented the results in a narrative format.
Main results
Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine of them were RCTs. All studies involved physicians as participants (including postgraduate trainees), and one study also included other participants. Only two studies measured patient outcomes. Searching skills and/or frequency of use of electronic databases, mainly MEDLINE, were targeted in eight studies. Use of Internet for audit and feedback, and email for provider-patient communication, were targeted in two studies. Four studies showed small to moderate positive effects of the intervention on ICT adoption. Four studies were unable to demonstrate significant positive effects, and the two others showed mixed effects. No studies looked at the long-term effect or sustainability of the intervention.
Authors’ conclusions
There is very limited evidence on effective interventions promoting the adoption of ICTs by healthcare professionals. Small effects have been reported for interventions targeting the use of electronic databases and digital libraries. The effectiveness of interventions to promote ICT adoption in healthcare settings remains uncertain, and more well designed trials are needed.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006093.pub2
PMCID: PMC3973635  PMID: 19160265 CAMSID: cams377
Databases, Bibliographic [utilization]; Health Personnel [*statistics & numerical data]; Information Storage and Retrieval [*utilization]; Professional Practice [*statistics & numerical data]; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.  E-Health, another mechanism to recruit and retain healthcare professionals in remote areas: lessons learned from EQUI-ResHuS project in Mali 
Background
The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceived influence of telehealth on recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals in remote areas in Mali.
Methods
After 15 months of diagnosis imaging training and telehealth activities at four project sites in remote Mali, between May 2011 and August 2012, a 75-item questionnaire was administered to healthcare professionals to assess the various factors related to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), especially telehealth, and their influence on health personnel recruitment and retention. Questions assessing perceived impact of telehealth on recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals were rated on a five-point Likert scale. Dependent variables were perceived influence of ICT on recruitment and retention and independent variables were access to ICT, ICT training, ICT use, perceived benefits and drawbacks of telehealth, and perceived barriers to recruitment and retention. A multiple linear regression was performed to identify variables explaining the respondents’ perceptions regarding telehealth influence on recruitment and retention.
Results
Data analysis showed that professionals in remote areas have very positive perceptions of telehealth in general. Many benefits of telehealth for recruitment and retention were highlighted, with perceived benefits of ICT (p = 0.0478), perceived effects of telehealth on recruitment (p = 0.0018), telehealth training (0.0338) and information on telehealth (0.0073) being the strongest motivators for recruitment, while the perceived effects of telehealth on retention (p = 0.0018) was the only factor significantly associated with retention.
Conclusions
Based on our study results, telehealth could represent a mechanism for recruiting and retaining health professionals in remote areas and could reduce the isolation of these professionals through networking opportunities.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12911-014-0120-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12911-014-0120-8
PMCID: PMC4305223  PMID: 25539841
5.  A Systematic Review of Instruments to Assess Organizational Readiness for Knowledge Translation in Health Care 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114338.
Background
The translation of research into practices has been incomplete. Organizational readiness for change (ORC) is a potential facilitator of effective knowledge translation (KT). However we know little about the best way to assess ORC. Therefore, we sought to systematically review ORC measurement instruments.
Methods
We searched for published studies in bibliographic databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, etc.) up to November 1st, 2012. We included publications that developed ORC measures and/or empirically assessed ORC using an instrument at the organizational level in the health care context. We excluded articles if they did not refer specifically to ORC, did not concern the health care domain or were limited to individual-level change readiness. We focused on identifying the psychometric properties of instruments that were developed to assess readiness in an organization prior to implementing KT interventions in health care. We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to assess the psychometric properties of identified ORC measurement instruments.
Findings
We found 26 eligible instruments described in 39 publications. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 18 (69%) of a total of 26 measurement instruments presented both validity and reliability criteria. The Texas Christian University –ORC (TCU-ORC) scale reported the highest instrument validity with a score of 4 out of 4. Only one instrument, namely the Modified Texas Christian University – Director version (TCU-ORC-D), reported a reliability score of 2 out of 3. No information was provided regarding the reliability and validity of five (19%) instruments.
Conclusion
Our findings indicate that there are few valid and reliable ORC measurement instruments that could be applied to KT in the health care sector. The TCU-ORC instrument presents the best evidence in terms of validity testing. Future studies using this instrument could provide more knowledge on its relevance to diverse clinical contexts.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114338
PMCID: PMC4256226  PMID: 25474622
6.  Organizational readiness for knowledge translation in chronic care: a Delphi study 
Background
Health-care organizations need to be ready prior to implement evidence-based interventions. In this study, we sought to achieve consensus on a framework to assess the readiness of health-care organizations to implement evidence-based interventions in the context of chronic care.
Methods
We conducted a web-based modified Delphi study between March and May 2013. We contacted 76 potentially eligible international experts working in the fields of organizational readiness (OR), knowledge translation (KT), and chronic care to comment upon the 76 elements resulting from our proposed conceptual map. This conceptual map was based on a systematic review of the existing frameworks of Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) in health-care. We developed a conceptual map that proposed a set of core concepts and their associated 17 dimensions and 59 sub-dimensions. Experts rated their agreement concerning the applicability and importance of ORC elements on a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 indicates total disagreement and 5 indicates total agreement. Two rounds were needed to get a consensus from the experts. Consensus was a priori defined as strong (≥75%) or moderate (60-74%). Simple descriptive statistics was used.
Results
In total, 14 participants completed the first round and 10 completed the two rounds. Panel members reached consensus on the applicability and importance of 6 out of 17 dimensions and 28 out of 59 sub-dimensions to assess OR for KT in the context of chronic care. A strong level of consensus (≥75%) was attained on the Organizational contextual factors, Leadership/participation, Organizational support, and Motivation dimensions. The Organizational climate for change and Change content dimensions reached a moderate consensus (60-74%). Experts also reached consensus on 28 out of 59 sub-dimensions to assess OR for KT. Twenty-one sub-dimensions reached a strong consensus (≥75%) and seven a moderate consensus (60-74%).
Conclusion
This study results provided the most important and applicable dimensions and sub-dimensions for assessing OR-KT in the context of chronic care. They can be used to guide the design of an assessment tool to improve knowledge translation in the field of chronic care.
doi:10.1186/s12913-014-0534-0
PMCID: PMC4226850  PMID: 25380653
Organizational readiness; Delphi study; Knowledge translation; Chronic care; Measurement
7.  Effects and repercussions of local/hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA): a systematic review 
Systematic Reviews  2014;3:129.
Background
Health technology assessment (HTA) is increasingly performed at the local or hospital level where the costs, impacts, and benefits of health technologies can be directly assessed. Although local/hospital-based HTA has been implemented for more than two decades in some jurisdictions, little is known about its effects and impact on hospital budget, clinical practices, and patient outcomes. We conducted a mixed-methods systematic review that aimed to synthesize current evidence regarding the effects and impact of local/hospital-based HTA.
Methods
We identified articles through PubMed and Embase and by citation tracking of included studies. We selected qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods studies with empirical data about the effects or impact of local/hospital-based HTA on decision-making, budget, or perceptions of stakeholders. We extracted the following information from included studies: country, methodological approach, and use of conceptual framework; local/hospital HTA approach and activities described; reported effects and impacts of local/hospital-based HTA; factors facilitating/hampering the use of hospital-based HTA recommendations; and perceptions of stakeholders concerning local/hospital HTA. Due to the great heterogeneity among studies, we conducted a narrative synthesis of their results.
Results
A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. We reported the results according to the four approaches for performing HTA proposed by the Hospital Based HTA Interest Sub-Group: ambassador model, mini-HTA, internal committee, and HTA unit. Results showed that each of these approaches for performing HTA corresponds to specific needs and structures and has its strengths and limitations. Overall, studies showed positive impacts related to local/hospital-based HTA on hospital decisions and budgets, as well as positive perceptions from managers and clinicians.
Conclusions
Local/hospital-based HTA could influence decision-making on several aspects. It is difficult to evaluate the real impacts of local HTA at the different levels of health care given the relatively small number of evaluations with quantitative data and the lack of clear comparators. Further research is necessary to explore the conditions under which local/hospital-based HTA results and recommendations can impact hospital policies, clinical decisions, and quality of care and optimize the use of scarce resources.
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-129
PMCID: PMC4218945  PMID: 25352182
Health technology assessment; Local/hospital-based HTA; Impact of HTA activities; Hospital budget; Perceptions of stakeholders; HTA units; Internal committee; Mini-HTA; Ambassador model
8.  A cross-sectional survey of supports for evidence-informed decision-making in healthcare organisations: a research protocol 
Background
This protocol builds on the development of a) a framework that identified the various supports (i.e. positions, activities, interventions) that a healthcare organisation or health system can implement for evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) and b) a qualitative study that showed the current mix of supports that some Canadian healthcare organisations have in place and the ones that are perceived to facilitate the use of research evidence in decision-making. Based on these findings, we developed a web survey to collect cross-sectional data about the specific supports that regional health authorities and hospitals in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Quebec) have in place to facilitate EIDM.
Methods/design
This paper describes the methods for a cross-sectional web survey among 32 regional health authorities and 253 hospitals in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario (Canada) to collect data on the current mix of organisational supports that these organisations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. The data will be obtained through a two-step survey design: a 10-min survey among CEOs to identify key units and individuals in regard to our objectives (step 1) and a 20-min survey among managers of the key units identified in step 1 to collect information about the activities performed by their unit regarding the acquisition, assessment, adaptation and/or dissemination of research evidence in decision-making (step 2). The study will target three types of informants: CEOs, library/documentation centre managers and all other key managers whose unit is involved in the acquisition, assessment, adaptation/packaging and/or dissemination of research evidence in decision-making. We developed an innovative data collection system to increase the likelihood that only the best-informed respondent available answers each survey question. The reporting of the results will be done using descriptive statistics of supports by organisation type and by province.
Discussion
This study will be the first to collect and report large-scale cross-sectional data on the current mix of supports health system organisations in the two most populous Canadian provinces have in place for evidence-informed decision-making. The study will also provide useful information to researchers on how to collect organisation-level data with reduced risk of self-reporting bias.
doi:10.1186/s13012-014-0146-4
PMCID: PMC4197221  PMID: 25294109
Health systems; Knowledge translation; Research evidence; Cross-sectional study
9.  Using a Modified Technology Acceptance Model to Evaluate Healthcare Professionals' Adoption of a New Telemonitoring System 
Abstract
Objective: To examine the factors that could influence the decision of healthcare professionals to use a telemonitoring system. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire, based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), was developed. A panel of experts in technology assessment evaluated the face and content validity of the instrument. Two hundred and thirty-four questionnaires were distributed among nurses and doctors of the cardiology, pulmonology, and internal medicine departments of a tertiary hospital. Cronbach alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency of the questionnaire items. Construct validity was evaluated using interitem correlation analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the theoretical model. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Results: A response rate of 39.7% was achieved. With the exception of one theoretical construct (Habit) that corresponds to behaviors that become automatized, Cronbach alpha values were acceptably high for the remaining constructs. Theoretical variables were well correlated with each other and with the dependent variable. The original TAM was good at predicting telemonitoring usage intention, Perceived Usefulness being the only significant predictor (OR: 5.28, 95% CI: 2.12–13.11). The model was still significant and more powerful when the other theoretical variables were added. However, the only significant predictor in the modified model was Facilitators (OR: 4.96, 95% CI: 1.59–15.55). Conclusion: The TAM is a good predictive model of healthcare professionals' intention to use telemonitoring. However, the perception of facilitators is the most important variable to consider for increasing doctors' and nurses' intention to use the new technology.
doi:10.1089/tmj.2011.0066
PMCID: PMC3270047  PMID: 22082108
home health monitoring; telemedicine; telehealth
10.  Development and Validation of Questionnaires Exploring Health Care Professionals' Intention to Use Wiki-Based Reminders to Promote Best Practices in Trauma 
JMIR Research Protocols  2014;3(4):e50.
Background
Little is known about factors influencing professionals’ use of wikis.
Objective
We developed and validated two questionnaires to assess health care professionals’ intention to use wiki-based reminders for the management of trauma patients.
Methods
We developed questionnaires for emergency physicians (EPs) and allied health professions (AHPs) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and adapted them to the salient beliefs of each, identified in an earlier study. Items measured demographics and direct and indirect theoretical constructs. We piloted the questionnaires with 2 focus groups (5 EPs and 5 AHPs) to identify problems of wording and length. Based on feedback, we adjusted the wording and combined certain items. A new convenience sample of 25 EPs and 26 AHPs then performed a test-retest of the questionnaires at a 2-week interval. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach alpha coefficients and temporal stability of items with an agreement intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
Results
Five EPs and 5 AHPs (3 nurses, 1 respiratory therapist, and 1 pharmacist) formed 2 focus groups; 25 EPs and 26 AHPs (12 nurses, 7 respiratory therapists, and 7 pharmacists) completed the test and retest. The EP questionnaire test-retest scores for consistency (Cronbach alpha) and stability (ICC) were intention (test: Cronbach alpha=.94; retest: Cronbach alpha=.98; ICC=.89), attitude (.74, .72, .70), subjective norm (.79, .78, .75), perceived behavioral control (.67, .65, .66), attitudinal beliefs (.94, .86, .60), normative beliefs (.83, .87, .79), and control beliefs barriers (.58, .67, .78) and facilitators (.97, .85, .30). The AHP questionnaire scores for consistency and stability were: intention (test Cronbach alpha=.69, retest Cronbach alpha=.81, ICC=.48), attitude (.85, .87, .83), subjective norm (.47, .82, .62), perceived behavioral control (.55, .62, .60), attitudinal beliefs (.92, .91, .82), normative beliefs (.85, .90, .74), and control beliefs barriers (.58, .55, .66) and facilitators (.72, .94, –.05). To improve the psychometric properties of both questionnaires, we reformulated poorly consistent or unstable items.
Conclusions
Our new theory-based questionnaires to measure health care professionals’ intention to use wiki-based reminders have adequate validity and reliability for use in large surveys. In the long run, they can be used to develop a theory-based implementation intervention for a wiki promoting best practices in trauma care.
doi:10.2196/resprot.3762
PMCID: PMC4213801  PMID: 25281856
knowledge translation; wiki; collaborative writing applications; decision support tools; health informatics; Theory of Planned Behavior; trauma care; traumatic brain injury; interprofessional collaboration
11.  A qualitative study on clinicians’ perceptions about the implementation of a population risk stratification tool in primary care practice of the Basque Health Service 
BMC Family Practice  2014;15(1):150.
Background
A prospective Population Risk Stratification (PRS) tool was first introduced in the public Basque Health Service in 2011, at the level of its several Primary Care (PC) practices. This paper aims at exploring the new tool’s implementation process, as experienced by its potential adopters/users, ie. PC clinicians (doctors and nurses). Findings could help guide future PRS implementation strategies.
Methods
Three focus groups exploring clinicians’ opinions and experiences related to the PRS tool and its implementation in their daily practice were conducted. A purposive sample of 12 General Practitioners and 11 PC nurses participated in the groups. Discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using thematic analysis based on Graham et al.’s Knowledge Translation Theory.
Results
Exploring PC clinicians’ experience with the new PRS tool, allowed us to identify certain elements working as barriers and facilitators in its implementation process. This series of closely interrelated elements, which emerged as relevant in building up the complex implementation process of the new tool, as experienced by the clinicians, can be grouped into four domains: 1) clinicians’ characteristics as potential adopters, 2) clinicians’ perceptions of their practice settings where PRS is to implemented, 3) clinicians’ perceptions of the tool, and 4) the implementation strategy used by the PRS promoter.
Conclusions
Lessons from the implementation process under study point at the need to frame the implementation of a new PRS tool within a wider strategy encouraging PC clinicians to orientate their daily practice towards a population health approach. The PRS tool could also improve the perceived utility by its potential adopters, by bringing it closer to the clinicians’ needs and practice, and allowing it to become context-sensitive. This would require clinicians being involved from the earliest phases of conceptualisation, design and implementation of the new tool, and mounting efforts to improve communication between clinicians and tool promoters.
Graham et al.’s Knowledge Translation Theory proved a suitable framework to explore the implementation process of a new PRS tool in the public Basque Health Service’s PC practice, and hence to identify implementation barriers and facilitators as experienced by the clinicians.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-150) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-150
PMCID: PMC4165939  PMID: 25200276
Stratification; Population health management; Primary care; Implementation; Knowledge translation; Predictive risk models
12.  Online training course on critical appraisal for nurses: adaptation and assessment 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:136.
Background
Research is an essential activity for improving quality and efficiency in healthcare. The objective of this study was to train nurses from the public Basque Health Service (Osakidetza) in critical appraisal, promoting continuous training and the use of research in clinical practice.
Methods
This was a prospective pre-post test study. The InfoCritique course on critical appraisal was translated and adapted. A sample of 50 nurses and 3 tutors was recruited. Educational strategies and assessment instruments were established for the course. A course website was created that contained contact details of the teaching team and coordinator, as well as a course handbook and videos introducing the course. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course, in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquired and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course.
Results
Of the 50 health professionals recruited, 3 did not complete the course for personal or work-related reasons. The mean score on the pre-course knowledge questionnaire was 70.5 out of 100, with a standard deviation of 11.96. In general, participants’ performance on the knowledge questionnaire improved after the course, as reflected in the notable increase of the mean score, to 86.6, with a standard deviation of 10.00. Further, analyses confirmed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-course results (p < 0.001). With regard to self-learning readiness, after the course, participants reported a greater readiness and ability for self-directed learning. Lastly, in terms of level of satisfaction with the course, the mean score was 7 out of 10.
Conclusions
Participants significantly improved their knowledge score and self-directed learning readiness after the educational intervention, and they were overall satisfied with the course. For the health system and nursing professionals, this type of course has the potential to provide methodological tools for research, promote a research culture, and encourage critical thinking for evidence-based decision making.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-136
PMCID: PMC4107575  PMID: 24996951
Evidence-based practice; Critical appraisal; Nursing; E-learning
13.  Involving patient in the early stages of health technology assessment (HTA): a study protocol 
Background
Public and patient involvement in the different stages of the health technology assessment (HTA) process is increasingly encouraged. The selection of topics for assessment, which includes identifying and prioritizing HTA questions, is a constant challenge for HTA agencies because the number of technologies requiring an assessment exceeds the resources available. Public and patient involvement in these early stages of HTA could make assessments more relevant and acceptable to them. Involving them in the development of the assessment plan is also crucial to optimize their influence and impact on HTA research. The project objectives are: 1) setting up interventions to promote patient participation in three stages of the HTA process: identification of HTA topics, prioritization, and development of the assessment plan of the topic prioritized; and 2) assessing the impact of patient participation on the relevance of the topics suggested, the prioritization process, and the assessment plan from the point of view of patients and other groups involved in HTA.
Methods
Patients and their representatives living in the catchment area of the HTA Roundtable of Université Laval’s Integrated University Health Network (covering six health regions of the Province of Quebec, Canada) will be involved in the following HTA activities: 1) identification of potential HTA topics in the field of cancer; 2) revision of vignettes developed to inform the prioritization of topics; 3) participation in deliberation sessions for prioritizing HTA topics; and 4) development of the assessment plan of the topic prioritized. The research team will coordinate the implementation of these activities and will evaluate the process and outcomes of patient involvement through semi-structured interviews with representatives of the different stakeholder groups, structured observations, and document analysis, mainly involving the comparison of votes and topics suggested by various stakeholder groups.
Discussion
This project is designed as an integrated approach to knowledge translation and will be conducted through a close collaboration between researchers and knowledge users at all stages of the project. In response to the needs expressed by HTA producers, the knowledge produced will be directly useful in guiding practices regarding patient involvement in the early phases of HTA.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-273
PMCID: PMC4072844  PMID: 24950739
Public and patient participation; Research priorities; Health technology assessment; Public involvement; Knowledge translation
14.  Systematic Review of Factors Influencing the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies by Healthcare Professionals 
Journal of medical systems  2010;36(1):241-277.
This systematic review of mixed methods studies focuses on factors that can facilitate or limit the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in clinical settings. Systematic searches of relevant bibliographic databases identified studies about interventions promoting ICT adoption by healthcare professionals. Content analysis was performed by two reviewers using a specific grid. One hundred and one (101) studies were included in the review. Perception of the benefits of the innovation (system usefulness) was the most common facilitating factor, followed by ease of use. Issues regarding design, technical concerns, familiarity with ICT, and time were the most frequent limiting factors identified. Our results suggest strategies that could effectively promote the successful adoption of ICT in healthcare professional practices.
doi:10.1007/s10916-010-9473-4
PMCID: PMC4011799  PMID: 20703721 CAMSID: cams382
Systematic review; Adoption factors; Information and communication technologies (ICTs); ICT adoption by healthcare professionals
15.  Evaluation of the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of two methods of involving patients with disability in developing clinical guidelines: study protocol of a randomized pragmatic pilot trial 
Trials  2014;15:118.
Background
Despite growing interest in the importance of, and challenges associated with the involvement of patient and population (IPP) in the process of developing and adapting clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), there is a lack of knowledge about the best method to use. This is especially problematic in the field of rehabilitation, where individuals with disabilities might face many barriers to their involvement in the guideline development and adaptation process. The goal of this pilot trial is to document the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of two methods of involving patients with a disability (traumatic brain injury) in CPG development.
Methods/Design
A single-blind, randomized, crossover pragmatic trial will be performed with 20 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). They will be randomized into two groups, and each will try two alternative methods of producing recommendations; a discussion group (control intervention) and a Wiki, a webpage that can be modified by those who have access to it (experimental intervention). The participants will rate the acceptability of the two methods, and feasibility will be assessed using indicators such as the number of participants who accessed and completed the two methods, and the number of support interventions required. Twenty experts, blinded to the method of producing the recommendations, will independently rate the recommendations produced by the participants for clarity, accuracy, appropriateness and usefulness.
Discussion
Our trial will allow for the use of optimal IPP methods in a larger project of adapting guidelines for the rehabilitation of individuals with TBI. Ultimately the results will inform the science of CPG development and contribute to the growing knowledge about IPP in rehabilitation settings.
Trial registration
Clinical trial KT Canada 87776.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-118
PMCID: PMC4022363  PMID: 24721114
Clinical practice guideline; Brain injury; Patient and population participation; Adaptation; Disabilities
16.  Organizational readiness for knowledge translation in chronic care: a review of theoretical components 
Background
With the persistent gaps between research and practice in healthcare systems, knowledge translation (KT) has gained significance and importance. Also, in most industrialized countries, there is an increasing emphasis on managing chronic health conditions with the best available evidence. Yet, organizations aiming to improve chronic care (CC) require an adequate level of organizational readiness (OR) for KT.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize the existing evidence on conceptual models/frameworks of Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) in healthcare as the basis for the development of a comprehensive framework of OR for KT in the context of CC.
Data sources
We conducted a systematic review of the literature on OR for KT in CC using Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Sciences (SCI and SSCI), and others. Search terms included readiness; commitment and change; preparedness; willing to change; organization and administration; and health and social services.
Study selection: The search was limited to studies that had been published between the starting date of each bibliographic database (e.g., 1964 for PubMed) and November 1, 2012. Only papers that refer to a theory, a theoretical component from any framework or model on OR that were applicable to the healthcare domain were considered. We analyzed data using conceptual mapping.
Data extraction: Pairs of authors independently screened the published literature by reviewing their titles and abstracts. Then, the two same reviewers appraised the full text of each study independently.
Results
Overall, we found and synthesized 10 theories, theoretical models and conceptual frameworks relevant to ORC in healthcare described in 38 publications. We identified five core concepts, namely organizational dynamics, change process, innovation readiness, institutional readiness, and personal readiness. We extracted 17 dimensions and 59 sub-dimensions related to these 5 concepts.
Conclusion
Our findings provide a useful overview for researchers interested in ORC and aims to create a consensus on the core theoretical components of ORC in general and of OR for KT in CC in particular. However, more work is needed to define and validate the core elements of a framework that could help to assess OR for KT in CC.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-8-138
PMCID: PMC4222028  PMID: 24283365
Organizational readiness; Conceptual models; Frameworks; Knowledge translation; Chronic care; Healthcare system
17.  Wikis and Collaborative Writing Applications in Health Care: A Scoping Review 
Background
Collaborative writing applications (eg, wikis and Google Documents) hold the potential to improve the use of evidence in both public health and health care. The rapid rise in their use has created the need for a systematic synthesis of the evidence of their impact as knowledge translation (KT) tools in the health care sector and for an inventory of the factors that affect their use.
Objective
Through the Levac six-stage methodology, a scoping review was undertaken to explore the depth and breadth of evidence about the effective, safe, and ethical use of wikis and collaborative writing applications (CWAs) in health care.
Methods
Multiple strategies were used to locate studies. Seven scientific databases and 6 grey literature sources were queried for articles on wikis and CWAs published between 2001 and September 16, 2011. In total, 4436 citations and 1921 grey literature items were screened. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, selected eligible studies, and extracted data using a standardized form. We included any paper presenting qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence concerning health care and CWAs. We defined a CWA as any technology that enables the joint and simultaneous editing of a webpage or an online document by many end users. We performed qualitative content analysis to identify the factors that affect the use of CWAs using the Gagnon framework and their effects on health care using the Donabedian framework.
Results
Of the 111 studies included, 4 were experimental, 5 quasi-experimental, 5 observational, 52 case studies, 23 surveys about wiki use, and 22 descriptive studies about the quality of information in wikis. We classified them by theme: patterns of use of CWAs (n=26), quality of information in existing CWAs (n=25), and CWAs as KT tools (n=73). A high prevalence of CWA use (ie, more than 50%) is reported in 58% (7/12) of surveys conducted with health care professionals and students. However, we found only one longitudinal study showing that CWA use is increasing in health care. Moreover, contribution rates remain low and the quality of information contained in different CWAs needs improvement. We identified 48 barriers and 91 facilitators in 4 major themes (factors related to the CWA, users’ knowledge and attitude towards CWAs, human environment, and organizational environment). We also found 57 positive and 23 negative effects that we classified into processes and outcomes.
Conclusions
Although we found some experimental and quasi-experimental studies of the effectiveness and safety of CWAs as educational and KT interventions, the vast majority of included studies were observational case studies about CWAs being used by health professionals and patients. More primary research is needed to find ways to address the different barriers to their use and to make these applications more useful for different stakeholders.
doi:10.2196/jmir.2787
PMCID: PMC3929050  PMID: 24103318
collaborative writing applications; collaborative authoring; knowledge management; crowdsourcing; medical informatics; ehealth; Internet; Wiki; Wikipedia; Google Docs; Google Knol; Web 2.0; knowledge translation; evidence-based medicine; participatory med
19.  Interventions for supporting nurse retention in rural and remote areas: an umbrella review 
Context
Retention of nursing staff is a growing concern in many countries, especially in rural, remote or isolated regions, where it has major consequences on the accessibility of health services.
Purpose
This umbrella review aims to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to promote nurse retention in rural or remote areas, and to present a taxonomy of potential strategies to improve nurse retention in those regions.
Methods
We conducted an overview of systematic reviews, including the following steps: exploring scientific literature through predetermined criteria and extracting relevant information by two independents reviewers. We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria in order to assess the quality of the reports.
Findings
Of 517 screened publications, we included five reviews. Two reviews showed that financial-incentive programs have substantial evidence to improve the distribution of human resources for health. The other three reviews highlighted supportive relationships in nursing, information and communication technologies support and rural health career pathways as factors influencing nurse retention in rural and remote areas. Overall, the quality of the reviews was acceptable.
Conclusions
This overview provides a guide to orient future rural and remote nurse retention interventions. We distinguish four broad types of interventions: education and continuous professional development interventions, regulatory interventions, financial incentives, and personal and professional support. More knowledge is needed regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies to address the factors known to contribute to nurse retention in rural and remote areas. In order to ensure knowledge translation, retention strategies should be rigorously evaluated using appropriate designs.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-11-44
PMCID: PMC3847170  PMID: 24025429
Nurse shortage; Nurse retention; Rural retention; Rural health services; Umbrella review
20.  Assessing availability of scientific journals, databases, and health library services in Canadian health ministries: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Evidence-informed health policymaking logically depends on timely access to research evidence. To our knowledge, despite the substantial political and societal pressure to enhance the use of the best available research evidence in public health policy and program decision making, there is no study addressing availability of peer-reviewed research in Canadian health ministries.
Objectives
To assess availability of (1) a purposive sample of high-ranking scientific journals, (2) bibliographic databases, and (3) health library services in the fourteen Canadian health ministries.
Methods
From May to October 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among librarians employed by Canadian health ministries to collect information relative to availability of scientific journals, bibliographic databases, and health library services. Availability of scientific journals in each ministry was determined using a sample of 48 journals selected from the 2009 Journal Citation Reports (Sciences and Social Sciences Editions). Selection criteria were: relevance for health policy based on scope note information about subject categories and journal popularity based on impact factors.
Results
We found that the majority of Canadian health ministries did not have subscription access to key journals and relied heavily on interlibrary loans. Overall, based on a sample of high-ranking scientific journals, availability of journals through interlibrary loans, online and print-only subscriptions was estimated at 63%, 28% and 3%, respectively. Health Canada had a 2.3-fold higher number of journal subscriptions than that of the provincial ministries’ average. Most of the organisations provided access to numerous discipline-specific and multidisciplinary databases. Many organisations provided access to the library resources described through library partnerships or consortia. No professionally led health library environment was found in four out of fourteen Canadian health ministries (i.e. Manitoba Health, Northwest Territories Department of Health and Social Services, Nunavut Department of Health and Social Services and Yukon Department of Health and Social Services).
Conclusions
There is inequity in availability of peer-reviewed research in the fourteen Canadian health ministries. This inequity could present a problem, as each province and territory is responsible for formulating and implementing evidence-informed health policies and services for the benefit of its population.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-8-34
PMCID: PMC3616812  PMID: 23514333
Health care; Information science; Library science; Knowledge transfer; Research evidence
21.  Healthcare professional acceptance of telemonitoring for chronic care patients in primary care 
Background
A pilot experimentation of a telemonitoring system for chronic care patients is conducted in the Bilbao Primary Care Health Region (Basque Country, Spain). It seems important to understand the factors related to healthcare professionals’ acceptance of this new technology in order to inform its extension to the whole healthcare system.
This study aims to examine the psychosocial factors related to telemonitoring acceptance among healthcare professionals and to apply a theory-based instrument.
Methods
A validated questionnaire, based on an extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), was distributed to a total of 605 nurses, general practitioners and paediatricians. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the theoretical model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed.
Results
A response rate of 44.3% was achieved. The original TAM model was good at predicting intention to use the telemonitoring system. However, the extended model, that included other theoretical variables, was more powerful. Perceived Usefulness, Compatibility, and Facilitators were the significant predictors of intention. A detailed analysis showed that intention to use telemonitoring was best predicted by healthcare professionals’ beliefs that they would obtain adequate training and technical support and that telemonitoring would require important changes in their practice.
Conclusion
The extended TAM explained a significant portion of the variance in healthcare professionals' intention to use a telemonitoring system for chronic care patients in primary care. The perception of facilitators in the organisational context is the most important variable to consider for increasing healthcare professionals’ intention to use the new technology.
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-12-139
PMCID: PMC3520721  PMID: 23194420
Telemonitoring; Chronic care patients; Healthcare professional; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Primary care; Basque country; Psychosocial factors
22.  Exploring Nurses’ Intention to Use a Computerized Platform in the Resuscitation Unit: Development and Validation of a Questionnaire Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior 
Background
In emergency department resuscitation units, writing down information related to interventions, physical examination, vital signs, investigations, and treatments ordered is a crucial task carried out by nurses. To facilitate this task, a team composed of emergency physicians, nurses, and one computer engineer created a novel electronic platform equipped with a tactile screen that allows systematic collection of critical data. This electronic platform also has medical software (ReaScribe+) that functions as an electronic medical record and a clinical decision support system.
Objective
To develop and validate a questionnaire that can help evaluate nurses’ intention to use a novel computerized platform in an emergency department resuscitation unit, based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (TPB).
Methods
The sample for this study was composed of 87 nurses who worked in the resuscitation unit of a tertiary trauma center. We held three focus groups with nurses working in the resuscitation unit to identify the salient modal beliefs regarding their intended use of a new electronic medical charting system for the care of trauma patients. The system included a clinical decision support tool. We developed a questionnaire in which salient modal beliefs were used as items to evaluate the TPB constructs. We also added 13 questions to evaluate nurses’ computer literacy. The final questionnaire was composed of 46 questions to be answered on a 7-point Likert scale. All nurses in the resuscitation unit and present during a regular work shift were individually contacted by the principal investigator or a research assistant (phase 1). A subsample of the nurses who completed the questionnaire was invited to complete it a second time 2 weeks later (phase 2).
Results
In phase 1, we received 62 of the 70 questionnaires administered (89% response rate). Of the 27 questionnaires administered in phase 2 (retest phase), 25 were completed (93% response rate). The questionnaire showed very good internal consistency, as Cronbach alpha was higher than .7 for all constructs. Temporal stability was acceptable with intraclass correlations between .41 and .66. The intention to use the electronic platform to chart the resuscitation of trauma patients was very high among the respondents. In the logistic regression model, the only construct that predicted nurses’ intention to adopt the computerized platform was the professional norm (odds ratio 3.31, 95% confidence interval 1.41–7.78).
Conclusions
We developed and validated a questionnaire that can now be used in other emergency departments prior to implementation of the computerized platform. The intention to adopt was very high among the respondents, which suggests that the implementation of this innovation could be successful at our institution.
doi:10.2196/ijmr.2150
PMCID: PMC3626134  PMID: 23611903
Primary care nurses; adoption of new behavior; intention; theory of planned behaviour; emergency department; trauma care; electronic health record; clinical decision support system
23.  Users’ perspectives of key factors to implementing electronic health records in Canada: a Delphi study 
Background
Interoperable electronic health record (EHR) solutions are currently being implemented in Canada, as in many other countries. Understanding EHR users’ perspectives is key to the success of EHR implementation projects. This Delphi study aimed to assess in the Canadian context the applicability, the importance, and the priority of pre-identified factors from a previous mixed-methods systematic review of international literature.
Methods
A three-round Delphi study was held with representatives of 4 Canadian EHR user groups defined as partners of the implementation process who use or are expected to use EHR in their everyday activity. These groups are: non-physician healthcare professionals, health information professionals, managers, and physicians. Four bilingual online questionnaire versions were developed from factors identified by the systematic review. Participants were asked to rate the applicability and the importance of each factor. The main outcome measures were consensus and priority. Consensus was defined a priori as strong (≥ 75%) or moderate (≥ 60-74%) according to user groups’ level of agreement on applicability and importance, partial (≥ 60%) when participants agreed only on applicability or importance, or as no consensus (< 60%). Priority for decision-making was defined as factors with strong consensus with scores of 4 or 5 on a five-point Likert scale for applicability and importance.
Results
Three Delphi rounds were completed by 64 participants. Levels of consensus of 100%, 64%, 64%, and 44% were attained on factors submitted to non-physician healthcare professionals, health information professionals, managers, and physicians, respectively. While agreement between and within user groups varied, key factors were prioritized if they were classified as strong (≥ 75% from questionnaire answers of user groups), for decision-making concerning EHR implementation. The10 factors that were prioritized are perceived usefulness, productivity, motivation, participation of end-users in the implementation strategy, patient and health professional interaction, lack of time and workload, resources availability, management, outcome expectancy, and interoperability.
Conclusions
Amongst all factors influencing EHR implementation identified in a previous systematic review, ten were prioritized through this Delphi study. The varying levels of agreement between and within user groups could mean that users’ perspectives of each factor are complex and that each user group has unique professional priorities and roles in the EHR implementation process. As more EHR implementations in Canada are completed it will be possible to corroborate this preliminary result with a larger population of EHR users.
doi:10.1186/1472-6947-12-105
PMCID: PMC3470948  PMID: 22967231
Delphi technique; Adoption factors; Implementation factors; Electronic health record; Health information technology; Health communication technology; Medical informatics
24.  Health Care Professionals’ Beliefs About Using Wiki-Based Reminders to Promote Best Practices in Trauma Care 
Background
Wikis are knowledge translation tools that could help health professionals implement best practices in acute care. Little is known about the factors influencing professionals’ use of wikis.
Objectives
To identify and compare the beliefs of emergency physicians (EPs) and allied health professionals (AHPs) about using a wiki-based reminder that promotes evidence-based care for traumatic brain injuries.
Methods
Drawing on the theory of planned behavior, we conducted semistructured interviews to elicit EPs’ and AHPs’ beliefs about using a wiki-based reminder. Previous studies suggested a sample of 25 EPs and 25 AHPs. We purposefully selected participants from three trauma centers in Quebec, Canada, to obtain a representative sample. Using univariate analyses, we assessed whether our participants’ gender, age, and level of experience were similar to those of all eligible individuals. Participants viewed a video showing a clinician using a wiki-based reminder, and we interviewed participants about their behavioral, control, and normative beliefs—that is, what they saw as advantages, disadvantages, barriers, and facilitators to their use of a reminder, and how they felt important referents would perceive their use of a reminder. Two reviewers independently analyzed the content of the interview transcripts. We considered the 75% most frequently mentioned beliefs as salient. We retained some less frequently mentioned beliefs as well.
Results
Of 66 eligible EPs and 444 eligible AHPs, we invited 55 EPs and 39 AHPs to participate, and 25 EPs and 25 AHPs (15 nurses, 7 respiratory therapists, and 3 pharmacists) accepted. Participating AHPs had more experience than eligible AHPs (mean 14 vs 11 years; P = .04). We noted no other significant differences. Among EPs, the most frequently reported advantage of using a wiki-based reminder was that it refreshes the memory (n = 14); among AHPs, it was that it provides rapid access to protocols (n = 16). Only 2 EPs mentioned a disadvantage (the wiki added stress). The most frequently reported favorable referent was nurses for EPs (n = 16) and EPs for AHPs (n = 19). The most frequently reported unfavorable referents were people resistant to standardized care for EPs (n = 8) and people less comfortable with computers for AHPs (n = 11). The most frequent facilitator for EPs was ease of use (n = 19); for AHPs, it was having a bedside computer (n = 20). EPs’ most frequently reported barrier was irregularly updated wiki-based reminders (n = 18); AHPs’ was undetermined legal responsibility (n = 10).
Conclusions
We identified EPs’ and AHPs’ salient beliefs about using a wiki-based reminder. We will draw on these beliefs to construct a questionnaire to measure the importance of these determinants to EPs’ and AHPs’ intention to use a wiki-based reminder promoting evidence-based care for traumatic brain injuries.
doi:10.2196/jmir.1983
PMCID: PMC3376518  PMID: 22515985
Wiki; Collaborative writing applications; Web 2.0; traumatic brain injury; interprofessional collaboration; reminders; computerized clinical decision-support system; knowledge translation; evidence-based medicine; theory of planned behavior
25.  Wikis and Collaborative Writing Applications in Health Care: A Scoping Review Protocol 
JMIR Research Protocols  2012;1(1):e1.
The rapid rise in the use of collaborative writing applications (eg, wikis, Google Documents, and Google Knol) has created the need for a systematic synthesis of the evidence of their impact as knowledge translation (KT) tools in the health care sector and for an inventory of the factors that affect their use. While researchers have conducted systematic reviews on a range of software-based information and communication technologies as well as other social media (eg, virtual communities of practice, virtual peer-to-peer communities, and electronic support groups), none have reviewed collaborative writing applications in the medical sector. The overarching goal of this project is to explore the depth and breadth of evidence for the use of collaborative writing applications in health care. Thus, the purposes of this scoping review will be to (1) map the literature on collaborative writing applications; (2) compare the applications’ features; (3) describe the evidence of each application’s positive and negative effects as a KT intervention in health care; (4) inventory and describe the barriers and facilitators that affect the applications’ use; and (5) produce an action plan and a research agenda. A six-stage framework for scoping reviews will be used: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies within the selected databases (using the EPPI-Reviewer software to classify the studies); (3) selecting studies (an iterative process in which two reviewers search the literature, refine the search strategy, and review articles for inclusion); (4) charting the data (using EPPI-Reviewer’s data-charting form); (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results (performing a descriptive, numerical, and interpretive synthesis); and (6) consulting knowledge users during three planned meetings. Since this scoping review concerns the use of collaborative writing applications as KT interventions in health care, we will use the Knowledge to Action (KTA) framework to describe and compare the various studies and collaborative writing projects we find. In addition to guiding the use of collaborative writing applications in health care, this scoping review will advance the science of KT by testing tools that could be used to evaluate other social media. We also expect to identify areas that require further systematic reviews and primary research and to produce a highly relevant research agenda that explores and leverages the potential of collaborative writing software. To date, this is the first study to use the KTA framework to study the role collaborative writing applications in KT, and the first to involve three national and international institutional knowledge users as part of the research process.
doi:10.2196/resprot.1993
PMCID: PMC3626140  PMID: 23612481

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