AIM: To reveal the clinicopathological features and risk factors for lymph node metastases in gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma of male patients.
METHODS: We retrospective reviewed a total of 146 male and female patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma who had undergone curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy in the Department of Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital and Rui Jin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School between November 2001 and May 2012. Both the surgical procedure and extent of lymph node dissection were based on the recommendations of Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines. Univariate and multivariate analyses of lymph node metastases and the clinicopathological features were undertaken.
RESULTS: The rate of lymph node metastases in male patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma was 72.1%. Univariate analysis showed an obvious correlation between lymph node metastases and tumor size, gross appearance, differentiation, pathological tumor depth, and lymphatic invasion in male patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that tumor differentiation and pathological tumor depth were the independent risk factors for lymph node metastases in male patients. There was an obvious relationship between lymph node metastases and tumor size, gross appearance, differentiation, pathological tumor depth, lymphatic invasion at pN1 and pN2, and nerve invasion at pN3 in male patients. There were no significant differences in clinicopathological features or lymph node metastases between female and male patients.
CONCLUSION: Tumor differentiation and tumor depth were risk factors for lymph node metastases in male patients with gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma and should be considered when choosing surgery.
Gastric neoplasm; Lymph node metastasis; Risk factors; Gastrectomy; Lymphadenectomy
AIM: To investigate whether transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).
METHODS: A murine model of PBC was developed by injection of polyinosinic polycytidylic acids (poly I: C) in C57BL/6 mice, and the liver expressions of TGF β1, TGF-β receptor I (TβRI), TGF-β receptor II (TβRII), p-Smad2/3, monoclonal α-smooth muscle actin antibody (α-SMA) and α1 (I) collagen in the mouse model and control mice were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Lymphocyte subsets in liver were analyzed using flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The mouse model had several key phenotypic features of human PBC, including elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, antimitochondrial antibodies, portal bile ducts inflammation, and progressive collagen deposition. Compared with control mice, protein and mRNA levels of TGF β1, TβRI, TβRII, p-Smad2/3, α-SMA and α1 (I) collagen in liver (1.7 ± 0.4 vs 8.9 ± 1.8, 0.8 ± 0.2 vs 5.1 ± 1.5, 0.6 ± 0.01 vs 5.1 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.3 vs 2.0 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.4 vs 3.4 ± 0.6, 0.8 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.3, 1.1 ± 1.2 vs 11.8 ± 0.6, P < 0.05), and the total number and percentage of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes (0.01 ± 0.001 vs 0.004 ± 0.00, 0.12 ± 0.04 vs 0.52 ± 0.23, P < 0.01) were higher in the mouse model.
CONCLUSION: TGFβ1 might play a dual role in the development of PBC: it suppresses inflammatory response but operates to enhance fibrogenesis. The aberrant activity of TGF-β1 signaling contributes to the development of PBC.
Primary biliary cirrhosis; Transforming growth factor-β1; Regulatory T cell; Liver
Gorham-Stout syndrome (GSS), also known as Gorham-Stout disease, massive osteolysis, disappearing bone disease or phantom bone, is a rare disorder of the musculo-skeletal system. It most commonly involves the skull, shoulder and pelvic girdle. Histological examination reveals a progressive osteolysis always associated with an angiomatosis of blood vessels and sometimes of lymphatics, which seemingly is responsible for the destruction of the bone. It is extremely rare that Gorham-Stout syndrome involves the bones of the entire body. A 5-year-old girl complaining of intermittent and dull back pain for 3 months was admitted to a local hospital. X-ray revealed left pleural effusion, and the patient was diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy. Thus, anti-tuberculosis therapy was performed. However, it was not effective. A soft mass with significant tenderness was found in the upper segment of the right leg 50 days afterwards. X-ray revealed multiple osteolysis of the bilateral clavicle, scapula, rib, vertebral body, ilium, sacrum, femur and tibia. The biopsy from the right tibia disclosed that the lesion was composed of hyperplastic blood vessels and fibrous tissues similar to hemangioma. Based on the above clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, the clinical physician confirmed a diagnosis of Gorham-Stout disease, and prescribed oral anti-osteoclastic medications consisting of bisphosphonates. At present, the girl is alive and healthy, and new lesions have not been noted.
Gorham-Stout syndrome; bisphosphonate; histopathology; radiology; treatment
Estrogen-related genes and the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene play a critical role in estrogen metabolism, and those polymorphisms are associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, little is known about the association between these polymorphisms and the efficacy of anastrozole. The aim was to investigate the impact of the genetic polymorphisms, CYP19A1, 17-β-HSD-1 and FTO, on the response to anastrozole in metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) and to evaluate the impact of those polymorphisms on various clinicopathologic features. Two-hundred seventy-two women with hormone receptor-positive MBC treated with anastrozole were identified retrospectively. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and genotyped for five variants in three candidate genes. Time to progression was improved in patients carrying the variant alleles of rs4646 when compared to patients with the wild-type allele (16.40 months versus 13.52 months; p = 0.049). The rs4646 variant alleles were significantly associated with longer overall survival (37.3 months versus 31.6 months; p = 0.007). This relationship was not observed with the rs10046, rs2830, rs9926298 and rs9939609 polymorphisms. The findings of this study indicate that rs4646 polymorphism in the CYP19A1 gene may serve as a prognostic maker of the response to anastrozole in patients with MBC who are treated with anastrozole.
metastatic breast carcinoma; aromatase gene; anastrozole; prognosis; polymorphism
Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed.
Methods and Findings
Comparative genomic analysis of 19 M. tuberculosis complex strains showed that BCG strains underwent repeated human manipulation, had higher region of deletion rates than those of natural M. tuberculosis strains, and lost several essential components such as T-cell epitopes. A total of 188 BCG strain T-cell epitopes were lost to various degrees. The non-virulent BCG Tokyo strain, which has the largest number of T-cell epitopes (359), lost 124. Here we propose that BCG strain protection variability results from different epitopes. This study is the first to present BCG as a model organism for genetics research. BCG strains have a very well-documented history and now detailed genome information. Genome comparison revealed the selection process of BCG strains under human manipulation (1908–1966).
Our results revealed the cause of BCG vaccine strain protection variability at the genome level and supported the hypothesis that the restoration of lost BCG Tokyo epitopes is a useful future vaccine development strategy. Furthermore, these detailed BCG vaccine genome investigation results will be useful in microbial genetics, microbial engineering and other research fields.
The Brucella melitensis vaccine strain M5 is widely used to prevent and control brucellosis in animals. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequence of M5, and conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis against the whole-genome sequence of the virulent strain 16 M and other reference strains. This analysis revealed 11 regions of deletion (RDs) and 2 regions of insertion (RIs) within the M5 genome. Among these regions, the sequences encompassed in 5 RDs and 1 RI showed consistent variation, with a large deletion between the M5 and the 16 M genomes. RD4 and RD5 showed the large diversity among all Brucella genomes, both in RD length and RD copy number. Thus, RD4 and RD5 are potential sites for typing different Brucella strains. Other RD and RI regions exhibited multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, a genome fragment with a 56 kb rearrangement was determined to be consistent with previous studies. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that genomic island inversion in Brucella was widely present. With the genetic pattern common among all strains analyzed, these 2 RDs, 1 RI, and one inversion region are potential sites for detection of genomic differences. Several SNPs of important virulence-related genes (motB, dhbC, sfuB, dsbAB, aidA, aroC, and lysR) were also detected, and may be used to determine the mechanism of virulence attenuation. Collectively, this study reveals that comparative analysis between wild-type and vaccine strains can provide resources for the study of virulence and microevolution of Brucella.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key molecule in modulating low-degree inflammatory conditions such as diabetes. The role of PTP1B in other chronic inflammations, however, remains unknown. Here, we report that PTP1B deficiency ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced murine experimental colitis via expanding CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Employing DSS-induced murine experimental colitis as inflammatory animal model, we found that, compared with wild-type littermates, PTP1B-null mice demonstrated greater resistance to DSS-induced colitis, as reflected by slower weight-loss, greater survival rates and decreased PMN and macrophage infiltration into the colon. The evidence collectively also demonstrated that the resistance of PTP1B-null mice to DSS-induced colitis is based on the expansion of MDSCs. First, PTP1B-null mice exhibited a greater frequency of MDSCs in the bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood and spleen when compared with wild-type littermates. Second, PTP1B levels in BM leukocytes were significantly decreased after cells were induced into MDSCs by IL-6 and GM-CSF, and the MDSC induction occurred more rapidly in PTP1B-null mice than in wild-type littermates, suggesting PTP1B as a negative regulator of MDSCs. Third, the adoptive transfer of MDSCs into mice with DSS-colitis significantly attenuated colitis, which accompanies with a decreased serum IL-17 level. Finally, PTP1B deficiency increased the frequency of MDSCs from BM cells likely through enhancing the activities of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). In conclusion, our study provides the first evidences that PTP1B deficiency ameliorates murine experimental colitis via expanding MDSCs.
The olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) derived from olfactory bulb (OB) may improve motor function after transplantation in injured spinal cord. However, the effects of OEC transplantation on sensory function have not been reported yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether OEC transplantation could affect the sensory function and to analyze the underlying mechanism.
OEC transplantation into the hemisected spinal cords can result in hyperalgesia, indicated by radiant and mechanical stimuli towards the plantar surface in rats. This could be associated with upregulation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), indicated by RT-PCR. Immunofluorecent staining showed that BDNF was mainly located in the neurons of the laminas I and II of the dorsal horn. Moreover, a notable upregulation on the level of p-ERK (phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase), the downstream molecule of BDNF, was detected by using Western Blot. These findings indicate that the increased BDNF level associated with the p-ERK was possibly involved in neuropathic pain in hemisected spinal cord subjected to OEC transplantation.
The transplantation of OECs may induce the noticeable pain hypersensitivity in rats after hemisected spinal cord injury, and the possible mechanism may be associated with the phosphorylation of ERK and the activated BDNF overexpression.
Olfactory ensheathing cells; Spinal cord injury; Hemisection; Cell transplantation; Rat; p-ERK; BDNF; Hyperalgesia
Background and Aims
Brassinosteroids (BR) are a class of plant polyhydroxysteroids with diverse functions in plant growth and development. However, there is little information on the role of BRs played in the response to nutrient deficiency.
To evaluate the role of BR in the response of plants to iron (Fe) deficiency, the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on ferric reductase (FRO) activity, acidification of the rhizosphere and Fe content in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings under Fe-deficient (1 µm FeEDTA) and Fe-sufficient (50 µm FeEDTA) conditions were investigated.
There was a significant increase in FRO activity upon exposure of cucumber seedlings to an Fe-deficient medium, and the Fe deficiency-induced increase in FRO activity was substantially suppressed by EBR. In contrast, application of EBR to Fe-sufficient seedlings stimulated FRO activity. Ethylene production evoked by Fe deficiency was suppressed by EBR, while EBR induced ethylene production from Fe-sufficient seedlings. Fe contents in shoots were reduced by treatment with EBR, while Fe contents in roots were markedly increased under both Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient conditions. The reductions in Fe contents of shoots were independent of chlorophyll (CHL) contents under Fe-sufficient conditions, but they were positively correlated with CHL contents under Fe-deficient conditions. At the transcriptional level, transcripts encoding FRO (CsFRO1) and Fe transporter (CsIRT1) were increased upon exposure to the Fe-deficient medium, and the increases in transcripts were reversed by EBR.
The results demonstrate that BRs are likely to play a negative role in regulating Fe-deficiency-induced FRO, expressions of CsFRO1 and CsIRT1, as well as Fe translocation from roots to shoots.
Brassinosteroids; iron deficiency; cucumber; Cucumis sativus; ferric reductase activity; Fe translocation
Bacterial pathogens impose a heavy health burden worldwide. In the new era of high-throughput sequencing and online bioinformatics, real-time genome typing of infecting agents, and in particular those with potential severe clinical outcomes, holds promise for guiding clinical care to limit the detrimental effects of infections and to prevent potential local or global outbreaks. Here, we sequenced and compared 85 isolates of Streptococcus suis, a zoonotic human and swine pathogen, wherein we analyzed 32 recognized serotypes and 75 sequence types representing the diversity of the species and the human clinical isolates with high public health significance. We found that 1,077 of the 2,469 genes are shared by all isolates. Excluding 201 common but mobile genes, 876 genes were defined as the minimum core genome (MCG) of the species. Of 190,894 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified, 58,501 were located in the MCG genes and were referred to as MCG SNPs. A population structure analysis of these MCG SNPs classified the 85 isolates into seven MCG groups, of which MCG group 1 includes all isolates from human infections and outbreaks. Our MCG typing system for S. suis provided a clear separation of groups containing human-associated isolates from those containing animal-associated isolates. It also separated the group containing outbreak isolates, including those causing life-threatening streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome, from sporadic or less severe meningitis or bacteremia-only isolates. The typing system facilitates the application of genome data to the fields of clinical medicine and epidemiology and to the surveillance of S. suis. The MCG groups may also be used as the taxonomical units of S. suis to define bacterial subpopulations with the potential to cause severe clinical infections and large-scale outbreaks.
Tuberculous abscess of the chest wall is a rare localization of tuberculosis. We herein report a case of tuberculosis of the chest wall on a renal allograft recipient and provide discussion on optimal therapeutic management.
Tuberculous abscess; chest wall; renal allograft
Ridaforolimus (AP23573, MK-8669 or deforolimus) is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an important regulator in the cell survival pathway. This open-label, single center phase I study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles of ridaforolimus in Chinese patients with treatment-refractory advanced or relapsed solid tumors. The PK data generated from these Chinese patients were further compared with those previously reported in Caucasian and Japanese patient populations.
The patients were given an oral dose of 40 mg of ridaforolimus on Day 1 of the study. On Day 8, patients were initiated on a treatment regimen that comprised a once daily dose of 40 mg of ridaforolimus for five consecutive days, followed by a 2-day off-drug interval. Patients repeated this regimen until disease progression or intolerance. Blood samples were collected at specific times pre- and post-treatment to establish the PK profile of ridaforolimus in all patients.
Fifteen patients were given at least one dose of 40 mg of ridaforolimus. The median absorption lag-time was 2 hours, the median Tmax was 4 hours and the mean elimination half-life was 53 hours. The accumulation ratio for AUC0-24hr was 1.3 on day 19 (steady state)/day 1 (after a single dose). The most common drug-related adverse events (AEs) that occurred in ≥40% of patients were stomatitis, proteinuria, leukopenia, hyperglycemia, and pyrexia. Grade 3/4 drug-related AEs were anemia, stomatitis, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, constipation, gamma glutamyltransferase increase, and proteinuria. All 11 evaluable patients achieved stable disease.
Oral ridaforolimus at a daily dose of 40 mg were generally well tolerated in Chinese patients with advanced or refractory solid tumors. Adverse events and PK profiles of ridaforolimus in this study were similar to those from Caucasian and Japanese patients reported previously.
MTOR inhibitor; Phase I study; Pharmacokinetic analysis; Adverse event
Ubiquitin-like proteins play important roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, we present an unexpected finding that a ubiquitin-like small archaeal modifier protein (SAMP2) from Haloferax volcanii adopts two distinct states under low ionic condition. One of these is similar to the β-grasp structure conserved in ubiquitin-like proteins from eukaryotes; the other is disordered, like prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein, Pup. Furthermore, our study reveals that the conformation of SAMP2 is dependent on ionic strength. With the increase of ion concentration, SAMP2 undergoes a conformational conversion from disorder to order, indicating that the ordered conformation is the functional form of SAMP2 under the physiological condition of H. volcanii.
Though chemical modification of graphene based on Hummers method has been most widely used to tailor its properties and interfacial characteristics, a method which could achieve definitive and controllable groups and properties is still highly required. Here, we demonstrate a high-vacuum oxidation strategy by atomic oxygen (AO) and investigate the AO induced functionalization and wettability transition in films made from basal-defect- and oxide-free graphene dispersions. These graphene-based films are neither graphene nor graphite, but graphene blocks constituted by numerous randomly stacked graphene flakes. It is found that AO induced functionalization of these films through the formation of epoxy groups, sp3 configuration, ether, and double and triple C–O groups. The films turn to be hydrophilic after exposed to AO. The contact angle increases with AO exposure time. This phenomenon is attributed to the lower surface roughness induced by collision and/or edge erosion of energetic ions to the film surface and is further explained by the Wenzel model. The demonstrated strategy can overcome limitations of Hummers method, provide possibility to gain functionalization and wettability transition in liquid-phase exfoliated basal-defect- and oxide-free graphene in the dry environment, and may extend the study and application of this material in spacecraft in low earth orbit.
Graphene; Atomic oxygen; Functionalization; Wettability
The initial 7 steps of the glycolytic pathway from glucose to 3-phosphoglycerate are localized in the glycosomes in Leishmania, including step 6, catalyzed by the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In L. donovani and L. mexicana, there exists a second GAPDH enzyme present in the cytosol that is absent in L. braziliensis and that has become a pseudogene in L. major. To investigate the role of the cytosolic GAPDH (cGAPDH), an L. donovani cGAPDH-null mutant was generated, and conversely, the functional L. donovani cGAPDH was introduced into L. major and the resulting engineered parasites were characterized. The L. donovani cGAPDH-null mutant was able to proliferate at the same rate as the wild-type parasite in glucose-deficient medium. However, in the presence of glucose, the L. donovani cGAPDH-null mutant consumed less glucose and proliferated more slowly than the wild-type parasite and displayed reduced infectivity in visceral organs of experimentally infected mice. This demonstrates that cGAPDH is functional in L. donovani and is required for survival in visceral organs. Restoration of cGAPDH activity in L. major, in contrast, had an adverse effect on L. major proliferation in glucose-containing medium, providing a possible explanation of why it has evolved into a pseudogene in L. major. This study indicates that there is a difference in glucose metabolism between L. donovani and L. major, and this may represent an important factor in the ability of L. donovani to cause visceral disease.
The aim of the study is to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) in mainland China during 2002–2010. Specific objectives of the study were to quantify the temporal variation in incidence of JE cases, to determine if clustering of JE cases exists, to detect high risk spatiotemporal clusters of JE cases and to provide evidence-based preventive suggestions to relevant stakeholders.
Monthly JE cases at the county level in mainland China during 2002–2010 were obtained from the China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention (CISDCP). For the purpose of the analysis, JE case counts for nine years were aggregated into four temporal periods (2002; 2003–2005; 2006; and 2007–2010). Local Indicators of Spatial Association and spatial scan statistics were performed to detect and evaluate local high risk space-time clusters.
JE incidence showed a decreasing trend from 2002 to 2005 but peaked in 2006, then fluctuated over the study period. Spatial cluster analysis detected high value clusters, mainly located in Southwestern China. Similarly, we identified a primary spatiotemporal cluster of JE in Southwestern China between July and August, with the geographical range of JE transmission increasing over the past years.
JE in China is geographically clustered and its spatial extent dynamically changed during the last nine years in mainland China. This indicates that risk factors for JE infection are likely to be spatially heterogeneous. The results may assist national and local health authorities in the development/refinement of a better preventive strategy and increase the effectiveness of public health interventions against JE transmission.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease, which primarily occurs in rural and suburban areas of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. JE still remains a significant public health problem in mainland China, with approximately 50% of global cases annually. Few studies have explored the spatiotemporal patterns of JE cases in China. Here we reported the results of Local Indicators of Spatial Association and spatial scan statistics of JE cases in mainland China at the county level during the four periods: 2002; 2003–2005; 2006; 2007–2010. The primary spatiotemporal cluster of JE was detected in Southwestern China between July and August, with the geographical range of JE transmission increasing over the past years. The results of LISA and spatial scan statistics were consistent which indicates that these methods are reliable and could have wider applications in the fields of disease surveillance and management in China, particularly in the surveillance and monitoring of other vector-borne diseases. These findings may assist in informing prevention and control strategies and increase the effectiveness of public health interventions against JE transmission.
Studies elucidated that Th17 cells are important contributors to the pathogenesis of many immune-mediated diseases, and IL-17A is present in pathologic intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues. However, the mechanisms, how these cells traffic into the degenerate discs are not clear.
Materials and Methods
The samples collected from 53 patients had been divided into 3 groups: Group P (annulus fibrosus was intact), Group E (annulus fibrosus was reptured) and normal control. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of CCL20, CCR6, IL-17A, TNF–α and CD4 in IVD tissues. Moreover, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells had been cultured in the presence and absence of Th17 associated cytokines. The supernatants were detected for CCL20 concentrations by ELISA, and the NP cells for the expression of CCL20 mRNA. Additionally, peripheral blood (PB) samples had undergone detection for the expression of CCR6 mRNA and the proportion of IL-17-producing cells, including the surface expression of CCR6.
Immunohistochemistry revealed that CCL20 and TNF-α were expressed in degenerated NP cells. Double-labeled immunofluorescence elaborated, IL-17-producing cells (CD4+IL-17A+ and CD4+CCR6+) appeared in the Group E samples, but no traces or expression in Group P and normal control. IL-17A and TNF-α, alone or combined, could enhance CCL20 secretion in a dose-dependent manner, which was obtained through RT-PCR results. There was a notable difference of CCR6 mRNA expression between patients and normal controls. In comparison to controls, flow cytometry data indicated that the proportion of IL-17-producing cells and the CCR6 expression in PB were significantly increased.
Our results provide a potential explanation for involvement of the CCL20-CCR6 system in the trafficking of IL-17-producing cells to degenerated IVD tissues. Additionally, our results explain the contribution of Th17 associated cytokines to the development of degenerated discs via the up-regulation of CCL20 secretion from NP cells, which forms a positive chemotactic feedback loop.
To investigate the relationship between higher-order aberration (HOA) and myopic progression in school children.
Between April 23, 2011 and August 29, 2011 in the children's myopia outpatient clinic of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 148 eyes of 74 schoolchildren were reviewed. HOAs for a 6-mm pupil were measured with an aberrometer. Myopic progression rate was defined according to the change in spherical equivalent refraction (SER) divided by the time span (years). Subjects with myopic progression rate of ≥0.50 diopters (D) were classified as the ‘fast’ group and the subjects with myopic progression rate of <0.50D were classified as the ‘slow’ group. A retrospective study was conducted to compare HOA between the two groups, using root mean square (RMS) values and Zernike coefficients.
The RMS values of HOA (t=2.316, P=0.02), HOA without Z40 (t=2.224, P=0.03), third-order aberrations (t'=2.62, P=0.01), and coma (t'=2.49, P=0.01) were significantly higher in the fast group than those in the slow group. The individual Zernike coefficients of Z3−1 (t=-2.072, P=0.04) and Z51 (Z =-2.627, P=0.01) displayed statistically significant differences between the two groups. Significant correlations were found between the RMS values of HOA (r=0.193, P=0.019), RMS values of HOA without Z40 (r=0.23, P =0.005), RMS values of coma (r=0.235, P=0.004), RMS values of third-order aberrations (r=0.243, P =0.003), and the progression rate.
Our results provide evidence of a relationship between HOA and myopic progression. In a future prospective longitudinal study, we aim to verify whether HOA is a risk factor for myopic progression.
aberration; myopia; children; disease progression; refractive errors/etiology
Ocular drug transport barriers pose a challenge for drug delivery comprising the ocular surface epithelium, the tear film and internal barriers of the blood-aqueous and blood-retina barriers. Ocular drug delivery efficiency depends on the barriers and the clearance from the choroidal, conjunctival vessels and lymphatic. Traditional drug administration reduces the clinical efficacy especially for poor water soluble molecules and for the posterior segment of the eye. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed to overcome the barriers, increase the drug penetration at the target site and prolong the drug levels by few internals of drug administrations in lower doses without any toxicity compared to the conventional eye drops. With the aid of high specificity and multifunctionality, DNA NPs can be resulted in higher transfection efficiency for gene therapy. NPs could target at cornea, retina and choroid by surficial applications and intravitreal injection. This review is concerned with recent findings and applications of NPs drug delivery systems for the treatment of different eye diseases.
nanoparticles; eye; drug delivery
Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has evolved into a useful therapeutic tool for treating a broad range of tumors since being introduced into clinical practice as a diagnostic modality nearly three decades ago. In particular, EUS-guided ﬁne-needle injection has proven a successful minimally invasive approach for treating benign lesions such as pancreatic cysts, relieving pancreatic pain through celiac plexus neurolysis, and controlling local tumor growth of unresectable malignancies by direct delivery of anti-tumor agents. One such ablative agent, ethanol, is capable of safely ablating solid or cystic lesions in hepatic tissues via percutaneous injection. Recent research and clinical interest has focused on the promise of EUS-guided ethanol ablation as a safe and effective method for treating pancreatic tumor patients with small lesions or who are poor operative candidates. Although it is not likely to replace radical resection of localized lesions or systemic treatment of metastatic tumors in all patients, EUS-guided ablation is an ideal method for patients who refuse or are not eligible for surgery. Moreover, this treatment modality may play an active role in the development of future pancreatic tumor treatments. This article reviews the most recent clinical applications of EUS-guided ethanol ablation in humans for treating pancreatic cystic tumors, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and metastatic lesions.
Endoscopic ultrasonography; Ethanol; Tumor ablation; Pancreas cancer; Cystic tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Celiac plexus neurolysis
Skin engineering provides a new strategy for treating a wide variety of skin defects. In particular, electrospun nanofibrous membranes have been used as carriers for epidermis engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a modified gelatin and polycaprolactone (GT/PCL) electrospun membrane for epidermis engineering. The biocompatibility of the membranes was evaluated by seeding HaCaT cells (human keratinocyte cell line) on the membrane and the mechanical properties of the membranes were determined with and without cells after culture. A cell proliferation assay showing that HaCaT cells attached and proliferated well on the membranes demonstrated that the membranes possess good biocompatibility. Mechanical tests showed that the membranes are strong enough to be handled during transplantation. Further in vivo transplantation studies revealed that epidermises engineered with GT/PCL membranes were able to repair skin defects in the nude mouse. These results demonstrate that GT/PCL electrospun membranes could be suitable scaffolds for skin engineering.
epidermis engineering; electrospun nanofibrous membrane; gelatin; polycaprolactone
Astroviruses have been widely described in mammalian and avian species. Here, we report a complete genome sequence of a novel porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) isolated from a porcine fecal sample in China. The genome consists of 6,611 nucleotides, excluding the 3′ poly(A) tail, and has two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 maps between nucleotide positions 19 and 4211 and encodes a 1,396-amino-acid (aa) polyprotein precursor consisting of nonstructural protein and putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and ORF2 maps between nucleotide positions 4202 and 6531 and encodes a 775-aa polyprotein which is a capsid precursor protein. The genome sequence of the virus was distinct enough from those of the known PoAstVs to be considered a novel sequence. Phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted amino acid sequence of the complete capsid region showed that this strain may be a novel porcine astrovirus.
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI) and gastrointestinal illness. No previous reports indicated the presence of HBoV infection in Jiangsu Province, China. Here we report three complete genomic sequences of HBoV strains from children with gastroenteritis and respiratory tract illnesses in Jiangsu, China. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three HBoV strains in the present study belong to the HBoV1 lineage, where jz-42 clustered separately, forming a single branch, while zj-68 and zj-92 existed in two separate branches, clustering with several other Chinese HBoV1 strains.
To study the prevalence of extra-glandular manifestations (EGM) in primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (pSS) among participants enrolled in the Sjögren’s International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) registry.
1927 participants in the SICCA registry were studied, including 886 participants who met the 2002 American-European consensus group (AECG) criteria for pSS, 830 “intermediate” cases who had some objective findings of pSS but did not meet AECG criteria, and 211 control individuals. We studied the prevalence of immunologic and hematologic laboratory abnormalities; specific rheumatologic examination findings; and physician confirmed thyroid, liver, kidney disease and lymphoma among SICCA participants.
Laboratory abnormalities, including hematologic abnormalities, hypergammaglobulinemia and hypocomplementemia, frequently occurred among pSS cases, and were more common among the intermediate cases than among control participants. Cutaneous vasculitis and lymphadenopathy were also more common among pSS cases. In contrast, the frequency of physician confirmed diagnoses of thyroid, liver and kidney disease, and lymphoma was low and only primary biliary cirrhosis was associated with pSS cases status. Rheumatologic and neurologic symptoms were common among all SICCA participants, regardless of case status.
Data from the international SICCA registry support the systemic nature of pSS, manifest primarily in terms of specific immunologic and hematologic abnormalities. The occurrence of other systemic disorders among this cohort is relatively uncommon. Previously reported associations may be more specific to select patient subgroups, such as those referred for evaluation of certain neurologic, rheumatologic or other systemic manifestations.
The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein BAD initiated apoptosis in human cells and has been identified as a prognostic marker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to explore the functions of BAD in NSCLC.
Overexpression of BAD was performed by transfecting different NSCLC cell lines with wild-type BAD. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and invasion were characterized in vitro. Tumorigenicity was analyzed in vivo. Western blot was performed to determine the effects of BAD overexpression on the Bcl-2 family proteins and apoptosis-related proteins.
Overexpression of BAD significantly inhibited cell proliferation in H1299, H292, and SPC-A1 but not in SK-MES-1 and H460 cell lines in vitro. BAD overexpression also reduced the tumorigenicity of H1299/SPC-A1 cell in vivo. However, no appreciable effects on cell cycle distribution and invasion were observed in all these cell lines. BAD overexpression also induced apoptosis in all cell types, in which process expression of mitochondrial cytochrom c (cyto-c) and caspase 3 were increased, whereas Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 8 expressions did not changed. These findings indicated that a mitochondrial pathway, in which process cyto-c was released from mitochondrial to activate caspase 3, was involved in BAD overexpression-mediated apoptosis.
Our data suggested that increased expression of BAD enhance apoptosis and has negative influence on cell proliferation and tumor growth in NSCLC. Bad is a new potential target for tumor interventions.
BAD protein; Non-small cell lung cancer; Apoptosis; Cell proliferation; Overexpression