Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disorder, and primary drug resistance and relapse are thought to be the main causes for treatment failure in ALL patients. For these refractory or relapsed patients, there is an increasing demand to identify novel therapeutic approaches, which will highly rely on the use of xenotransplantation models in translational research. Given the critical role that the spleen plays in the hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis in adult mice, intrasplenic inoculation of ALL cells into immunodeficient mice may represent a feasible route for leukemic xenotransplantation. In the present study, engraftments via intrasplenic inoculation in anti-mCD122 mAb conditioned NOD/SCID mice were achieved in 5 out of 11 cases, and the engrafted cells reconstituted a complete leukemic phenotype. The engrafted cells sustained the self-renewal capacity of leukemia-initiating cells as tested by serial xenotransplantation and can be used for evaluation of antileukemic drugs. These data suggest that the combination of intrasplenic inoculation and the targeted depletion of CD122+ cells could provide a novel approach for the xenotransplantation of ALL cells in NOD/SCID mice. Furthermore, this model can be used for stem cell research, long-term analysis of engraftment kinetics and in vivo drug tests.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia; xenotransplantation; intrasplenic inoculation; CD122; NOD/SCID mice
This study retrospectively examined the daily-level associations between youth alcohol use and dating abuse (DA) victimization and perpetration for a six month period.
Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview data were collected from 397 urban emergency department patients, ages 17–21 years old. Patients were eligible if they reported past month alcohol use and past year dating. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses estimated the likelihood of DA on a given day as a function of alcohol use or heavy use (≥4 drinks per day for females, ≥5 drinks per day for males), as compared to non-use.
Approximately 52% of male and 61% of female participants reported experiencing DA victimization ≥1 times during the past six months, and 45% of males and 55% of females reported perpetrating DA ≥1 times. For both males and females, DA perpetration was more likely on a drinking day as opposed to a non-drinking day (ORs 1.70 and 1.69, respectively). DA victimization was also more likely on a drinking day as opposed to a non-drinking day for both males and females (ORs 1.23 and 1.34, respectively). DA perpetration and DA victimization were both more likely on heavy drinking days as opposed to non-drinking days (2.04 and 2.03 for males’ and females’ perpetration, respectively; and 1.41 and 1.43 for males’ and females’ victimization, respectively).
This study found that alcohol use was associated with increased risk for same day DA perpetration and victimization, for both male and female youth. We conclude that for youth who use alcohol, alcohol use is a potential risk factor for DA victimization and perpetration.
Excessive iron can accumulate in the kidney and induce tissue damage. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) injection is a traditional Chinese medicinal preparation used for preventing and treating chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with Danshen injection on iron overload-induced kidney damage.
Mice were mock-treated with saline (control group) or given a single dose of iron dextran without treatment (iron overload group, 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks) or with daily treatments of low-dose Danshen (3 g/kg/day), high-dose Danshen (6 g/kg/day) or deferoxamine (100 mg/kg/day).
Treatment of iron-overloaded mice with Danshen injection led to significant improvements of body weight and decreased iron levels in the kidney. Danshen injection treatment also reduced concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and malondialdehyde and enhanced glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Histopathological examinations showed that Danshen injection ameliorated pathological changes and reduced iron deposition in kidneys of iron overloaded mice. Furthermore, the treatment was demonstrated to suppress apoptosis in nephrocytes.
These results indicated that Danshen injection exerted significant renal protective effects in iron-overloaded mice, which were closely associated with the decrease of iron deposition and suppression of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the kidney.
SIL-TAL1 rearrangement is common in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), however its prognostic implication remains controversial. To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcome of this subtype in Chinese population, we systemically reviewed 62 patients with newly diagnosed T-ALL, including 15 patients with SIL-TAL1 rearrangement. We found that SIL-TAL1+ T-ALL was characterized by higher white blood cell count (P = 0.029) at diagnosis, predominant cortical T-ALL immunophenotype (P = 0.028) of the leukemic blasts, and a higher prevalence of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS, P<0.001) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, P<0.001), which led to a higher early mortality (P = 0.011). Compared with SIL-TAL1− patients, SIL-TAL1+ patients had shorter relapse free survival (P = 0.007) and overall survival (P = 0.002). Our NOD/SCID xenotransplantation model also demonstrated that SIL-TAL1+ mice models had earlier disease onset, higher leukemia cell load in peripheral blood and shorter overall survival (P<0.001). Moreover, the SIL-TAL1+ mice models exerted a tendency of TLS/DIC and seemed vulnerable towards chemotherapy, which further simulated our clinical settings. These data demonstrate that SIL-TAL1 rearrangement identifies a distinct subtype with inferior outcome which could allow for individual therapeutic stratification for T-ALL patients.
Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy can shorten total treatment time and overcome the accelerated repopulation of tumour cells during radiotherapy. This therapeutic approach has demonstrated good efficacy in the treatment of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the optimal fractionation scheme remains uncertain. The purpose of this phase I trial was to explore the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-DCRT) (at 3 Gy/fraction) administered in combination with concurrent vinorelbine (NVB) and carboplatin (CBP) chemotherapy for unresectable stage III NSCLC.
Previously untreated cases of unresectable stage III NSCLC received accelerated hypofractionated 3-DCRT, delivered at 3 Gy per fraction, once daily, with five fractions per week. The starting dose was 66 Gy and an increment of 3 Gy was utilized. Higher doses continued to be tested in patient groups until the emergence of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). The MTD was regarded as the dose that was one step below the dose at which DLT occurred. Patients received at least one cycle of a concurrent two-drug chemotherapy regimen of NVB and CBP.
A total of 13 patients were enrolled and progressed through three dose escalation groups: 66 Gy, 69 Gy, and 72 Gy. No treatment-related deaths occurred. The major adverse events included radiation oesophagitis, radiation pneumonitis, and neutropenia. Nausea, fatigue, and anorexia were commonly observed, although the magnitude of these events was typically relatively minor. Among the entire group, four instances of DLT were observed, including two cases of grade 3 radiation oesophagitis, one case of grade 3 radiation pneumonitis, and one case of grade 4 neutropenia. All of these cases of DLT occurred in the 72 Gy group. Therefore, 72 Gy was designated as the DLT dose level, and the lower dose of 69 Gy was regarded as the MTD.
For unresectable stage III NSCLC 69 Gy (at 3 Gy/fraction) was the MTD of accelerated hypofractionated 3-DCRT administered in combination with concurrent NVB and CBP chemotherapy. The toxicity of this chemoradiotherapy regimen could be tolerated. A phase II trial is recommended to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of this regimen.
Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy; Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; Non-small-cell lung cancer; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy; Maximum tolerated dose; Vinorelbine; Carboplatin
Increasing the radiotherapy dose can result in improved local control for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can thereby improve survival. Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy can expose tumors to a high dose of radiation in a short period of time, but the optimal treatment regimen remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing high-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (at 3 Gy/fraction) with concurrent vinorelbine (NVB) and carboplatin (CBP) chemotherapy for the treatment of local advanced NSCLC.
Untreated patients with unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC or patients with a recurrence of NSCLC received accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The total dose was greater than or equal to 60 Gy. The accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy was conducted once daily at 3 Gy/fraction with 5 fractions per week, and the radiotherapy was completed in 5 weeks. In addition to radiotherapy, the patients also received at least 1 cycle of a concurrent two-drug chemotherapy regimen of NVB and CBP.
A total of 26 patients (19 previously untreated cases and 7 cases of recurrent disease) received 60Gy-75Gy radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent evaluations for toxicity and preliminary therapeutic efficacy. There were no treatment-related deaths within the entire patient group. The major acute adverse reactions were radiation esophagitis (88.5%) and radiation pneumonitis (42.3%). The percentages of grade III acute radiation esophagitis and grade III radiation pneumonitis were 15.4% and 7.7%, respectively. Hematological toxicities were common and did not significantly affect the implementation of chemoradiotherapy after supportive treatment. Two patients received high dose of 75 Gy had grade III late esophageal toxicity, and none had grade IV and above. Grade III and above late lung toxicity did not occur.
High-dose accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a dose of 60 Gy or greater with concurrent NVB and CBP chemotherapy might be feasible. However esophagus toxicity needs special attention. A phase I trial is recommended to obtain the maximum tolerated radiation dose of accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy.
Non-small-cell lung cancer; Accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy; Concurrent chemoradiotherapy; Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; Vinorelbine; Carboplatin
HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are retroviruses linked etiologically to various human diseases, and both of them can be transmitted by vertical route, sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and intravenous drug use. Recently, some HTLV-infected cases have been reported and this virus is mainly present in the Southeast coastal areas in China, but has not been studied for the people in Central China.
To know the epidemiologic patterns among different population samples in Central China and further identify risk factor for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection.
From January 2008 to December 2011, 5480 blood samples were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by using enzyme immunoassay, followed by Western Blot.
The prevalence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 was found with infection rates 0.13% and 0.05% among all population samples for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, respectively. The highest percentages of infection, 0.39% and 0.20%, were found in the high risk group, while only 0.06% and 0.03% in the blood donor group. There was only one case of HTLV-1 infection (0.11%) among patients with malignant hematological diseases. Of seven HTLV-1 positive cases, six were co-infected with HBV, two with HCV and one with HIV. Among three HTLV-2 positive individuals all were co-infected with HBV, one with HCV.
HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 have been detected in the Central China at low prevalence, with the higher infection rate among high risk group. It was also found that co-infection of HTLV-1/2 with HIV and HBV occurred, presumably due to their similar transmission routes. HTLV-1/2 antibody screen among certain population would be important to prevent the spread of the viruses.
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified multiple susceptibility loci that have highlighted the important role of TLR (Toll-like receptor) and CARD (caspase recruitment domain) genes in leprosy. A large three-stage candidate gene-based association study of 30 TLR and 47 CARD genes was performed in the leprosy samples of Chinese Han. Of 4363 SNPs investigated, eight SNPs showed suggestive association (P < 0.01) in our previously published GWAS datasets (Stage 1). Of the eight SNPs, rs2735591 and rs4889841 showed significant association (P < 0.001) in an independent series of 1504 cases and 1502 controls (Stage 2), but only rs2735591 (next to BCL10) showed significant association in the second independent series of 938 cases and 5827 controls (Stage 3). Rs2735591 showed consistent association across the three stages (P > 0.05 for heterogeneity test), significant association in the combined validation samples (Pcorrected = 5.54 × 10−4 after correction for 4363 SNPs tested) and genome-wide significance in the whole GWAS and validation samples (P = 1.03 × 10−9, OR = 1.24). In addition, we demonstrated the lower expression of BCL10 in leprosy lesions than normal skins and a significant gene connection between BCL10 and the eight previously identified leprosy loci that are associated with NFκB, a major regulator of downstream inflammatory responses, which provides further biological evidence for the association. We have discovered a novel susceptibility locus on 1p22, which implicates BCL10 as a new susceptibility gene for leprosy. Our finding highlights the important role of both innate and adaptive immune responses in leprosy.
The Na+/K+-ATPase α subunit is highly expressed in malignant cells. Ouabain, a cardioactive glycoside, binds to the Na+/K+-ATPase α subunit and inhibits the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. In the present study, the effect of ouabain on the migration of A549 cells was analyzed using the wound healing and transwell chamber migration assays. The impact of ouabain on the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was also evaluated. Ouabain treatment not only inhibited the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-enhanced migration of A549 cells, but also inhibited the basal migration of A549 cells in the absence of EGF. Ouabain decreased the overexpression of N-cadherin and vimentin induced by EGF, and decreased the expression of MMP-2 and -9 in the presence or absence of EGF. Na+/K+-ATPase is a potent therapeutic target in lung cancer and these observations indicated that the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, retards the invasion of lung cancer cells.
ouabain; cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; migration; Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor
AIM: To explore the effect of lysine acetylation in related proteins on regulation of the proliferation of gastric cancer cells, and determine the lysine-acetylated proteins and the acetylated modified sites in AGS gastric cancer cells.
METHODS: The CCK-8 experiment and flow cytometry were used to observe the changes in proliferation and cycle of AGS cells treated with trichostatin A (TSA). Real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to observe expression changes in p21, p53, Bax, Bcl-2, CDK2, and CyclinD1 in gastric cancer cells exposed to TSA. Cytoplasmic proteins in gastric cancer cells before and after TSA treatment were immunoprecipitated with anti-acetylated lysine antibodies, separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel and silver-stained to detect the proteins by mass spectrometry after removal of the gel. The acetylated proteins in AGS cells were enriched with lysine-acetylated antibodies, and a high-resolution mass spectrometer was used to detect the acetylated proteins and modified sites.
RESULTS: TSA significantly inhibited AGS cell proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis, leading to AGS cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and G2/M phases, especially G0/G1 phase. p21, p53 and Bax gene expression levels in AGS cells were increased with TSA treatment duration; Bcl-2, CDK2, and CyclinD1 gene expression levels were decreased with TSA treatment duration. Two unknown protein bands, 72 kDa (before exposure to TSA) and 28 kDa (after exposure to TSA), were identified by silver-staining after immunoprecipitation of AGS cells with the lysine-acetylated monoclonal antibodies. Mass spectrometry showed that the 72 kDa protein band may be PKM2 and the 28 kDa protein band may be ATP5O. The acetylated proteins and modified sites in AGS cells were determined.
CONCLUSION: TSA can inhibit gastric cancer cell proliferation, which possibly activated signaling pathways in a variety of tumor-associated factors. ATP5O was obviously acetylated in AGS cells following TSA treatment.
Trichostatin A; Acetylation modification; Gastric cancer; Mass spectrometry; ATP5O; PKM2
This study aims to investigate the clinicopathologic significance of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) labeled by D2-40 monoclonal antibody in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of D2-40 and LVI in 107 ESCC patients. Then, the correlation between the clinicopathologic feature and the overall survival time of the patients was analyzed.
The lymph node metastasis rates were 70% and 21% in the LVI-positive and LVI-negative groups, respectively. The nodal metastasis rate was higher in the LVI-positive group than in the LVI-negative group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that LVI was related to nodal metastasis (P<0.001). The median survival time of the patients was 26 and 43 months in the LVI-positive and LVI-negative groups, respectively. Although univariate regression analysis showed significant difference between the two groups (P=0.014), multivariate regression analysis revealed that LVI was not an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in the ESCC patients (P=0.062). Lymphatic node metastasis (P=0.031), clinical stage (P=0.019), and residual tumor (P=0.026) were the independent prognostic factors.
LVI labeled by D2-40 monoclonal antibody is a risk factor predictive of lymph node metastasis in ESCC patients.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; lymphatic vessel invasion; D2-40; lymph node metastasis; prognosis
The emergence of mass spectrometry (MS)-based signatures as biomarkers has generated considerable enthusiasm among oncologists. However, variations in normal individuals also exist, and a better understanding of serum peptide patterns of healthy individuals will be important for further exploring disease-specific serum peptide patterns. Following development of a serum peptide pattern platform, we analyzed 500 serum samples obtained from healthy individuals. Samples from breast (n = 84), lung (n = 70), and rectal (n = 30) cancer patients were also examined. Extensive data analysis revealed negligible contributions of age to serum peptide patterns except in healthy individuals between 20–30 and 60+ years of age. Gender-related variations in the serum patterns of healthy individuals were only observed in 20–30 year-old individuals. Our results revealed substantial variation in individual peptide profiles, but 65 peptides were detected at a 20% higher frequency in the healthy population. A peptide profile was developed for each type of cancer, containing 10 discriminating peptides not prevalent in healthy individuals. Sequence identification of 111 signature peptides revealed that they fell into several tight clusters and most were exopeptidase products of serum resident proteins. We have obtained a MS-based serum peptide profile for healthy individuals, providing a reference for observing the occurrence of cancer-specific peptides.
Elucidation of metabolic profiles during diabetes progression helps understand the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. In this study, urine metabonomics was used to identify time-related metabolic changes that occur during the development of diabetes mellitus and characterize the biochemical process of diabetes on a systemic, metabolic level.
Urine samples were collected from diabetic rats and age-matched controls at different time points: 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks after diabetes modeling. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra of the urine samples were obtained and analyzed by multivariate data analysis and quantitative statistical analysis. The metabolic patterns of diabetic groups are separated from the controls at each time point, suggesting that the metabolic profiles of diabetic rats were markedly different from the controls. Moreover, the samples from the diabetic 1-wk group are closely associated, whereas those of the diabetic 15-wk group are scattered, suggesting that the presence of various of complications contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of diabetes. Quantitative analysis indicated that urinary metabolites related to energy metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and methylamine metabolism are involved in the evolution of diabetes.
The results highlighted that the numbers of metabolic changes were related to diabetes progression, and the perturbed metabolites represent potential metabolic biomarkers and provide clues that can elucidate the mechanisms underlying the generation and development of diabetes as well as its complication.
Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an “S” type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p<0.01). The trunk balance of patients with mandibular deviation was disturbed (imbalance angle >1°), while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°). There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.
To explore the expression of HAX-1 mRNA and protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its relation with the prognosis of patients with ESCC.
The expression of HAX-1 mRNA and protein were detected with quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical method in 112 ESCC samples and 112 corresponding non-neoplastic samples. Survival curves were made with follow-up data. The relations of the prognosis with clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed.
The expression level of HAX-1 mRNA and the strong positive rate of HAX-1 protein were significantly higher in ESCC samples (0.527 ± 0.060 and 45.54%) than that in non-neoplastic samples (0.121 ± 0.017 and 0.00%), and in ESCC samples with lymph node metastasis (0.554 ± 0.054 and 71.11%) than that in ESCC samples without lymph node metastasis (0.509 ± 0.058 and 28.36%) (all P < 0.01). HAX-1 mRNA expression level was a risk factor of lymph node metastasis in patients with ESCC (P = 0.000). There were significant differences in survival curves between lymph node metastatic group and non-metastatic group (P = 0.000), and among groups of HAX-1 protein expression +, ++and +++(,P = 0.000); but no statistical significance between male patients and female patients (P = 0.119), and between ≥60 years old patients and <60 years old patients (P = 0.705). The level of HAX-1 mRNA (P = 0.000) and protein (P = 0.005) were risk factors of survival, but lymph node metastasis (P = 0.477) was not.
There is HAX-1 over-expression in ESCC tissue and HAX-1 mRNA level is a risk factor of lymph node metastasis. The level of HAX-1 mRNA and protein were risk factors of survival in patients with ESCC. HAX-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for ESCC treatment.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5130393079296037
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Gene expression; HAX-1; Prognosis
Phenotypic switching allows for rapid transitions between alternative cell states and is important in pathogenic fungi for colonization and infection of different host niches. In Candida albicans, the white-opaque phenotypic switch plays a central role in regulating the program of sexual mating as well as interactions with the mammalian host. White-opaque switching is controlled by genes encoded at the MTL (mating-type-like) locus that ensures that only a or α cells can switch from the white state to the mating-competent opaque state, while a/α cells are refractory to switching. Here, we show that the related pathogen C. tropicalis undergoes white-opaque switching in all three cell types (a, α, and a/α), and thus switching is independent of MTL control. We also demonstrate that C. tropicalis white cells are themselves mating-competent, albeit at a lower efficiency than opaque cells. Transcriptional profiling of C. tropicalis white and opaque cells reveals significant overlap between switch-regulated genes in MTL homozygous and MTL heterozygous cells, although twice as many genes are white-opaque regulated in a/α cells as in a cells. In C. albicans, the transcription factor Wor1 is the master regulator of the white-opaque switch, and we show that Wor1 also regulates switching in C. tropicalis; deletion of WOR1 locks a, α, and a/α cells in the white state, while WOR1 overexpression induces these cells to adopt the opaque state. Furthermore, we show that WOR1 overexpression promotes both filamentous growth and biofilm formation in C. tropicalis, independent of the white-opaque switch. These results demonstrate an expanded role for C. tropicalis Wor1, including the regulation of processes necessary for infection of the mammalian host. We discuss these findings in light of the ancestral role of Wor1 as a transcriptional regulator of the transition between yeast form and filamentous growth.
The white-opaque phenotypic switch has been extensively characterized in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, where it plays a central role in regulating entry into sexual reproduction. This epigenetic switch is strictly regulated by the MTL locus so that only a or α cell types can switch to the opaque state, whereas a/α cells are locked in the white state. In contrast, we show that in the related pathogen C. tropicalis white cells are capable of sexual mating and that the white-opaque switch is independent of MTL control. Thus, MTLa, α, and a/α cells all undergo reversible switching between white and opaque states. Despite these differences, switching in both C. tropicalis and C. albicans is dependent on the expression of the Wor1 transcription factor. This factor is conserved amongst fungal ascomycetes and, in several species, acts as a master regulator of the yeast-to-filament transition. We show that, in addition to regulating the white-opaque switch in C. tropicalis, Wor1 expression also promotes filamentation and biofilm formation in this species. We therefore propose that C. tropicalis Wor1 has retained the ancestral role of this family of transcription factors while also gaining control over the more recently evolved white-opaque phenotypic switch.
Gefitinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a rare but lethal drug adverse event, which usually leads to the withdrawal of gefitinib and causes complications with anticancer treatment. In this study, gefitinib administration combined with prednisolone in a female with stage IIIb non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) produced a good outcome without inducing ILD. The results suggested that combined administration of gefitinib with glucocorticoids may be an efficient method to treat NSCLC while avoiding complications with ILD.
gefitinib; interstitial lung disease; non-small cell lung cancer; prednisolone; combination treatment
A wide range of microalbuminuria cutoff values are currently used for diagnosing the early stage of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study analyzed the relationships between oxidant and antioxidant markers of nephropathy and the severity of microalbuminuria. The study included 50 healthy controls (Group 1), 50 diabetic patients with no nephropathy (Group 2), 50 diabetic patients with nephropathy and a urinary albumin excretion (UAE) of 30–200 mg/24 h (Group 3), and 50 diabetic patients with UAE 200–300 mg/24 h (Group 4). Serum nitrotyrosine, conjugated dienes, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels were determined. Oxidative stress is increased in the early stage of nephropathy in patients with T2D. There was a significant correlation between the extent of microalbuminuria and markers of oxidative stress. Multiple linear regression analysis identified lipid oxidative stress as a possible independent marker for evaluating the degree of renal damage in diabetic nephropathy. Stratifying microalbuminuria values during the early stage of nephropathy might be an important factor in facilitating earlier and more specific interventions.
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) in China. Although liver biopsy is the reference method for evaluation of cirrhosis, it is an invasive procedure with inherent risk. The aim of this study is to discover novel noninvasive specific serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of HBV-induced LC. We performed bead fractionation/MALDI-TOF MS analysis on sera from patients with LC. Thirteen feature peaks which had optimal discriminatory performance were obtained by using support-vector-machine-(SVM-) based strategy. Based on the previous results, five supervised machine learning methods were employed to construct classifiers that discriminated proteomic spectra of patients with HBV-induced LC from those of controls. Here, we describe two novel methods for prediction of HBV-induced LC, termed LC-NB and LC-MLP, respectively. We obtained a sensitivity of 90.9%, a specificity of 94.9%, and overall accuracy of 93.8% on an independent test set. Comparisons with the existing methods showed that LC-NB and LC-MLP held better accuracy. Our study suggests that potential serum biomarkers can be determined for discriminating LC and non-LC cohorts by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These two classifiers could be used for clinical practice in HBV-induced LC assessment.
Several bone marrow-derived cell populations have been identified that may possess angiogenic activity and contribute to vascular homeostasis in experimental studies. We examined the extent to which lower quantities of these circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes may be related to impaired vascular function and greater arterial stiffness.
We studied 1,948 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 66±9 years; 54% women) who were phenotyped for circulating angiogenic cells: CD34+, CD34+/KDR+, and early outgrowth colony forming units (CFU). Participants underwent non-invasive assessments of vascular function including peripheral arterial tone (PAT), arterial tonometry, and brachial reactivity testing.
In unadjusted analyses, higher CD34+ and CD34+/KDR+ concentrations were modestly associated with lower PAT ratio (β=−0.052±0.011, P<0.001 and β=−0.030±0.011, P=0.008, respectively) and with higher carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity (β=0.144±0.043, P=0.001 and β=0.112±0.043, P=0.009), but not with flow-mediated dilation; higher CD34+ was also associated with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (β=−0.229±0.094, P=0.015) However, only the association of lower CD34+ concentration with higher PAT ratio persisted in multivariable analyses that adjusted for standard cardiovascular risk factors. In all analyses, CFU was not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness.
In our large, community-based sample of men and women, circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes largely were not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness in analyses adjusting for traditional risk factors.
angiogenesis; vascular function; risk factors; endothelium; epidemiology
Objective: To investigate the relationship between growth patterns and mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology in a Chinese population with normal occlusion. Methods: Forty-five patients with normal occlusion (23 males, 22 females) were included in this study. Among these patients, 20 displayed the vertical growth pattern, and 20 had the horizontal growth pattern, while the remaining patients displayed the average growth pattern. All of the patients underwent dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which included the region of the mandibular posterior teeth and the alveolar. A linear regression analysis and a correlation analysis between the facial height index (FHI) and the alveolar bone morphology were performed. Results: The inclination of the molars, the thickness of the cortical bone, and the height of the mandibular bone differed significantly between patients with the horizontal growth pattern and those with the vertical growth pattern (P<0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between: the FHI and the inclination of the molars; the FHI and the thickness of the cortical bone; and the FHI and the height of the mandibular bone. Conclusions: The mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology may be affected by growth patterns.
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT); Growth pattern; Alveolar morphology; Normal occlusion
Histone modification enzymes regulate gene expression by altering the accessibility of promoters to transcription factors. We sought to determine whether the genes encoding histone modification enzymes are dysregulated in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A real-time PCR array was designed, tested and used to profile the expression of 85 genes encoding histone modification enzymes in bone marrow mononuclear cells from 30 pediatric ALL patients and 20 normal controls. The expression profile of histone-modifying genes was significantly different between normal karyotype B cell pediatric ALL and normal controls. Eleven genes were upregulated in pediatric ALL, including the histone deacetylases HDAC2 and PAK1, and seven genes were downregulated, including PRMT2 and the putative tumor suppressor EP300. Future studies will seek to determine whether these genes serve as biomarkers of pediatric ALL. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that Gene Expression and Organ Morphology was the highest rated network, with 13 focus molecules (significance score = 35). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also indicated that curcumin and miR-34 are upstream regulators of histone-modifying enzymes; future studies will seek to validate these results and examine the role of curcumin and miR-34 in leukemia. This study provides new clues into the molecular mechanisms of pediatric ALL.
histone-modifying enzymes; pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia; real-time PCR array
Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells.
SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool.
YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to cell death, cellular function maintenance, cell morphology, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular growth and proliferation. Death receptor signaling (3.87E-19), TNFR1 signaling, induction of apoptosis by HIV1, apoptosis signaling and molecular mechanisms of cancer came out to be the top four most significant pathways. IPA analysis also showed top molecules up-regulated were BBC3, BIRC3, BIRC8, BNIP1, CASP7, CASP9, CD5, CDKN1A, CEBPG and COL4A3, top molecules down-regulated were ZNF443, UTP11L, TP73, TNFSF10, TNFRSF1B, TNFRSF25, TIAF1, STK17A, SST and SPP1, upstream regulator were NR3C1, TP53, dexamethasone , TNF and Akt.
The present study demonstrates that YM155 treatment resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells. YM155 had significant role and little side effect in the treatment of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Real-time PCR array analysis firstly showed expression profile of genes dyes-regulated after YM155 treatment. IPA analysis also represents new molecule mechanism of YM155 treatment, such as NR3C1 and dexamethasone may be new target of YM155. And our results may provide new clues of molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by YM155.
YM155; SK-NEP-1; Survivin; Apoptosis; Real-time PCR array
This study aimed to explore the mechanism of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation and the significance of ventricular septal defect occlusion by echocardiography. A total of 43 patients with membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation were observed by echocardiography and the changes in length, area and volume of tricuspid regurgitation prior to and following ventricular septal defect occlusion were measured. There were four different mechanisms of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation. The various indices of tricuspid regurgitation volume were significantly reduced following occlusion. Ventricular septal defect occlusion significantly reduces tricuspid regurgitation volume complicated with membranous ventricular septal defect and echocardiography is an ideal method to detect these changes.
tricuspid regurgitation; membranous ventricular septal defect; echocardiography; occlusion; interventional therapy