Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) in China. Although liver biopsy is the reference method for evaluation of cirrhosis, it is an invasive procedure with inherent risk. The aim of this study is to discover novel noninvasive specific serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of HBV-induced LC. We performed bead fractionation/MALDI-TOF MS analysis on sera from patients with LC. Thirteen feature peaks which had optimal discriminatory performance were obtained by using support-vector-machine-(SVM-) based strategy. Based on the previous results, five supervised machine learning methods were employed to construct classifiers that discriminated proteomic spectra of patients with HBV-induced LC from those of controls. Here, we describe two novel methods for prediction of HBV-induced LC, termed LC-NB and LC-MLP, respectively. We obtained a sensitivity of 90.9%, a specificity of 94.9%, and overall accuracy of 93.8% on an independent test set. Comparisons with the existing methods showed that LC-NB and LC-MLP held better accuracy. Our study suggests that potential serum biomarkers can be determined for discriminating LC and non-LC cohorts by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These two classifiers could be used for clinical practice in HBV-induced LC assessment.
Several bone marrow-derived cell populations have been identified that may possess angiogenic activity and contribute to vascular homeostasis in experimental studies. We examined the extent to which lower quantities of these circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes may be related to impaired vascular function and greater arterial stiffness.
We studied 1,948 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 66±9 years; 54% women) who were phenotyped for circulating angiogenic cells: CD34+, CD34+/KDR+, and early outgrowth colony forming units (CFU). Participants underwent non-invasive assessments of vascular function including peripheral arterial tone (PAT), arterial tonometry, and brachial reactivity testing.
In unadjusted analyses, higher CD34+ and CD34+/KDR+ concentrations were modestly associated with lower PAT ratio (β=−0.052±0.011, P<0.001 and β=−0.030±0.011, P=0.008, respectively) and with higher carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity (β=0.144±0.043, P=0.001 and β=0.112±0.043, P=0.009), but not with flow-mediated dilation; higher CD34+ was also associated with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (β=−0.229±0.094, P=0.015) However, only the association of lower CD34+ concentration with higher PAT ratio persisted in multivariable analyses that adjusted for standard cardiovascular risk factors. In all analyses, CFU was not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness.
In our large, community-based sample of men and women, circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes largely were not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness in analyses adjusting for traditional risk factors.
angiogenesis; vascular function; risk factors; endothelium; epidemiology
Objective: To investigate the relationship between growth patterns and mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology in a Chinese population with normal occlusion. Methods: Forty-five patients with normal occlusion (23 males, 22 females) were included in this study. Among these patients, 20 displayed the vertical growth pattern, and 20 had the horizontal growth pattern, while the remaining patients displayed the average growth pattern. All of the patients underwent dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which included the region of the mandibular posterior teeth and the alveolar. A linear regression analysis and a correlation analysis between the facial height index (FHI) and the alveolar bone morphology were performed. Results: The inclination of the molars, the thickness of the cortical bone, and the height of the mandibular bone differed significantly between patients with the horizontal growth pattern and those with the vertical growth pattern (P<0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between: the FHI and the inclination of the molars; the FHI and the thickness of the cortical bone; and the FHI and the height of the mandibular bone. Conclusions: The mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology may be affected by growth patterns.
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT); Growth pattern; Alveolar morphology; Normal occlusion
Histone modification enzymes regulate gene expression by altering the accessibility of promoters to transcription factors. We sought to determine whether the genes encoding histone modification enzymes are dysregulated in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A real-time PCR array was designed, tested and used to profile the expression of 85 genes encoding histone modification enzymes in bone marrow mononuclear cells from 30 pediatric ALL patients and 20 normal controls. The expression profile of histone-modifying genes was significantly different between normal karyotype B cell pediatric ALL and normal controls. Eleven genes were upregulated in pediatric ALL, including the histone deacetylases HDAC2 and PAK1, and seven genes were downregulated, including PRMT2 and the putative tumor suppressor EP300. Future studies will seek to determine whether these genes serve as biomarkers of pediatric ALL. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that Gene Expression and Organ Morphology was the highest rated network, with 13 focus molecules (significance score = 35). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also indicated that curcumin and miR-34 are upstream regulators of histone-modifying enzymes; future studies will seek to validate these results and examine the role of curcumin and miR-34 in leukemia. This study provides new clues into the molecular mechanisms of pediatric ALL.
histone-modifying enzymes; pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia; real-time PCR array
Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells.
SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool.
YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3) or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P < 0.01). YM155 treatment decreased weight of tumors (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.05 ± 0.24 g; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.72 ± 0.17 g) compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 2.06 ± 0.38 g) or PBS group cells (PBS: 2.36 ± 0.43 g, ANOVA P < 0.01). Real-time PCR array analysis showed between Test group and control group there are 32 genes significantly up-regulated and 54 genes were significantly down-regulated after YM155 treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) showed cell death was the highest rated network with 65 focus molecules and the significance score of 44. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to cell death, cellular function maintenance, cell morphology, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular growth and proliferation. Death receptor signaling (3.87E-19), TNFR1 signaling, induction of apoptosis by HIV1, apoptosis signaling and molecular mechanisms of cancer came out to be the top four most significant pathways. IPA analysis also showed top molecules up-regulated were BBC3, BIRC3, BIRC8, BNIP1, CASP7, CASP9, CD5, CDKN1A, CEBPG and COL4A3, top molecules down-regulated were ZNF443, UTP11L, TP73, TNFSF10, TNFRSF1B, TNFRSF25, TIAF1, STK17A, SST and SPP1, upstream regulator were NR3C1, TP53, dexamethasone , TNF and Akt.
The present study demonstrates that YM155 treatment resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells. YM155 had significant role and little side effect in the treatment of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Real-time PCR array analysis firstly showed expression profile of genes dyes-regulated after YM155 treatment. IPA analysis also represents new molecule mechanism of YM155 treatment, such as NR3C1 and dexamethasone may be new target of YM155. And our results may provide new clues of molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by YM155.
YM155; SK-NEP-1; Survivin; Apoptosis; Real-time PCR array
This study aimed to explore the mechanism of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation and the significance of ventricular septal defect occlusion by echocardiography. A total of 43 patients with membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation were observed by echocardiography and the changes in length, area and volume of tricuspid regurgitation prior to and following ventricular septal defect occlusion were measured. There were four different mechanisms of membranous ventricular septal defect complicated with tricuspid regurgitation. The various indices of tricuspid regurgitation volume were significantly reduced following occlusion. Ventricular septal defect occlusion significantly reduces tricuspid regurgitation volume complicated with membranous ventricular septal defect and echocardiography is an ideal method to detect these changes.
tricuspid regurgitation; membranous ventricular septal defect; echocardiography; occlusion; interventional therapy
Background Although several studies have evaluated the relationship between adult height and mortality, their results have not been entirely consistent. Little is known about components of adult height in relation to mortality, particularly in developing countries.
Methods We examined the association of adult height and its components (leg and trunk length) with mortality using data from 74 869 Chinese women and 61 333 men in the Shanghai Women's (1996–2008) and Men's (2002–2008) Health Studies. Anthropometric measurements, including standing and sitting height and weight, were taken at baseline by trained interviewers according to a standard protocol. Deaths were ascertained by biennial home visits and linkage with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the associations.
Results Neither height nor its components were associated with all-cause mortality. Height and, less consistently, its components were positively associated with cancer mortality, but inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for cancer mortality per 1-SD increment in height, trunk and leg length were 1.06 (1.01–1.12), 1.07 (1.01–1.12) and 1.03 (0.98–1.08), respectively, in women, and 1.13 (1.05–1.22), 1.09 (1.00–1.19) and 1.10 (1.03–1.16), respectively, in men. The corresponding HRs for CVD mortality were 0.89 (0.84–0.95), 0.93 (0.87–0.99) and 0.91 (0.86–0.98) in women, and 0.93 (0.86–1.02), 0.89 (0.81–0.98) and 0.99 (0.92–1.06) in men.
Conclusions Our results suggest that different mechanisms may be involved in linking height and its components with cancer and CVD mortality.
Body height; cancer; cardiovascular disease; Chinese; cohort study; mortality
Primary pulmonary amyloidosis is a relatively rare condition, characterized by amyloid deposition in the lungs and other associated structures. We report a case of primary nodular parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis in a 44-year-old male. The patient was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of multiple lobulated nodules in both lungs. As the multiple lung nodules were suspected to be metastatic, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was conducted, which revealed that the nodules had a mild uptake of 18F-FCG. Amyloidosis was confirmed by conducting a percutaneous CT-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in the left lung nodule. A literature review of previous studies on primary nodular parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis from Medline (1970-October 2011) and Embase (1989-October 2011) was also included. Despite its rarity, primary nodular parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis with a pattern of multiple nodules also forms part of the differential diagnosis of pulmonary metastases with high 18F-FDG uptake on PET/CT.
amyloidosis; pulmonary nodules; metastases
The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group reported a maximum tolerated dose of 74 Gy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, it was unclear whether this dose could be safely administered to Asian patients due to differences in their physique compared to Western patients. We therefore conducted a modified Phase I trial to determine whether 70 Gy could be safely delivered to Chinese patients with NSCLC undergoing 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with concurrent chemotherapy. Previously untreated NSCLC patients received 3D-CRT (2 Gy/day, 5 fractions per week). Three dose levels were examined: 62, 66 and 70 Gy. Two cycles of concurrent chemotherapy (vinorelbine and carboplatin) were started on the first day of radiation therapy. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as severe or life-threatening side effects that altered the continued implementation of chemoradiotherapy. Among the 19 patients recruited in this study, most of the haematologic and non-haematologic toxicities were mild to moderate and clinically manageable. Only one patient, in the 70 Gy cohort, experienced a DLT of Grade 3 radiation-induced pneumonia. The overall response rate was 77.8% (14/18). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 months, and the 1-year PFS was 37.6%. Our results support both the feasibility of incorporating 3D-CRT with concurrent vinorelbine and carboplatin and a dose escalation to 70 Gy for Chinese patients with NSCLC, based on the acceptable toxicity and encouraging overall response and survival rates. A further evaluation of this regimen in a prospective Phase II trial is ongoing.
non-small-cell lung cancer; 3D conformal radiation therapy; dose escalation; concurrent chemoradiotherapy
Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation using medium in excess of 250 g/L sugars for more than 15% (v) ethanol can save energy consumption, not only for ethanol distillation, but also for distillage treatment; however, stuck fermentation with prolonged fermentation time and more sugars unfermented is the biggest challenge. Controlling redox potential (ORP) during VHG fermentation benefits biomass accumulation and improvement of yeast cell viability that is affected by osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition, enhancing ethanol productivity and yield, the most important techno-economic aspect of fuel ethanol production.
Batch fermentation was performed under different ORP conditions using the flocculating yeast and media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1, 252 ± 2.9 and 298 ± 3.8 g/L. Compared with ethanol fermentation by non-flocculating yeast, different ORP profiles were observed with the flocculating yeast due to the morphological change associated with the flocculation of yeast cells. When ORP was controlled at −100 mV, ethanol fermentation with the high gravity (HG) media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1 and 252 ± 2.9 g/L was completed at 32 and 56 h, respectively, producing 93.0 ± 1.3 and 120.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol, correspondingly. In contrast, there were 24.0 ± 0.4 and 17.0 ± 0.3 g/L glucose remained unfermented without ORP control. As high as 131.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol was produced at 72 h when ORP was controlled at −150 mV for the VHG fermentation with medium containing 298 ± 3.8 g/L glucose, since yeast cell viability was improved more significantly.
No lag phase was observed during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast, and the implementation of ORP control improved ethanol productivity and yield. When ORP was controlled at −150 mV, more reducing power was available for yeast cells to survive, which in turn improved their viability and VHG ethanol fermentation performance. On the other hand, controlling ORP at −100 mV stimulated yeast growth and enhanced ethanol production under the HG conditions. Moreover, the ORP profile detected during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast was less fluctuated, indicating that yeast flocculation could attenuate the ORP fluctuation observed during ethanol fermentation with non-flocculating yeast.
Flocculating yeast; Very high gravity; Ethanol fermentation; Redox potential
Gankyrin was originally purified and characterized as the p28 component of the 26S proteasome, and later identified as an oncogenic protein in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). It has recently been found to be highly expressed in several other malignancies, and compelling evidence show gankyrin plays important roles in tumorigenesis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear.
In order to further clarify the functions of gankyrin and better understand its molecular mechanisms, we generated a gankyrin null cell line, HCT116 gankyrin−/− , by targeted homologous recombination in human colon cancer cells, and then employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) based proteomic approaches followed by MS identification to investigate alterations in the proteome due to the gankyrin knockout. Western blot and qRT-PCR assays were also used to examine the protein and mRNA levels of some identified proteins.
Compared with wild-type control cells, gankyrin null cells were impaired in terms of their proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent growth. A total of 21 altered proteins were identified, which included 18 proteins that had not previously been reported to be related to gankyrin. Notably, eight metastasis-related proteins were identified. Western blot analyses confirmed that the changes in three examined proteins were consistent with 2-DE gel analysis.
In summary, we have generated a useful cell tool to clarify the functions of gankyrin. Our proteomic data provide novel information to better understand the roles and underlying mechanisms by which gankyrin is involved in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis.
Prior studies have reported conflicting findings with regard to the association of biomarkers in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes. We evaluated 12 biomarkers as possible diabetes predictors in the Framingham Heart Study.
Methods and Results
Biomarkers representing inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, osteoprotegerin, and fibrinogen), endothelial dysfunction (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), vascular damage (CD40-ligand, P-selectin, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity), and oxidative stress (urinary isoprostanes) were measured in participants without diabetes attending the Offspring seventh (n=2499) or multiethnic Omni second (n=189) examination (1998–2001). Biomarkers were loge transformed and standardized. Multivariable logistic regression tested each biomarker in association with incident diabetes at a follow-up examination (the Offspring eighth and Omni third examination; mean 6.6 years later), with adjustment for age, sex, cohort, body mass index, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and smoking. C statistics were evaluated with and without inflammatory markers. In 2638 participants (56% women, mean age 59 years), 162 (6.1%) developed type 2 diabetes. All biomarkers, excluding osteoprotegerin, were associated with the outcome with adjustment for age, sex, and cohort; however, none remained significant after multivariable adjustment (all P>0.05). The c statistic from the model including only clinical covariates (0.89) did not statistically significantly improve after addition of biomarkers (all P>0.10).
Biomarkers representing different inflammatory pathways are associated with incident diabetes but do not remain statistically significant after adjustment for established clinical covariates. Inflammatory biomarkers might not be an effective resource to predict type 2 diabetes in community-based samples. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000737 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.000869.)
biomarkers; C-reactive protein; diabetes; inflammation; prediction
Previous studies on various enzymosomes (functional lipid vesicles encapsulating an enzyme) have been mostly carried out in vitro and have focused on preserving catalytic activity and improving the stability of the enzyme. Until now, few studies have focused on their in vivo fate. Similarly, although we have previously reported the increased in vitro uricolytic activity (about 2.2 times higher than that of free uricase, or three times higher than that of PEGylated uricase, Puricase®, under physiological pH and temperature) and improved stability of the novel alkaline enzymosomes (functional lipid vesicles encapsulating uricase from Candida utilis: uricase-containing lipid vesicles, UOXLVs), it is still necessary to study the biological properties and hypouricemic effects of UOXLVs in vivo.
The enzyme kinetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immunogenicity, and preliminary safety of UOXLVs were evaluated.
The Michaelis constant (Km) value of the UOXLVs was slightly lower than that of the free enzyme. The enzyme release from the UOXLVs lasted over 12 hours and their circulation half-life was about sevenfold longer than that of the free uricase. Meanwhile, the UOXLVs had a 22-fold increase in the area under the curve compared with the free uricase. Furthermore, it took less than 3 hours for the UOXLVs to lower the plasma uric acid concentration from a high to a normal level, compared with 6 hours for the free uricase. In addition, the UOXLVs had much less immunogenicity than free uricase and were well tolerated by all animals throughout the observation period.
The UOXLVs markedly improved the biological properties and enhanced the hypouricemic effects of uricase in vivo.
biological properties; hypouricemic effect; uricase; alkaline enzymosomes; in vivo
AIM: To investigate the expression and significance of caudal-related homeobox transcription factor (Cdx2) in gastric carcinoma (GC) and precancerous lesions.
METHODS: The expression of Cdx2 in GC, precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa were detected using immunohistochemical method. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, alcian blue/periodic acid-schiff and high iron diamine/alcian blue staining were used to classify intestinal metaplasia (IM) and GC.
RESULTS: Cdx2 was not detected in normal gastric mucosa. Cdx2 expression was detected in 87.1% (101/116) of IM, 50% (36/72) of dysplasia and 48.2% (41/85) of GC. The Cdx2-expressing cells in IM were more prevalent than in dysplasia and carcinoma (P < 0.05). There was no relationship between Cdx2 expression and the classification of IM or the degree of dysplasia. Expression of Cdx2 was significantly higher in intestinal-type carcinoma than in diffuse and mixed-type carcinoma (P < 0.05). Positive expression of Cdx2 was mainly found in moderately to well differentiated GC. There was a negative association between nuclear Cdx2 expression and lymph node metastasis and tumor, nodes, metastasis stage of GC (P < 0.05). The patients with Cdx2-positive expression showed a higher survival rate than those with Cdx2-negative expression (P = 0.038). Multivariate analysis revealed that the expression of Cdx2 and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic indicators of GC (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Cdx2 may be closely related to IM and the intestinal-type GC and implicate better biological behavior and outcome. Cdx2 is useful for predicting the prognosis of GC.
Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor; Stomach neoplasm; Intestinal metaplasia; Dysplasia; Immunohistochemistry
To compare the visual and optical performance of eyes with different corneal spherical aberration (SA) implanted with spherical aberration-free intraocular lens (IOLs).
Thirty-six patients with different corneal SA had phacoemulsification with implantation of spherical aberration-free IOLs. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the value of preoperative corneal SA. Eyes with corneal SA <0.10µm were assigned to group A, those with 0.10 ≤corneal SA <0.20µm to Group B, and those with 0.20≤ corneal SA <0.35µm to Group C. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity, corneal SA, total ocular aberrations, and depth of focus were recorded 3 months postoperatively. Distance-corrected near and intermediate visual acuity was studied to measure depth of focus.
BCVA and contrast sensitivity were similar between groups. There were no significant differences in distance-corrected near or intermediate visual acuity. Corneal SA was similar before and 3 months after surgery in the 3 groups. With a 5.0mm pupil diameter, root mean square values for total ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were lower in groups A and B than in group C. Total ocular SA was lower in group A than in groups B and C. SA was also lower in group B than in group C. Coma and trefoil were similar between the groups.
Implantation of spherical aberration-free IOLs in eyes with different corneal SA results in similar visual performance at BCVA, contrast sensitivity and depth of focus.
spherical aberration-free intraocular lens; sherical aberration; contrast sensitivity; cataract
Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), commonly used in building materials, electronics, plastics, polyurethane foams, and textiles, are health hazards found in the environment.
Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of PBDE-209, a deca-PBDE, on the regulation of growth and apoptosis of breast, ovarian, and cervical cancer cells as well as the underlying protein alterations.
Methods: We used MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR (multidrug-resistant MCF-7) breast cancer cell lines, the HeLa cervical cancer cell line, the OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell line, and the normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell line to assess the effects of PBDE-209 using cell viability, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometric assays. Western blot assays were used to detect changes in protein expression. To assess the effects of PBDE-209 on apoptosis, we used the protein kinase Cα (PKCα) inhibitor Gö 6976, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, and tamoxifen.
Results: Our data indicate that PBDE-209 increased viability and proliferation of the tumor cell lines and in CHO cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PBDE-209 also altered cell cycle distribution by inducing the S phase or G2/M phase. Furthermore, PBDE-209 partially suppressed tamoxifen-induced cell apoptosis in the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR) but suppressed Gö 6976- and PD98059-induced apoptosis in all cell lines. At the molecular level, PBDE-209 enhanced PKCα and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the cell lines.
Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that PBDE-209 is able to promote proliferation of various cancer cells from the female reproductive system and normal ovarian CHO cells. Furthermore, it reduced tamoxifen, PKCα, and ERK inhibition-induced apoptosis. Finally, PBDE-209 up-regulated phosphorylation of PKCα and ERK1/2 proteins in tumor cells and in CHO cells.
cell proliferation; ERK1/2; female reproductive cancer; PBDE-209; PKCα
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a fundamental role in cell proliferation and survival in human tumorigenesis, including gastric cancer. PIK3CA mutations and amplification are two major causes of overactivation of this pathway in human cancers. However, until this work, there was no sound investigation on the association of PIK3CA mutations and amplification with clinical outcome in gastric cancer, particularly the latter.
Using direct sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR, we examined PIK3CA mutations and amplification, and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome of gastric cancer patients.
PIK3CA mutations and amplification were found in 8/113 (7.1%) and 88/131 (67%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. PIK3CA amplification was closely associated with increased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) level. No relationship was found between PIK3CA mutations and clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome in gastric cancer. PIK3CA amplification was significantly positively associated with cancer-related death. Importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that the patients with PIK3CA amplification had significantly shorter survival times than the patients without PIK3CA amplification.
Our data showed that PIK3CA mutations were not common, but its amplification was very common in gastric cancer and may be a major mechanism in activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in gastric cancer. Importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that PIK3CA amplification was significantly positively associated with poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Collectively, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may be an effective therapeutic target in gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; PI3K/Akt pathway; PIK3CA mutations; PIK3CA amplification; Poor survival
Docetaxel alone has been confirmed to be beneficial to patients with advanced previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the duration and survival time is short. The study of two-agent combination regimens has important clinical significance. We conducted this randomized controlled phase II trial to comparatively evaluate the efficacy and side effects of capecitabine combined with docetaxel in previously treated patients with NSCLC. Patients with previously treated NSCLC who failed first-line chemotherapy were randomized into two groups; one received capecitabine combined with docetaxel (XT group) and the other received docetaxel alone (T group). Patients in the XT group received chemotherapy as follows: capecitabine 625 mg/m2, p.o. bid, days 5-18; and docetaxel 30 mg/m2, days 1 and 8, while patients in the T group received docetaxel 35 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8. The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP), and secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), response rate (RR) and disease control rate (DCR). Forty-eight patients were recruited (23 in the XT group and 25 in the T group). TTP, median survival time (MST) and 1-year OS rate in the XT group and the T group were 7 months, 12 months, 47.6% and 3 months, 12 months, 39.6%, respectively. The TTP in the XT group was significantly longer compared to that in the T group (χ2=4.763, p=0.029). The RR and DCR in the XT group and T group were 13.0% (3/23), 78.3% (18/23) and 12.0% (3/25), 76% (19/25), respectively. The difference was not significant (p>0.05). The major side effects observed in the two groups were neutropenia, fatigue and nausea, and toxicities were mild to modest. No severe cases of hand-foot syndrome were observed in the XT group. In conclusion, compared with docetaxel alone, capecitabine combined with docetaxel for patients with previously treated NSCLC achieved a significantly longer TTP and this regimen was well tolerated. The relatively high median TTP, 1-year OS rate and DCR encourage further evaluation of this regimen in a randomized phase III trial.
non-small cell lung cancer; chemotherapy; second-line therapy; capecitabine; docetaxel
The title ion-pair compound, (C7H7N2)2[Cu(C4N2S2)2], was obtained by the direct reaction of CuCl2·2H2O, disodium maleonitriledithiolate (Na2mnt) and 4-cyano-1-methylpyridinium iodide. The anion and one pyridinium cation lie entirely on a mirror plane, whereas for the other cation, a crystallographic mirror plane runs through the N and para-C atoms of the pyridine ring, the methyl C atom, and the cyano group. In the crystal, ions are linked into a three-dimensional network by C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds.
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. However, genetic alterations leading to this disease are largely unknown. Gene amplification is one of the most frequent genetic alterations, which is believed to play a major role in the development and progression of gastric cancer. In the present study, we identified three frequently amplified genes from 30 candidate genes using real-time quantitative PCR method, including ERBB4, C-MET and CD44, and further explored their association with clinicopathological characteristics and poor survival in a cohort of gastric cancers. Our data showed amplification of these genes was significantly associated with certain clinicopathological characteristics, particularly tumor differentiation and cancer-related death. More importantly, amplification of these genes was significantly related to worse survival, suggesting that these amplified genes may be significant predictors of poor prognosis and potential therapeutic targets in gastric cancer. Targeting these genes may thus provide new possibilities in the treatment of gastric cancer.
gastric cancer; oncogenes; gene amplification; poor prognosis
AIM: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effect of IκB kinase-beta inhibitor (IKK2 inhibitor IMD0354) in liver fibrosis.
METHODS: Twenty male C57BL6 mice were divided into four groups. Five high-fat fed mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally and five high-fat fed mice were without LPS injection to build models of liver injury, and the intervention group (five mice) was injected intraperitoneally with IKK2 inhibitor (IMD 30 mg/kg for 14 d), while the remaining five mice received a normal diet as controls. Hepatic function, pathological evaluation and liver interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression were examined. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the expressions of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), tumor growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), typeIand type III collagen proteins and mRNA.
RESULTS: A mouse model of liver injury was successfully established, and IMD decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in liver cells. In the IMD-treated group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (103 ± 9.77 μ/L vs 62.4 ± 7.90 μ/L, P < 0.05) and aminotransferase (295.8 ± 38.56 μ/L vs 212 ± 25.10 μ/L, P < 0.05) were significantly decreased when compared with the model groups. The histological changes were significantly ameliorated. After treatment, the expressions of IL-6 (681 ± 45.96 vs 77 ± 7.79, P < 0.05), TGF-β1 (Western blotting 5.65% ± 0.017% vs 2.73% ± 0.005%, P < 0.05), TNF-α (11.58% ± 0.0063% vs 8.86% ± 0.0050%, P < 0.05), typeIcollagen (4.49% ± 0.014% vs 1.90% ± 0.0006%, P < 0.05) and type III collagen (3.46% ± 0.008% vs 2.29% ± 0.0035%, P < 0.05) as well as α-SMA (6.19 ± 0.0036 μ/L vs 2.16 ± 0.0023 μ/L, P < 0.05) protein and mRNA were downregulated in the IMD group compared to the fibrosis control groups (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: IKK2 inhibitor IMD markedly improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by lowering NF-κB activation, which could become a remedial target for liver fibrosis.
Liver fibrosis; IKK2 inhibitor; Nuclear factor-kappa B; Tumor growth factor-beta1; Interleukin-6; Alpha-smooth muscle actin; C57BL mouse
Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28)-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone during incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with maximum anchorage. Methods: Twenty adult patients with bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion had the four first premolars extracted. Miniscrews were placed to provide maximum anchorage for upper incisor retraction and intrusion. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed after placement of the miniscrews and treatment. The 3D reconstructions of pre- and post-CT data were used to assess the dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone. Results: The amounts of upper incisor retraction at the edge and apex were (7.64±1.68) and (3.91±2.10) mm, respectively, and (1.34±0.74) mm of upper central incisor intrusion. Upper alveolar bone height losses at labial alveolar ridge crest (LAC) and palatal alveolar ridge crest (PAC) were 0.543 and 2.612 mm, respectively, and the percentages were (6.49±3.54)% and (27.42±9.77)%, respectively. The shape deformations of LAC-labial cortex bending point (LBP) and PAC-palatal cortex bending point (PBP) were (15.37±5.20)° and (6.43±3.27)°, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, for adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion, mechanobiological response of anterior alveolus should be taken into account during incisor retraction and intrusion. Pursuit of maximum anchorage might lead to upper anterior alveolar bone loss.
Alveolar bone loss; Adult patients; Computed tomography; Three-dimensional registration
Promoter methylation acts as an important alternative to genetic alterations for gene inactivation in gastric carcinogenesis. Although a number of gastric cancer-associated genes have been found to be methylated in gastric cancer, valuable methylation markers for early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of this cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, we used methylation-specific PCR (MSP) to analyze promoter methylation of 9 gastric cancer-associated genes, including MLF1, MGMT, p16, RASSF2, hMLH1, HAND1, HRASLS, TM, and FLNc, and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome in a large cohort of gastric cancers. Our data showed that all of these genes were aberrantly methylated in gastric cancer, ranging from 8% to 51%. Moreover, gene methylation was strongly associated with certain clinicopathological characteristics, such as tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and cancer-related death. Of interest, methylation of MGMT, p16, RASSF2, hMLH1, HAND1, and FLNc was closely associated with poor survival in gastric cancer, particularly MGMT, p16, RASSF2 and FLNc. Thus, our findings suggested these epigenetic events may contribute to the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. Importantly, methylation of some genes were closely relevant to poor prognosis in gastric cancer, providing the strong evidences that these hypermethylated genes may be served as valuable biomarkers for prognostic evaluation in this cancer.
Gastric cancer; gene methylation; methylation-specific PCR (MSP); early diagnosis; poor prognosis