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author:("Volpe, pompe")
1.  Mechanism of calsequestrin regulation of single cardiac ryanodine receptor in normal and pathological conditions 
The Journal of General Physiology  2013;142(2):127-136.
Release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) drives contractile function of cardiac myocytes. Luminal Ca2+ regulation of SR Ca2+ release is fundamental not only in physiology but also in physiopathology because abnormal luminal Ca2+ regulation is known to lead to arrhythmias, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and/or sudden cardiac arrest, as inferred from animal model studies. Luminal Ca2+ regulates ryanodine receptor (RyR)2-mediated SR Ca2+ release through mechanisms localized inside the SR; one of these involves luminal Ca2+ interacting with calsequestrin (CASQ), triadin, and/or junctin to regulate RyR2 function.
CASQ2-RyR2 regulation was examined at the single RyR2 channel level. Single RyR2s were incorporated into planar lipid bilayers by the fusion of native SR vesicles isolated from either wild-type (WT), CASQ2 knockout (KO), or R33Q-CASQ2 knock-in (KI) mice. KO and KI mice have CPVT-like phenotypes. We show that CASQ2(WT) action on RyR2 function (either activation or inhibition) was strongly influenced by the presence of cytosolic MgATP. Function of the reconstituted CASQ2(WT)–RyR2 complex was unaffected by changes in luminal free [Ca2+] (from 0.1 to 1 mM). The inhibition exerted by CASQ2(WT) association with the RyR2 determined a reduction in cytosolic Ca2+ activation sensitivity. RyR2s from KO mice were significantly more sensitive to cytosolic Ca2+ activation and had significantly longer mean open times than RyR2s from WT mice. Sensitivity of RyR2s from KI mice was in between that of RyR2 channels from KO and WT mice. Enhanced cytosolic RyR2 Ca2+ sensitivity and longer RyR2 open times likely explain the CPVT-like phenotype of both KO and KI mice.
doi:10.1085/jgp.201311022
PMCID: PMC3727306  PMID: 23858002
2.  Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse☆ 
Redox Biology  2013;1(1):514-526.
Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO) imbalance and “nitrosative stress” are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO) functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study) without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i) the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii) to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii) to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre) and at end (End) from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9) and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7) or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7). At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, –SERCA1 and –PMCA) and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.
Graphical abstract
Highlights
•NOS1 is auto-S-nitrosylated (SNO-NOS1) in human skeletal muscle.•Excess levels of functional SNO-proteins in disused-induced muscle atrophy.•Recovered levels of functional SNO-proteins by exercise countermeasure.•Aberrant levels of SNO-proteins are signatures of nitrosative stress management.•Vibration intervention induced anti-oxidative master gene Nrf2 myonuclear shuttling.
doi:10.1016/j.redox.2013.10.006
PMCID: PMC3830069  PMID: 24251120
Nitric oxide synthase; Calcium-release channels; Calcium ATPase; Nitrosative stress; Nrf-2; Skeletal muscle; Calcium homeostasis
3.  Muscle Research and Gene Ontology: New standards for improved data integration 
Background
The Gene Ontology Project provides structured controlled vocabularies for molecular biology that can be used for the functional annotation of genes and gene products. In a collaboration between the Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium and the muscle biology community, we have made large-scale additions to the GO biological process and cellular component ontologies. The main focus of this ontology development work concerns skeletal muscle, with specific consideration given to the processes of muscle contraction, plasticity, development, and regeneration, and to the sarcomere and membrane-delimited compartments. Our aims were to update the existing structure to reflect current knowledge, and to resolve, in an accommodating manner, the ambiguity in the language used by the community.
Results
The updated muscle terminologies have been incorporated into the GO. There are now 159 new terms covering critical research areas, and 57 existing terms have been improved and reorganized to follow their usage in muscle literature.
Conclusion
The revised GO structure should improve the interpretation of data from high-throughput (e.g. microarray and proteomic) experiments in the area of muscle science and muscle disease. We actively encourage community feedback on, and gene product annotation with these new terms. Please visit the Muscle Community Annotation Wiki .
doi:10.1186/1755-8794-2-6
PMCID: PMC2657163  PMID: 19178689
4.  Luminal Ca2+ Regulation of Single Cardiac Ryanodine Receptors: Insights Provided by Calsequestrin and its Mutants 
The Journal of General Physiology  2008;131(4):325-334.
The luminal Ca2+ regulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) was explored at the single channel level. The luminal Ca2+ and Mg2+ sensitivity of single CSQ2-stripped and CSQ2-associated RyR2 channels was defined. Action of wild-type CSQ2 and of two mutant CSQ2s (R33Q and L167H) was also compared. Two luminal Ca2+ regulatory mechanism(s) were identified. One is a RyR2-resident mechanism that is CSQ2 independent and does not distinguish between luminal Ca2+ and Mg2+. This mechanism modulates the maximal efficacy of cytosolic Ca2+ activation. The second luminal Ca2+ regulatory mechanism is CSQ2 dependent and distinguishes between luminal Ca2+ and Mg2+. It does not depend on CSQ2 oligomerization or CSQ2 monomer Ca2+ binding affinity. The key Ca2+-sensitive step in this mechanism may be the Ca2+-dependent CSQ2 interaction with triadin. The CSQ2-dependent mechanism alters the cytosolic Ca2+ sensitivity of the channel. The R33Q CSQ2 mutant can participate in luminal RyR2 Ca2+ regulation but less effectively than wild-type (WT) CSQ2. CSQ2-L167H does not participate in luminal RyR2 Ca2+ regulation. The disparate actions of these two catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)–linked mutants implies that either alteration or elimination of CSQ2-dependent luminal RyR2 regulation can generate the CPVT phenotype. We propose that the RyR2-resident, CSQ2-independent luminal Ca2+ mechanism may assure that all channels respond robustly to large (>5 μM) local cytosolic Ca2+ stimuli, whereas the CSQ2-dependent mechanism may help close RyR2 channels after luminal Ca2+ falls below ∼0.5 mM.
doi:10.1085/jgp.200709907
PMCID: PMC2279168  PMID: 18347081
5.  Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 Activates Promoter Sequences of the Human AβH-J-J Locus, Encoding Aspartyl-β-Hydroxylase, Junctin, and Junctate 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2005;25(8):3261-3275.
Alternative splicing of the locus AβH-J-J generates three functionally distinct proteins: an enzyme, AβH (aspartyl-β-hydroxylase), a structural protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane (junctin), and an integral membrane calcium binding protein (junctate). Junctin and junctate are two important proteins involved in calcium regulation in eukaryotic cells. To understand the regulation of these two proteins, we identified and functionally characterized one of the two promoter sequences of the AβH-J-J locus. We demonstrate that the P2 promoter of the AβH-J-J locus contains (i) a minimal sequence localized within a region −159 bp from the transcription initiation site, which is sufficient to activate transcription of both mRNAs; (ii) sequences which bind known transcriptional factors such as those belonging to the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF-2), MEF-3, and NF-κB protein families; and (iii) sequences bound by unknown proteins. The functional characterization of the minimal promoter in C2C12 cells and in the rat soleus muscle in vivo model indicates the existence of cis elements having positive and negative effects on transcription. In addition, our data demonstrate that in striated muscle cells the calcium-dependent transcription factor MEF-2 is crucial for the transcription activity directed by the P2 promoter. The transcription directed by the AβH-J-J P2 promoter is induced by high expression of MEF-2, further stimulated by calcineurin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I, and inhibited by histone deacetylase 4.
doi:10.1128/MCB.25.8.3261-3275.2005
PMCID: PMC1069596  PMID: 15798210

Results 1-5 (5)