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1.  Intake of Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Saponin Enhances the Protection Conferred by Vaccination with Inactivated Influenza A Virus 
Journal of Ginseng Research  2012;36(4):396-402.
Vaccination is the main strategy for preventing influenza infection. However, vaccine efficacy is influenced by several factors, including age and health status. The efficacy of the influenza vaccine is much lower (17% to 53%) in individuals over 65 yr of age compared with young adults (70% to 90%). Therefore, increasing vaccine efficacy remains a challenge for the influenza vaccine field. In this study, we investigated the impact of supplementing vaccination with the dietary intake of Korean red ginseng (RG) extract and RG saponin. Mice were immunized two times intranasally with inactivated influenza A (H1N1) virus. Mice received RG extract or RG saponin orally for 14 d prior to the primary immunization. After the primary immunization, mice continued to receive RG extract or RG saponin until the secondary immunization. Mice vaccinated in combination with dietary intake of RG extract and RG saponin showed elevated serum anti-influenza A virus IgG titers and improved survival rates in lethal influenza A virus infection: 56% and 63% of mice receiving RG extract or RG saponin survived, respectively, while 38% of mice that only received the vaccine survived. Moreover, mice receiving RG extract supplementation recovered their body weight more quickly than those not receiving RG extract supplementation. We propose that the dietary intake of RG extract and RG saponin enhances the vaccine-induced immune response and aids in providing protection against influenza virus infection.
doi:10.5142/jgr.2012.36.4.396
PMCID: PMC3659611  PMID: 23717142
Panax ginseng; Korean red ginseng; Influenza A virus; Saponin
2.  Association of ALOX5AP gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and cerebral infarction in the Han population of northern China 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:61.
Background
To explore the association of ALOX5AP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype with the occurrence of cerebral infarction in the Han population of northern China.
Methods
Blood samples were collected from 236 patients of Han ancestry with a history of cerebral infarction and 219 healthy subjects of Han ancestry with no history of cerebral infarction or cardiovascular disease. Applied Biosystems® TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays for SNP genotyping were used to determine the genotypes of 7 ALOX5AP SNP alleles (rs4073259, rs4769874, rs9315050, rs9551963, rs10507391, rs9579646, and rs4147064).
Results
One SNP allele (A) of rs4073259 was significantly associated with development of cerebral infarction (P = 0.049). In comparison to control groups, haplotype rs9315050&rs9551963 AAAC [OR (95% CI) =1.53 (1.02-2.29)], and genotypes rs4147064 CT [OR (95% CI) =1.872 (1.082-3.241)], and rs9551963 AC [OR (95% CI) = 2.015 (1.165-3.484)] increased the risk of cerebral infarction in patients with hypertension. Genotype rs9579646 GG [OR (95% CI) = 2.926 (1.18-7.251)] increased the risk of, while rs4073259 GG [OR (95% CI) = 0.381 (0.157-0.922)] decreased the risk of cerebral infarction in patients with diabetes.
Conclusion
These results suggest the ALOX5AP SNP A allele in rs4073259 and genotype rs9579646 GG, rs9551963 AC, and haplotype rs9315050 & rs9551963 AAAC were associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in the Han population, while rs4073259 GG was associated with a decreased risk.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-61
PMCID: PMC3495050  PMID: 22849376
Cerebral infarction; ALOX5AP; FLAP; Han ethnicity; SNP

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