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1.  A new adhesive technique for internal fixation in midfacial surgery 
Background
The current surgical therapy of midfacial fractures involves internal fixation in which bone fragments are fixed in their anatomical positions with osteosynthesis plates and corresponding screws until bone healing is complete. This often causes new fractures to fragile bones while drilling pilot holes or trying to insert screws. The adhesive fixation of osteosynthesis plates using PMMA bone cement could offer a viable alternative for fixing the plates without screws. In order to achieve the adhesive bonding of bone cement to cortical bone in the viscerocranium, an amphiphilic bone bonding agent was created, analogous to the dentin bonding agents currently on the market.
Methods
The adhesive bonding strengths were measured using tension tests. For this, metal plates with 2.0 mm diameter screw holes were cemented with PMMA bone cement to cortical bovine bone samples from the femur diaphysis. The bone was conditioned with an amphiphilic bone bonding agent prior to cementing. The samples were stored for 1 to 42 days at 37 degrees C, either moist or completely submerged in an isotonic NaCl-solution, and then subjected to the tension tests.
Results
Without the bone bonding agent, the bonding strength was close to zero (0.2 MPa). Primary stability with bone bonding agent is considered to be at ca. 8 MPa. Moist storage over 42 days resulted in decreased adhesion forces of ca. 6 MPa. Wet storage resulted in relatively constant bonding strengths of ca. 8 MPa.
Conclusion
A new amphiphilic bone bonding agent was developed, which builds an optimizied interlayer between the hydrophilic bone surface and the hydrophobic PMMA bone cement and thus leads to adhesive bonding between them. Our in vitro investigations demonstrated the adhesive bonding of PMMA bone cement to cortical bone, which was also stable against hydrolysis. The newly developed adhesive fixing technique could be applied clinically when the fixation of osteosynthesis plates with screws is impossible. With the detected adhesion forces of ca. 6 to 8 MPa, it is assumed that the adhesive fixation system is able to secure bone fragments from the non-load bearing midfacial regions in their orthotopic positions until fracture consolidation is complete.
doi:10.1186/1475-925X-7-16
PMCID: PMC2430571  PMID: 18489785
2.  Analysis of polymorphic TGFB1 codons 10, 25, and 263 in a German patient group with non-syndromic cleft lip, alveolus, and palate compared with healthy adults 
BMC Medical Genetics  2004;5:15.
Background
Clefts of the lip, alveolus, and palate (CLPs) rank among the most frequent and significant congenital malformations. Leu10Pro and Arg25Pro polymorphisms in the precursor region and Thr263Ile polymorphism in the prodomain of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) gene have proved to be crucial to predisposition of several disorders.
Methods
In this study, polymorphism analysis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (LightCycler) and TGF-β1 levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Only 2/60 Caucasian non-syndromic patients with CLP (3.3%) carried the Arg25Pro and another 2/60 patients (3.3%) the Thr263Ile genotypes, whereas, in a control group of 60 healthy Caucasian blood donors, these heterozygous genotypes were more frequent 16.7% having Arg25Pro (10/60; p < 0.035) and 10,0% having Thr263Ile (6/60), respectively. TGF-β1 levels in platelet-poor plasma of heterozygous Arg25Pro individuals were lower than those of homozygous members (Arg25Arg) in the latter group, but this discrepancy narrowly failed to be significant. Although polymorphisms in codon 10 and 25 were associated with each other, no difference was found between patients and controls concerning the Leu10Pro polymorphism.
Conclusions
The genetic differences in codons 25 and 263 suggest that TGF-β1 could play an important role in occurrence of CLP, however, functional experiments will be required to confirm the mechanisms of disturbed development.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-5-15
PMCID: PMC441379  PMID: 15212689

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