In an attempt to better understand the non-O1/O139 isolates of V. cholerae, we undertook a systematic study of clinical and environmental isolates collected from various geographical locations collected between the years 1932 and 1998.
Ninety-nine Vibrio cholerae isolates collected from clinical and environmental sources from various geographical regions between 1932 and 1998 were studied by sequencing seven housekeeping genes. Genetic relatedness was defined by multiple methods that allow for the observed high levels of recombination.
We determined four V. cholerae subpopulations. One subpopulation contained mostly environmental isolates; a second, the cholera-toxin-positive serogroup O1/O139 isolates; and the other two subpopulations were enriched for non-O1/O139 clinical isolates that were frequently clonally related to each other.
Our data suggest that many of these non-O1/O139 clinical isolates were phylogenetically related to common ancestors, even though the isolates had been collected from up to 36 years apart and from different countries or continents.
Geographic sources of genetically closely related potentially pathogenic non-O1/O139 isolates of Vibrio cholerae.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in inhabitants from low-income countries and in visitors to these countries. The impact of the human intestinal microbiota on the initiation and progression of ETEC diarrhea is not yet well understood.
We used 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene sequencing to study changes in the fecal microbiota of 12 volunteers during a human challenge study with ETEC (H10407) and subsequent treatment with ciprofloxacin.
Five subjects developed severe diarrhea and seven experienced few or no symptoms. Diarrheal symptoms were associated with high concentrations of fecal E. coli as measured by quantitative culture, quantitative PCR, and normalized number of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Large changes in other members of the microbiota varied greatly from individual to individual, whether or not diarrhea occurred. Nonetheless the variation within an individual was small compared to variation between individuals. Ciprofloxacin treatment reorganized microbiota populations; however, the original structure was largely restored at one and three month follow-up visits.
Symptomatic ETEC infections, but not asymptomatic infections, were associated with high fecal concentrations of E. coli. Both infection and ciprofloxacin treatment caused variable changes in other bacteria that generally reverted to baseline levels after three months.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-016-2777-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Diarrhea; Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; 16S rRNA gene survey; Microbiota; Antibiotic treatment
Staphylococcus aureus; antimicrobial resistance; community-acquired infections; bacteremia; bacterial typing techniques; electrophoresis; bacteria; illicit drug use; research
Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, a severe diarrheal disease. Understanding the local genetic diversity and transmission of V. cholerae will improve our ability to control cholera. Vibrio cholerae isolates clustered in genetically related groups (clonal complexes, CC) by multilocus variable tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were compared by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Isolates in CC1 had been isolated from two geographical locations. Isolates in a second genetically distinct group, CC2, were isolated only at one location. Using WGS, CC1 isolates from both locations revealed, on average, 43.8 nucleotide differences, while those strains comprising CC2 averaged 19.7 differences. Strains from both MLVA-CCs had an average difference of 106.6. Thus, isolates comprising CC1 were more closely related (P < 10−6) to each other than to isolates in CC2. Within a MLVA-CC, after removing all paralogs, alternative alleles were found in all possible combinations on separate chromosomes indicative of recombination within the core genome. Including recombination did not affect the distinctiveness of the MLVA-CCs when measured by WGS. We found that WGS generally reflected the same genetic relatedness of isolates as MLVA, indicating that isolates from the same MLVA-CC shared a more recent common ancestor than isolates from the same location that clustered in a distinct MLVA-CC.
Genetic relatedness of Vibrio cholerae isolates from distinct locations was similar when measured by multilocus variable tandem-repeat analysis or whole genome sequencing.
Graphical Abstract Figure.Genetic relatedness of Vibrio cholerae isolates from distinct locations was similar when measured by multilocus variable tandem-repeat analysis or whole genome sequencing.
cholera; Vibrio cholerae; multilocus variable tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA); whole genome sequencing (WGS); recombination
Most isolates are closely related, but genetic variation implies accelerated transmission of some lineages.
Cholera remains a major public health problem. To compare the relative contribution of strains from the environment with strains isolated from patients during outbreaks, we performed multilocus variable tandem repeat analyses on samples collected during the 2010 and 2011 outbreak seasons in 2 geographically distinct areas of Bangladesh. A total of 222 environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae O1 were systematically collected from Chhatak and Mathbaria. In Chhatak, 75 of 79 isolates were from the same clonal complex, in which extensive differentiation was found in a temporally consistent pattern of successive mutations at single loci. A total of 59 isolates were collected from 6 persons; most isolates from 1 person differed by sequential single-locus mutations. In Mathbaria, 60 of 84 isolates represented 2 separate clonal complexes. The small number of genetic lineages in isolates from patients, compared with those from the environment, is consistent with accelerated transmission of some strains among humans during an outbreak.
multilocus sequence analysis; infectious disease outbreaks; Vibrio cholerae; bacteria; Bangladesh; cholera; outbreak
The taxonomic status of saltwater Bdellovibrio-like prokaryotic predators has been revised to assign species to Halobacteriovorax gen. nov. A reclassification of Bacteriovorax marinus as Halobacteriovorax marinus comb. nov. (type strain ATCC BAA-682T = DSM 15412T) and Bacteriovorax litoralis as Halobacteriovorax litoralis comb. nov. (type strain ATCC BAA-684T = DSM 15409T) is proposed. This revision is necessary because a previous proposal to retain saltwater isolates as species of Bacteriovorax and reclassify Bacteriovorax stolpii as Bacteriolyticum stolpii was not approved. The type species of a genus cannot be reassigned to another genus. Bacteriovorax stolpii is thus retained as the type species of Bacteriovorax and Halobacteriovorax marinus is the type species of Halobacteriovorax and of Halobacteriovoraceae fam. nov.
Vibrio cholerae is endemic in South Asia and Africa where outbreaks of cholera occur widely and are particularly associated with poverty and poor sanitation. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of toxigenic V. cholerae isolates, particularly in Africa, remains scarce. The constraints in improving this understanding is not only the lack of regular cholera disease surveillance, but also the lack of laboratory capabilities in endemic countries to preserve, store and ship isolates in a timely manner. We evaluated the use of simplified sample preservation methods for molecular characterization using multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for differentiation of Vibrio cholerae genotypes.
Methods and Findings
Forty-seven V. cholerae isolates and 18 enriched clinical specimens (e.g. stool specimens after enrichment in broth) from cholera outbreaks in Cameroon were preserved on Whatman filter paper for DNA extraction. The samples were collected from two geographically distinct outbreaks in the Far North of Cameroon (FNC) in June 2014 and October 2014. In addition, a convenience sample of 14 isolates from the Philippines and 8 from Mozambique were analyzed. All 87 DNAs were successfully analyzed including 16 paired samples, one a cultured isolate and the other the enriched specimen from which the isolate was collected. Genotypic results were identical between 15 enriched specimens and their culture isolates and the other pair differed at single locus. Two closely related, but distinct clonal complexes were identified among the Cameroonian specimens from 2014.
Collecting V. cholerae using simplified laboratory methods in remote and low-resource settings allows for subsequent advanced molecular characterization of V. cholerae O1. These simplified DNA preservation methods identify V. cholerae and make possible timely information regarding the genetic diversity of V. cholerae; our results set the stage for continued molecular epidemiological research to better understand the transmission and dissemination of V. cholerae in Africa and elsewhere worldwide.
Cholera, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, causes an estimated 3–5 million cases every year and more than 100,000 deaths. The highest disease burden is reported from Africa, however, the epidemic potential and transmission patterns among circulating strains is scarcely understood. The challenges of disease surveillance are constrained by the costs associated with laboratory confirmation and sample preservation. To improve the ability to identify the cholera disease burden, to subsequently understand the molecular epidemiology of circulating cholera strains, and to elucidate transmission patterns, we applied simplified collection methodologies to facilitate timely molecular characterization of V. cholerae isolates from Cameroon, Mozambique and the Philippines. Enriched specimens as well as cultured isolates were examined, demonstrating that enriched specimens provide sufficient material for genetic analysis. The results of the genetic analyses did not suggest significant genetic diversity within two distinct outbreaks in Cameroon. The study detected a possible relationship between isolates present in Cameroon and two isolates from Mozambique, two geographically distant nations in Africa. Whole genome sequencing can test whether this hypothesis is correct. Our findings set the stage for surveillance and molecular characterization in these areas to elucidate more fully the relationship and disease transmission patterns.
Diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children in low-income countries. Although numerous pathogens cause diarrhea, the etiology of many episodes remains unknown. Serratia marcescens is incriminated in hospital-associated infections, and HIV/AIDS associated diarrhea. We have recently found that Serratia spp. may be found more commonly in the stools of patients with diarrhea than in asymptomatic control children. We therefore investigated the possible enteric pathogenicity of S. marcescens in vitro employing a polarized human colonic epithelial cell (T84) monolayer. Infected monolayers were assayed for bacterial invasion, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), cytotoxicity, interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. We observed significantly greater epithelial cell invasion by S. marcescens compared to Escherichia coli strain HS (p = 0.0038 respectively). Cell invasion was accompanied by reduction in TEER and secretion of IL-8. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) extracellular concentration rapidly increased within a few hours of exposure of the monolayer to S. marcescens. Scanning electron microscopy of S. marcescens-infected monolayers demonstrated destruction of microvilli and vacuolization. Our results suggest that S. marcescens interacts with intestinal epithelial cells in culture and induces dramatic alterations similar to those produced by known enteric pathogens.
adhesion; Chemokine; cytotoxicity; invasion; pathogenicity; polarized monolayer; T84 cells; Serratia marcescens
To examine rates of Shigella infections in household contacts of pediatric shigellosis patients, we followed contacts and controls prospectively for 1 week after the index patient obtained care. Household contacts of patients were 44 times more likely to develop a Shigella infection than were control contacts (odds ratio 44.7, 95% CI 5.5–361.6); 29 (94%) household contacts of shigellosis patients were infected with the same species and serotype as the index patient’s. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 14 (88%) of 16 with infected contacts had strains that were indistinguishable from or closely related to the index patient’s strain. Latrine area fly counts were higher in patient households compared with control households, and 2 patient household water samples were positive for Shigella. We show high susceptibility of household contacts of shigellosis patients to Shigella infections and found environmental risk factors to be targeted in future interventions.
Shigella; shigellosis; child; households; enteric infections; bacteria; Bangladesh; insect vectors; houseflies; antibacterial drugs; dysentery; water quality; hygiene; sanitation; vector-borne infections
Little is known about the population of eukaryotic viruses in the human gut (“virome”) or the potential role it may play in disease. We used a metagenomic approach to define and compare the eukaryotic viromes in pediatric diarrhea cohorts from two locations (Melbourne and Northern Territory, Australia). We detected viruses known to cause diarrhea, non-pathogenic enteric viruses, viruses not associated with an enteric reservoir, viruses of plants, and novel viruses. Viromes from Northern Territory children contained more viral families per sample than viromes from Melbourne, which could be attributed largely to an increased number of sequences from the families Adenoviridae and Picornaviridae (genus enterovirus). qRT-PCR/PCR confirmed the increased prevalence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses. Testing of additional diarrhea cohorts by qRT-PCR/PCR demonstrated statistically different prevalences in different geographic sites. These findings raise the question of whether the virome plays a role in enteric diseases and conditions that vary with geography.
Diarrhea; virome; metagenomics
Isolates represent multiple genetic lineages, a finding consistent with multiple emergences from endemic reservoirs.
Numerous outbreaks of cholera have occurred in Kenya since 1971. To more fully understand the epidemiology of cholera in Kenya, we analyzed the genetic relationships among 170 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates at 5 loci containing variable tandem repeats. The isolates were collected during January 2009–May 2010 from various geographic areas throughout the country. The isolates grouped genetically into 5 clonal complexes, each comprising a series of genotypes that differed by an allelic change at a single locus. No obvious correlation between the geographic locations of the isolates and their genotypes was observed. Nevertheless, geographic differentiation of the clonal complexes occurred. Our analyses showed that multiple genetic lineages of V. cholerae were simultaneously infecting persons in Kenya. This finding is consistent with the simultaneous emergence of multiple distinct genetic lineages of V. cholerae from endemic environmental reservoirs rather than recent introduction and spread by travelers.
phenotypes; genotypes; Vibrio cholerae; cholera; characterization; molecular epidemiology; outbreaks; bacteria; Kenya
During systematic active surveillance of the causes of diarrhea in patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General Hospital in Kolkata, India, we looked for 26 known gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from 2,748 patients. Samples from about one-third (29%) of the patients contained multiple pathogens. Polymicrobial infections frequently contained Vibrio cholerae O1 and rotavirus. When these agents were present, some co-infecting agents were found significantly less often (p = 10–5 to 10–33), some were detected significantly more often (p = 10–5 to 10–26), and others were detected equally as often as when V. cholerae O1 or rotavirus was absent. When data were stratified by patient age and season, many nonrandom associations remained statistically significant. The causes and effects of these nonrandom associations remain unknown.
Diarrhea; Vibrio infections; rotavirus; Vibrio cholerae; coinfection; bacteria; viruses; parasites; research
Infectious diarrhea leads to significant mortality in children, with 40 % of these deaths occurring in Africa. Classic human astroviruses are a well-established etiology of diarrhea. In recent years, seven novel astroviruses have been discovered (MLB1, MLB2, MLB3, VA1/HMO-C, VA2/HMO-B, VA3/HMO-A, VA4); however, there have been few studies on their prevalence or potential association with diarrhea.
To investigate the prevalence and diversity of these classic and recently described astroviruses in a pediatric population, a case–control study was performed. Nine hundred and forty nine stools were previously collected from cases of moderate-to-severe diarrhea and matched controls of patients less than 5 years of age in Kenya and The Gambia. RT-PCR screening was performed using pan-astrovirus primers.
Astroviruses were present in 9.9 % of all stool samples. MLB3 was the most common astrovirus with a prevalence of 2.6 %. Two subtypes of MLB3 were detected that varied based on location in Africa. In this case–control study, Astrovirus MLB1 was associated with diarrhea in Kenya, whereas Astrovirus MLB3 was associated with the control state in The Gambia. Classic human astrovirus was not associated with diarrhea in this study. Unexpectedly, astroviruses with high similarity to Canine Astrovirus and Avian Nephritis Virus 1 and 2 were also found in one case of diarrhea and two control stools respectively.
Astroviruses including novel MLB- and VA-clade members are commonly found in pediatric stools in Kenya and The Gambia. The most recently discovered astrovirus, MLB3, was the most prevalent and was found more commonly in control stools in The Gambia, while astrovirus MLB1 was associated with diarrhea in Kenya. Furthermore, a distinct subtype of MLB3 was noted, as well as 3 unanticipated avian or canine astroviruses in the human stool samples. As a result of a broadly reactive PCR screen for astroviruses, new insight was gained regarding the epidemiology of astroviruses in Africa, where a large proportion of diarrheal morbidity and mortality occur.
Astrovirus; MLB; VA; Diarrhea; Gastroenteritis
Clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae organisms collected from February 2004 through April 2005 were systematically isolated from 2 rural Bangladeshi locales. Their genetic relatedness was evaluated at 5 loci that contained a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). The observed minimal overlap in VNTR patterns between the 2 communities was consistent with sequential, small outbreaks from local sources.
Cholera; variable number of tandem repeats; epidemiology; outbreaks; genetic variation; dispatch
AIM: To investigate the change in eukaryotic gene expression profile in Caco-2 cells after infection with strains of Escherichia coli and commensal probiotic bacteria.
METHODS: A 19200 gene/expressed sequence tag gene chip was used to examine expression of genes after infection of Caco-2 cells with strains of normal flora E. coli, Lactobacillus plantarum, and a combination of the two.
RESULTS: The cDNA microarray revealed up-regulation of 155 and down-regulation of 177 genes by E. coli. L. plantarum up-regulated 45 and down-regulated 36 genes. During mixed infection, 27 genes were up-regulated and 59 were down-regulated, with nullification of stimulatory/inhibitory effects on most of the genes. Expression of several new genes was noted in this group.
CONCLUSION: The commensal bacterial strains used in this study induced the expression of a large number of genes in colonocyte-like cultured cells and changed the expression of several genes involved in important cellular processes such as regulation of transcription, protein biosynthesis, metabolism, cell adhesion, ubiquitination, and apoptosis. Such changes induced by the presence of probiotic bacteria may shape the physiologic and pathologic responses they trigger in the host.
Lactobacillus; Escherichia coli; Gene expression; Probiotic; cDNA microarray
Background and Purpose
Although the prothrombin G20210A mutation has been implicated as a risk factor for venous thrombosis, its role in arterial ischemic stroke is unclear, particularly among young-adults. To address this issue, we examined the association between prothrombin G20210A and ischemic stroke in a Caucasian case-control population and additionally performed a meta-analysis
From the population-based Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study we identified 397 individuals of European ancestry aged 15-49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke and 426 matched-controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios in the entire population and for subgroups stratified by gender, age, oral contraceptive use, migraine and smoking status. A meta-analysis of 17 case-control studies (n=2305 cases <55 years) was also performed with and without GEOS data.
Within GEOS, the association of the prothrombin G20210A mutation with ischemic stroke did not achieve statistical significance (OR=2.5,95%CI=0.9-6.5,p=0.07). However, among adults aged 15-42 (younger than median age), cases were significantly more likely than controls to have the mutation (OR=5.9,95%CI=1.2-28.1,p=0.03), whereas adults ages 42-49 were not (OR=1.4,95%CI=0.4-5.1,p=0.94). In our meta-analysis, the mutation was associated with significantly increased stroke risk in adults <=55 years (OR=1.4;95%CI=1.1-1.9;p=0.02) with significance increasing with addition of the GEOS results (OR=1.5;95%CI=1.1-2.0;p=0.005).
The prothrombin G20210A mutation is associated with ischemic stroke in young-adults and may have an even stronger association among those with earlier onset strokes. Our finding of a stronger association in the younger-young adult population requires replication.
ischemic stroke; young; risk modifiers; risk factors; genetics
We describe the identification of a novel picornavirus recovered from the fecal specimen of a child in The Gambia, provisionally named rosavirus 2. Comparison of the rosavirus 2 complete genome demonstrated 71.9% nucleotide identity to its closest relative rosavirus M-7, an unclassified picornavirus identified from rodent fecal material. A unique RNA structure was predicted in the 3′ UTR of rosavirus 2 that was conserved with rosavirus M-7 and cadiciviruses. We detected rosavirus 2 in four pediatric fecal specimens (0.55% prevalence) in a Gambian diarrheal case-control cohort, but we did not detect it in a panel of 634 pediatric diarrheal stool specimens from USA. There was no statistical evidence that rosavirus 2 was associated with diarrheal cases. This study broadens our understanding of unknown viruses present in children in developing country settings.
Picornavirus; virus discovery; emerging viruses; developing country
Vibrio cholerae in O-group 139 was first isolated in 1992 and by 1993 had been found throughout the Indian subcontinent. This epidemic expansion probably resulted from a single source after a lateral gene transfer (LGT) event that changed the serotype of an epidemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain to O139. However, some studies found substantial genetic diversity, perhaps caused by multiple origins. To further explore the relatedness of O139 strains, we analyzed nine sequenced loci from 96 isolates from patients at the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta, from 1992 to 2000. We found 64 novel alleles distributed among 51 sequence types. LGT events produced three times the number of nucleotide changes compared to mutation. In contrast to the traditional concept of epidemic spread of a homogeneous clone, the establishment of variant alleles generated by LGT during the rapid expansion of a clonal bacterial population may be a paradigm in infections and epidemics.
cholera; evolution; base sequence; DNA; bacterial; evolution; molecular sequence data; research
Co-infection with Shigella spp. and other microbes modifies diarrhea risk.
Pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract exist within a vast population of microbes. We examined associations between pathogens and composition of gut microbiota as they relate to Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli infection. We analyzed 3,035 stool specimens (1,735 nondiarrheal and 1,300 moderate-to-severe diarrheal) from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study for 9 enteropathogens. Diarrheal specimens had a higher number of enteropathogens (diarrheal mean 1.4, nondiarrheal mean 0.95; p<0.0001). Rotavirus showed a negative association with Shigella spp. in cases of diarrhea (odds ratio 0.31, 95% CI 0.17–0.55) and had a large combined effect on moderate-to-severe diarrhea (odds ratio 29, 95% CI 3.8–220). In 4 Lactobacillus taxa identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the association between pathogen and disease was decreased, which is consistent with the possibility that Lactobacillus spp. are protective against Shigella spp.–induced diarrhea. Bacterial diversity of gut microbiota was associated with diarrhea status, not high levels of the Shigella spp. ipaH gene.
shigellosis; Shigella; bacteria; polymicrobial infection; Escherichia coli; enteroinvasive E. coli; EIEC; Lactobacillus; rotavirus; viruses; co-occurring pathogens; enteropathogens; microbiota; ipaH gene; diarrhea; children; low-income countries
Cholera is still a major public health problem. The underlying bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is evolving and some of its mutations have set the stage for outbreaks. After V. cholerae acquired the mobile elements VSP I & II, the El Tor pandemic began and spread across the tropics. The replacement of the O1 serotype encoding genes with the O139 encoding genes triggered an outbreak that swept across the Indian subcontinent. The sxt element generated a third selective sweep and most recently a fourth sweep was associated with the exchange of the El Tor ctx allele for a classical ctx allele in the El Tor background. In Kenya, variants of this fourth selective sweep have differentiated and become endemic residing in and emerging from environmental reservoirs. On a local level, studies in Bangladesh have revealed that outbreaks may arise from a nonrandom subset of the genetic lineages in the environment and as the population of the pathogen expands, many novel mutations may be found increasing the amount of genetic variation, a phenomenon known as a founder flush. In Haiti, after the initial invasion and expansion of V. cholerae in 2010, a second outbreak occurred in the winter of 2011–2012 driven by natural selection of specific mutations.
Diarrheal diseases continue to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in infants and young children in developing countries. There is an urgent need to better understand the contributions of novel, potentially uncultured, diarrheal pathogens to severe diarrheal disease, as well as distortions in normal gut microbiota composition that might facilitate severe disease.
We use high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to compare fecal microbiota composition in children under five years of age who have been diagnosed with moderate to severe diarrhea (MSD) with the microbiota from diarrhea-free controls. Our study includes 992 children from four low-income countries in West and East Africa, and Southeast Asia. Known pathogens, as well as bacteria currently not considered as important diarrhea-causing pathogens, are positively associated with MSD, and these include Escherichia/Shigella, and Granulicatella species, and Streptococcus mitis/pneumoniae groups. In both cases and controls, there tend to be distinct negative correlations between facultative anaerobic lineages and obligate anaerobic lineages. Overall genus-level microbiota composition exhibit a shift in controls from low to high levels of Prevotella and in MSD cases from high to low levels of Escherichia/Shigella in younger versus older children; however, there was significant variation among many genera by both site and age.
Our findings expand the current understanding of microbiota-associated diarrhea pathogenicity in young children from developing countries. Our findings are necessarily based on correlative analyses and must be further validated through epidemiological and molecular techniques.
We introduce a novel methodology for differential abundance analysis in sparse high-throughput marker gene survey data. Our approach, implemented in the metagenomeSeq Bioconductor package, relies on a novel normalization technique and a statistical model that accounts for under-sampling: a common feature of large-scale marker gene studies. We show, using simulated data and several published microbiota datasets, that metagenomeSeq outperforms the tools currently used in this field.