Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are popular for identifying genetic variants which are associated with disease risk. Many approaches have been proposed to test multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a region simultaneously which considering disadvantages of methods in single locus association analysis. Kernel machine based SNP set analysis is more powerful than single locus analysis, which borrows information from SNPs correlated with causal or tag SNPs. Four types of kernel machine functions and principal component based approach (PCA) were also compared. However, given the loss of power caused by low minor allele frequencies (MAF), we conducted an extension work on PCA and used a new method called weighted PCA (wPCA). Comparative analysis was performed for weighted principal component analysis (wPCA), logistic kernel machine based test (LKM) and principal component analysis (PCA) based on SNP set in the case of different minor allele frequencies (MAF) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures. We also applied the three methods to analyze two SNP sets extracted from a real GWAS dataset of non-small cell lung cancer in Han Chinese population. Simulation results show that when the MAF of the causal SNP is low, weighted principal component and weighted IBS are more powerful than PCA and other kernel machine functions at different LD structures and different numbers of causal SNPs. Application of the three methods to a real GWAS dataset indicates that wPCA and wIBS have better performance than the linear kernel, IBS kernel and PCA.
Genetic variation may influence chemotherapy response and overall survival in cancer patients.
We conducted a genome-wide scan in 535 advanced-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients from two independent cohorts (307 from Nanjing and 228 from Beijing). A replication was carried out on an independent cohort of 340 patients from Southeastern China followed by a second validation on 409 patients from the Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA).
Consistent associations with NSCLC survival were identified for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in Chinese populations with P values ranging from 3.63 × 10−5 to 4.19 × 10−7 in the additive genetic model. The minor allele of three SNPs (rs7629386 at 3p22.1, rs969088 at 5p14.1, and rs3850370 at 14q24.3) were associated with worse NSCLC survival while 2 (rs41997 at 7q31.31 and rs12000445 at 9p21.3) were associated with better NSCLC survival. In addition, rs7629386 at 3p22.1 (CTNNB1) and rs3850370 at 14q24.3 (SNW1-ALKBH1-NRXN3) were further replicated in the Caucasian population.
In this three-stage genome-wide association studies, we identified five SNPs as markers for survival of advanced-stage NSCLC patients treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy in Chinese Han populations. Two of these SNPs, rs7629386 and rs3850370, could also be markers for survival among Caucasian patients.
Background: ISL1, as a member of the LIM homeodomain transcription factor family, is expressed in a distinct population of undifferentiated cardiac progenitors and plays a pivotal role in cardiogenesis. Lacking ISL1 expression results in growth arrest or displays profound defects in heart development, including atria, ventricle, and the inflow and outflow tracts, which constitute a major form of congenital heart disease (CHD). Recently, an important study by Stevens et al. found that genetic variation in ISL1 is associated with risk of CHD in white and black/African American populations; this observation led us to hypothesize that ISL1 common variants might influence susceptibility to sporadic CHD in our Chinese population. Methods: We conducted a case–control study of CHD in Chinese to test our hypothesis by genotyping ISL1 common variant rs1017 in 1003 CHD cases and 1012 non-CHD controls. Results: We found that rs1017 was not associated with the risk of CHD (p=0.213). When we performed stratified analyses according to subjects' age, sex, and CHD classifications, we found no overall heterogeneity of risk in different subgroups. Conclusions: This is the first study which indicates that ISL1 common variant rs1017 may not play a role in sporadic CHD susceptibility in the Chinese population.
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified three new breast cancer susceptibility loci at 12p11, 12q24 and 21q21 in populations of European descent. However, because of the genetic heterogeneity, it is largely unknown for the role of these loci in the breast cancer susceptibility in the populations of non-European descent.
Here, we genotyped three variants (rs10771399 at 12p11, rs1292011 at 12q24 and rs2823093 at 21q21) in an independent case–control study with a total of 1792 breast cancer cases and 1867 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. We found that rs10771399 and rs1292011 were significantly associated with risk of breast cancer with per-allele odds ratios (ORs) of 0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.96; P = 0.010) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76–0.95; P = 4.50×10−3), respectively, which was consistent with those reported in populations of European descent. Similar effects were observed between ER/PR positive and negative breast cancer for both loci. However, we did not found significant association between rs2823093 and breast cancer risk (OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.76–1.24; P = 0.795).
Our results indicate that genetic variants at 12p11 and 12q24 may also play an important role in breast cancer development in Chinese women.
It is becoming clear that some of the differences in cancer risk, incidence and survival among people of different racial and ethnic backgrounds can be attributed to biological factors. However, identifying these factors and exploiting them to help eliminate cancer disparities has proved challenging. With this in mind, we asked four scientists for their opinions on the most crucial advances, as well as the challenges and what the future holds for this important emerging area of research.
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs999737 at 14q24.1 was identified as a susceptibility marker of breast cancer in a genome-wide association study of the European population, which was also confirmed by some of the following studies in populations of European descent. However, rs999737 is very rare or nonpolymorphic in non-Europeans including Chinese, and the role of other genetic variants at 14q24.1 has not been evaluated in populations of non-European descent. In this study, we first selected 21 common tagging SNPs (minor allele frequency [MAF] >0.05 in the Chinese population) by searching the Hapmap database, covering a linage disequilibrium region of more than 70 Kb at 14q24.1, and then conducted a two-stage study (stage I: 878 cases and 900 controls; stage II: 914 cases and 967 controls) to investigate the associations between these tagging SNPs and risk of breast cancer in a Chinese population. In stage I, two SNPs (rs2842346 and rs17828907) were identified to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk (p=0.030 and 0.027 for genotype distributions, respectively). However, no significant associations were found between these two SNPs and breast cancer risk in either stage II or the combined dataset. These findings suggest that common variants at 14q24.1 might not be associated with the risk of breast cancer in the Chinese population, which will need the replication in additional larger studies.
Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) are a class of important but poorly studied genomic variations and may be involved in individual susceptibility to diseases. To better understand ROH and its relationship with lung cancer, we performed a genome-wide ROH analysis of a subset of a previous genome-wide case-control study (1,473 cases and 1,962 controls) in a Han Chinese population. ROHs were classified into two classes, based on lengths, intermediate and long ROHs, to evaluate their association with lung cancer risk using existing genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We found that the overall level of intermediate ROHs was significantly associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.51-0.77; P = 4.78×10−6 ), while the long ROHs seemed to be a risk factor of lung cancer. We also identified one ROH region at 14q23.1 that was consistently associated with lung cancer risk in the study. These results indicated that ROHs may be a new class of variation which may be associated with lung cancer risk, and genetic variants at 14q23.1 may be involved in the development of lung cancer.
lung cancer; runs of homozygosity (ROHs); genome-wide association study
Recent studies showed that pseudogenes can regulate the expression of their coding gene partners by competing for miRNAs. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle checkpoint. E2F3P1 is a pseudogene of E2F3. Few studies focused on genetic variations on pseudogenes. In this study, we performed a case-control study to assess the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in E2F3P1 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in 1050 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive HCC cases and 1050 chronic HBV carriers. Logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between genotypes and HCC risk. We found that the variant CT/TT genotypes of rs1838149 were associated with a significantly decreased risk of HCC (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CIs = 0.51-0.86, P = 0.002) compared to those with wildtype CC homozygote. Furthermore, the AA genotype of rs9909601 had an increased HCC risk with an adjusted OR of 1.41 (95% CIs = 1.07-1.86), and the A allele of rs9909601 was significantly associated with HCC risk compared to those with the G allele (adjusted OR = 1.17, 95% CIs = 1.03-1.33, P = 0.017). These results indicate that genetic variations in the pseudogene E2F3P1 may confer HCC risk.
E2F3P1; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); susceptibility
Apoptosis plays a key role in inhibiting tumor growth, progression and resistance to anti-tumor therapy. We hypothesized that genetic variants in apoptotic genes may affect the prognosis of lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we selected 38 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 12 genes (BAX, BCL2, BID, CASP3, CASP6, CASP7, CASP8, CASP9, CASP10, FAS, FASLG and MCL1) involved in apoptosis to assess their prognostic significance in lung cancer in a Chinese case cohort with 568 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Thirty-five SNPs passing quality control underwent association analyses, 11 of which were shown to be significantly associated with NSCLC survival (P < 0.05). After Cox stepwise regression analyses, 3 SNPs were independently associated with the outcome of NSCLC (BID rs8190315: P = 0.003; CASP9 rs4645981: P = 0.007 and FAS rs1800682: P = 0.016). A favorable survival of NSCLC was significantly associated with the genotypes of BID rs8190315 AG/GG (adjusted HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.88), CASP9 rs4645981 AA (HR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07-0.69) and FAS rs1800682 GG (adjusted HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.97). Time-dependent receptor operation curve (ROC) analysis revealed that the area under curve (AUC) at year 5 was significantly increased from 0.762 to 0.819 after adding the risk score of these 3 SNPs to the clinical risk score. The remaining 32 SNPs were not significantly associated with NSCLC prognosis after adjustment for these 3 SNPs. These findings indicate that BID rs8190315, CASP9 rs4645981 and FAS rs1800682 polymorphisms in the apoptotic pathway may be involved in the prognosis of NSCLC in the Chinese population.
apoptosis; polymorphisms; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); prognosis
Occupational exposure to endotoxin is associated with decrements in pulmonary function, but how much variation in this association is explained by genetic variants is not well understood.
We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with the rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) decline by a large scale genetic association study in newly-hired healthy young female cotton textile workers.
DNA samples were genotyped using the Illumina Human CVD BeadChip. Change rate in FEV1 was modeled as a function of each SNP genotype in linear regression model with covariate adjustment. We controlled the type 1 error in study-wide level by permutation method. The false discovery rate (FDR) and the family-wise error rate (FWER) were set to be 0.10 and 0.15 respectively.
Two SNPs were found to be significant (P<6.29×10−5), including rs1910047 (P = 3.07×10−5, FDR = 0.0778) and rs9469089 (P = 6.19×10−5, FDR = 0.0967), as well as other eight suggestive (P<5×10−4) associated SNPs. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were also observed, such as rs1910047 and rs1049970 (P = 0.0418, FDR = 0.0895); rs9469089 and age (P = 0.0161, FDR = 0.0264). Genetic risk score analysis showed that the more risk loci the subjects carried, the larger the rate of FEV1 decline occurred (Ptrend = 3.01×10−18). However, the association was different among age subgroups (P = 7.11×10−6) and endotoxin subgroups (P = 1.08×10−2). Functional network analysis illustrates potential biological connections of all interacted genes.
Genetic variants together with environmental factors interact to affect the rate of FEV1 decline in cotton textile workers.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic variants associated with lung cancer risk. However, these loci explain only a small fraction of lung cancer hereditability and other variants with weak effect may be lost in the GWAS approach due to the stringent significance level after multiple comparison correction. In this study, in order to identify important pathways involving the lung carcinogenesis, we performed a two-stage pathway analysis in GWAS of lung cancer in Han Chinese using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) method. Predefined pathways by BioCarta and KEGG databases were systematically evaluated on Nanjing study (Discovery stage: 1,473 cases and 1,962 controls) and the suggestive pathways were further to be validated in Beijing study (Replication stage: 858 cases and 1,115 controls). We found that four pathways (achPathway, metPathway, At1rPathway and rac1Pathway) were consistently significant in both studies and the P values for combined dataset were 0.012, 0.010, 0.022 and 0.005 respectively. These results were stable after sensitivity analysis based on gene definition and gene overlaps between pathways. These findings may provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer.
Adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) are two major histological subtypes of lung cancer. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have made considerable advances in the understanding of lung cancer susceptibility. Obvious heterogeneity has been observed between different histological subtypes of lung cancer, but genetic determinants in specific to lung SqCC have not been systematically investigated. Here, we performed the GWAS analysis specifically for lung SqCC in 833 SqCC cases and 3,094 controls followed by a two-stage replication in additional 2,223 lung SqCC cases and 6,409 controls from Chinese populations. We found that rs12296850 in SLC17A8-NR1H4 gene region at12q23.1 was significantly associated with risk of lung SqCC at genome-wide significance level [additive model: odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.72–0.84, P = 1.19×10−10]. Subjects carrying AG or GG genotype had a 26% (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.67–0.81) or 32% (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56–0.83) decreased risk of lung SqCC, respectively, as compared with AA genotype. However, we did not observe significant association between rs12296850 and risk of lung AC in a total of 4,368 cases with lung AC and 9,486 controls (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.90–1.02, P = 0.173). These results indicate that genetic variations on chromosome 12q23.1 may specifically contribute to lung SqCC susceptibility in Chinese population.
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) strongly suggested the importance of genetic susceptibility for lung cancer. However, the studies specific to different histological subtypes of lung cancer were limited. We performed the GWAS analysis specifically for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) with 570,009 autosomal SNPs in 833 SqCC cases and 3,094 controls and replicated in additional 2,223 lung SqCC cases and 6,409 controls from Chinese populations (822 SqCC cases and 2,243 controls for the first replication stage and 1,401 SqCC cases and 4,166 controls for the second replication stage). We found a novel association at rs12296850 (SLC17A8-NR1H4) on12q23.1. However, rs12296850 didn't show significant association with risk of lung adenocacinoma (AC) in 4,368 lung AC cases and 9,486 controls. These results indicate that genetic variations on chromosome 12q23.1 may specifically contribute to lung SqCC susceptibility in Chinese population.
The study was to investigate the incidence of HIV-1 and related factors, as well as predictors associated with retention in a cohort study among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. A carefully designed 12-month prospective cohort study was conducted.
A total of 278 sero-negative MSM were recruited and followed up for 12 months starting from May, 2008. Participants were tested for HIV-1 at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up visits. Questionnaire interviews were conducted to collect information. The retention rate and HIV incidence were analyzed as functions of demographic and behavioral variables. Risk factors were identified by estimating the relative risks (RR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a Poisson regression model, univariate and multivariate analyses and risk factors analyses. 71 (25.5%) and 45 (16.2%) of the 278 participants were retained at the 6-month and 12-month follow-up visits respectively. The incidence rates of HIV-1 were 5.65 and 6.67 per 100 person years (PY) respectively. Both having received condoms and having received lubricant were negatively associated with HIV sero-conversion at the 12 months’ follow-up. Predictors associated with 12-month retention rate include Yangzhou residency (RR = 0.471, 95%CI: 0.275∼0.807, P = 0.006), having received condoms (RR = 0.065, 95%CI: 0.007∼0.572, P = 0.014), and having received VCTs (RR = 0.093, 95%CI: 0.010∼0.818, P = 0.032).
The incidence of HIV-1 among MSM in Yangzhou is relatively high and effective interventions are needed urgently. More attention should be focused on maintaining a higher retention rate.
Although approximately 20 common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer risk through genome-wide association studies (GWASs), genetic risk variants reported to date explain only a small fraction of heritability for this common cancer. We conducted a four-stage GWAS including 17 153 cases and 16 943 controls among East-Asian women to search for new genetic risk factors for breast cancer. After analyzing 684 457 SNPs in 2062 cases and 2066 controls (Stage I), we selected for replication among 5969 Chinese women (4146 cases and 1823 controls) the top 49 SNPs that had neither been reported previously nor were in strong linkage disequilibrium with reported SNPs (Stage II). Three SNPs were further evaluated in up to 13 152 Chinese and Japanese women (6436 cases and 6716 controls) (Stage III). Finally, two SNPs were evaluated in 10 847 Korean women (4509 cases and 6338 controls) (Stage IV). SNP rs10822013 on chromosome 10q21.2, located in the zinc finger protein 365 (ZNF365) gene, showed a consistent association with breast cancer risk in all four stages with a combined per-risk allele odds ratio of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.14) (P-value for trend = 5.87 × 10−9). In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the potential functional significance of rs10822013. Our results strongly implicate rs10822013 at 10q21.2 as a genetic risk variant for breast cancer among East-Asian women.
The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) provides a useful tool for prediction of renal prognosis. However, the application of this classification in children with IgAN needs validation in different patient populations.
A total of 218 children with IgAN from 7 renal centers in China were enrolled. The inclusion criteria was similar to the original Oxford study.
There were 98 patients (45%) with mesangial proliferation (M1), 51 patients (23%) with endocapillary proliferation (E1), 136 patients (62%) with segmental sclerosis/adhesion lesion (S1), 13 patients (6%) with moderate tubulointerstitial fibrosis (T1 26-50% of cortex scarred), and only 2 patients (1%) with severe tubulointerstitial fibrosis (T2, >50% of cortex scarred). During a median follow-up duration of 56 months, 24 children (12.4%) developed ESRD or 50% decline in renal function. In univariate COX analysis, we found that tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (HR 4.3, 95%CI 1.8-10.5, P < 0.001) and segmental glomerulosclerosis (HR 9.2 1.2-68.6, P = 0.03) were significant predictors of renal outcome. However, mesangial hypercellularity, endocapillary proliferation, crescents, and necrosis were not associated with renal prognosis. In the multivariate COX regression model, none of these pathologic lesions were shown to be independent risk factors of unfavorable renal outcome except for tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (HR 2.9, 95%CI 1.0-7.9 P = 0.04).
We confirmed tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis was the only feature independently associated with renal outcomes in Chinese children with IgAN.
Glomerulonephritis; IgA nephropathy; Oxford classification; Children; Pediatrics
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play a key role in oncogenesis. Genetic variations in miRNA processing genes and miRNA binding sites may affect the biogenesis of miRNA and the miRNA-mRNA interactions, hence promoting tumorigenesis. In the present study, we hypothesized that potentially functional polymorphisms in miRNA processing genes may contribute to head and neck cancer (HNC) susceptibility. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped three SNPs at miRNA binding sites of miRNA processing genes (rs1057035 in 3′UTR of DICER, rs3803012 in 3′UTR of RAN and rs10773771 in 3′UTR of HIWI) with a case-control study including 397 HNC cases and 900 controls matched by age and sex in Chinese. Although none of three SNPs was significantly associated with overall risk of HNC, rs1057035 in 3′UTR of DICER was associated with a significantly decreased risk of oral cancer (TC/CC vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.46–0.92). Furthermore, luciferase activity assay showed that rs1057035 variant C allele led to significantly lower expression levels as compared to the T allele, which may be due to the relatively high inhibition of hsa-miR-574-3p on DICER mRNA. These findings indicated that rs1057035 located at 3′UTR of DICER may contribute to the risk of oral cancer by affecting the binding of miRNAs to DICER. Large-scale and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.
MET tyrosine kinase and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), play a pivotal role in the activties of tumor cells. A germline missense variant in exon 2 of the MET gene, N375S (rs33917957 A>G), may alter the binding affinity of MET for HGF and thus modify the risk of tumorigenesis. In this study, we performed a case-control study to assess the association between N375S and gastric cancer risk in 1,681 gastric cancer cases and 1,858 cancer-free controls. Logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between genotypes and gastric cancer risk. We found that MET N375S variant genotypes (NS/SS) were associated with a significantly decreased risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.96, P = 0.021) compared with the wildtype homozygote (NN). The finding indicates that this germline variant in MET may decrease gastric cancer susceptibility in Han Chinese.
MET; germline variation; gastric cancer; susceptibility
Plasma level of total homocysteine (tHcy) is negatively correlated with kidney function in general population. However, the causal mechanism of this correlation is poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism, which is a major genetic determinant of the plasma tHcy level, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Chinese.
A total of 18 814 hypertensive patients (6 914 males, 11 900 females) were included in the study.
Association between the eGFR and MTHFR C677T genotype was examined by sex-specific regression analyses. In males, TT genotype was associated with 1.37 ml/min/1.73 m2 decrease in eGFR (p = 0.004) and with an increased risk (OR = 1.32, p = 0.008) for the lowest quintile of eGFR after adjusting for age, BMI, and blood pressures. However, such association was not observed in females (p > 0.05). This association suggests MTHFR C677T polymorphism may play a role in the regulation of eGFR in males.
MTHFR 677 T is a risk allele for decreased kidney function in Chinese males, implicating this gene in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
MTHFR C677T polymorphism; eGFR; CKD
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified KIF1B as susceptibility locus for hepatitis B virus (HBV)–related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To further identify novel susceptibility loci associated with HBV–related HCC and replicate the previously reported association, we performed a large three-stage GWAS in the Han Chinese population. 523,663 autosomal SNPs in 1,538 HBV–positive HCC patients and 1,465 chronic HBV carriers were genotyped for the discovery stage. Top candidate SNPs were genotyped in the initial validation samples of 2,112 HBV–positive HCC cases and 2,208 HBV carriers and then in the second validation samples of 1,021 cases and 1,491 HBV carriers. We discovered two novel associations at rs9272105 (HLA-DQA1/DRB1) on 6p21.32 (OR = 1.30, P = 1.13×10−19) and rs455804 (GRIK1) on 21q21.3 (OR = 0.84, P = 1.86×10−8), which were further replicated in the fourth independent sample of 1,298 cases and 1,026 controls (rs9272105: OR = 1.25, P = 1.71×10−4; rs455804: OR = 0.84, P = 6.92×10−3). We also revealed the associations of HLA-DRB1*0405 and 0901*0602, which could partially account for the association at rs9272105. The association at rs455804 implicates GRIK1 as a novel susceptibility gene for HBV–related HCC, suggesting the involvement of glutamate signaling in the development of HBV–related HCC.
Previous studies strongly suggest the importance of genetic susceptibility for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the studies about genetic etiology on HBV–related HCC were limited. Our genome-wide association study included 523,663 autosomal SNPs in 1,538 HBV–positive HCC patients and 1,465 chronic HBV carriers for the discovery analysis. 2,112 HBV–positive HCC cases and 2,208 HBV carriers (the initial validation), and 1,021 cases and 1,491 HBV carriers (the second validation), were then analyzed for validation. The fourth independent samples of 1,298 cases and 1,026 controls were analyzed as replication. We discovered two novel associations at rs9272105 (HLA-DQA1/DRB1) on 6p21.32 and rs455804 (GRIK1) on 21q21.3. HLA-DRB1 molecules play an important role in chronic HBV infection and progression to HCC. The association at rs455804 implicates GRIK1 as a novel susceptibility gene for HBV–related HCC, suggesting the involvement of glutamate signaling in the development of HBV–related HCC.
We sought to determine risk factors associated with fetal macrosomia and to explore the long-term consequence of infant macrosomia at the age of 7 years. A prospective population based cohort study was designed to examine the associations between maternal and perinatal characteristics and the risk of macrosomia. A nested case-control study was conducted to explore the long-term health consequence of infant macrosomia. The mean maternal age of the macrosomia group was 24.74±3.32 years, which is slightly older than that in the control group (24.35±3.14 years, P = 0.000). The mean maternal body mass index (BMI) at early pregnancy was 22.75±2.81 kg/m2, which was also higher than that in the control group (21.76±2.59 kg/m2, P = 0.000). About 64.6% of macrosomic neonates were males, compared with 51.0% in the control group (P = 0.000). Compared with women with normal weight (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg/m2), women who were overweight (BMI: 24-27.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI≥28 kg/m2), respectively, had a 1.69-fold (P = 0.000) and a 1.49-fold (P = 0.000) increased risks of having a neonate with macrosomia, while light weight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) women had an approximately 50% reduction of the risk. Furthermore, macrosomia infant had a 1.52-fold and 1.50-fold risk, respectively, of developing overweight or obesity at the age of 7 years (P = 0.001 and P = 0.000). Older maternal age, higher maternal BMI at early pregnancy and male gender were independent risk factors of macrosomia. Macrosomic infant was associated with an increased predisposition to develop overweight or obesity at the beginning of their childhood.
risk factors; long-term; health consequences; macrosomia
Two recent genome-wide association studies reported significant associations of genetic variants at 1q22, 10q23 and 20p13 with gastric cancer (GC) risk in Chinese populations. However, these findings have not been confirmed in other independent studies. Here, we performed an independent case–control study in a Chinese population by genotyping three loci (rs4072037A>G at 1q22, rs2274223A>G at 10q23 and rs13042395C>T at 20p13) in 1681 GC cases and 1858 controls. We found that rs4072037 at 1q22 and rs2274223 at 10q23 were significantly associated with risk of GC with per allele odds ratio (OR) of 0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63–0.81; P = 2.98 × 10−7] and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.27–1.58; P = 9.68 × 10−10), respectively. The association was more prominent for rs2274223 in female (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.49–2.32) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.49–1.95). Furthermore, we combined the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms to evaluate the joint effect and found that the GC risk significantly increased with the number of risk allele increasing with a trend P value of 6.66 × 10−16, and individuals with four risk alleles had a 3.28-fold (95% CI: 1.75–6.13) risk of GC compared with those having no risk alleles. However, no significant association was detected between rs13042395 at 20p13 and GC risk (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.94–1.15; P = 0.452). In conclusion, our results indicate that genetic variants at 1q22 and 10q23 but not 20p13 may serve as candidate markers for GC susceptibility in the Chinese population.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European ancestry have mapped a type 2 diabetes susceptibility region to chromosome 10q23.33 containing IDE, KIF11 and HHEX genes (IDE-KIF11-HHEX), which has also been replicated in Chinese populations. However, the functional relevance for genetic variants at this locus is still unclear. It is critical to systematically assess the relationship of genetic variants in this region with the risk of type 2 diabetes.
A fine-mapping study was conducted by genotyping fourteen tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 290-kb linkage disequilibrium (LD) region using a two-stage case-control study of type 2 diabetes in a Chinese Han population. Suggestive associations (P<0.05) observed from 1,200 cases and 1,200 controls in the first stage were further replicated in 1,725 cases and 2,081 controls in the second stage. Seven tagging SNPs were consistently associated with type 2 diabetes in both stages (P<0.05), with combined odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.14 to 1.33 in the combined analysis. The most significant locus was rs7923837 [OR = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21–1.47] at the 3′-flanking region of HHEX gene. SNP rs1111875 was found to be another partially independent locus (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.13–1.35) in this region that was associated with type 2 diabetes risk. A cumulative effect of rs7923837 and rs1111875 was observed with individuals carrying 1, 2, and 3 or 4 risk alleles having a 1.27, 1.44, and 1.73-fold increased risk, respectively, for type 2 diabetes (P for trend = 4.1E-10).
Our results confirm that genetic variants of the IDE-KIF11-HHEX region at 10q23.33 contribute to type 2 diabetes susceptibility and suggest that rs7923837 may represent the strongest signal related to type 2 diabetes risk in the Chinese Han population.
Recently, several studies have demonstrated that two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), HULC and MALAT1, may participate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. However, genetic variations in the two lncRNAs and their associations with HCC susceptibility have not been reported. In this study, we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HULC and MALAT1 may contribute to HCC risk.
We conducted a case-control study and genotyped two SNPs, rs7763881 in HULC and rs619586 in MALAT1, in 1300 HBV positive HCC patients, 1344 HBV persistent carriers and 1344 subjects with HBV natural clearance to test the associations between the two SNPs and susceptibility to HCC and HBV chronic infection.
The variant genotypes of rs7763881 were significantly associated with decreased HCC risk in a dominant genetic model [AC/CC vs. AA: adjusted odds ration (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.68–0.97, P = 0.022]. Furthermore, the variant genotypes of rs619586 was associated with decreased HCC risk with a borderline significance (AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.81, 95% CIs = 0.65–1.01, P = 0.057). However, no significant association was found between the two SNPs and HBV clearance.
The variant genotypes of rs7763881 in HULC may contribute to decreased susceptibility to HCC in HBV persistent carriers.
Monoclonal antibody (McAb) is the key tool for cancer immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. McAb-based immunotherapy that targets tumor antigens has had great achivement. In this study, a cell clone which kept secreting high-titer IgG1-type McAb named NJ001 against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells was obtained. The titer of purified NJ001 was 2×106. The antigen named SP70 of NSCLC specifically identified by NJ001 was proved to be a protein with the relative molecular mass (Mr) of 70 kDa. The results of immunohistochemical staining indicated that NJ001 could positively react to NSCLC, but weak positively or negatively react to human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), pulmonary pseudotumor and other epithelial tumors. In soft agar assay, the colony formation efficiency in NJ001 groups decreased in a dose-dependent manner. For the concentration of 100 µg/ml, 200 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml, the inhibition ratio of colony formation was 23.4%, 62.5% and 100% respectively. Meanwhile, NJ001 caused significant reduction in tumor volume and tumor weight compared to control mice in lung cancer xenograft model. The tumor growth inhibition ratio in 200 µg, 400 µg and 800 µg NJ001 groups was 10.44%, 37.29% and 44.04%, respectively. NJ001 also led to cytomorphological changes and induced the apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A1 significantly. The newly developed NJ001 selectively reacted to NSCLC and exhibited anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. NJ001 is of great value concerning immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy for NSCLC and holds promise for further research regarding the mechanism underlying tumor progression of NSCLC.