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1.  Evaluation of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction with vascularized iliac crest bone graft compared to conventional surgery: a randomized prospective clinical trial 
Trials  2014;15:114.
Computer-assisted surgery plays an increasingly important role in mandibular reconstruction, ensuring the best possible masticatory function and aesthetic outcome.
Twenty patients were randomly assigned to computer-assisted or conventional mandibular reconstruction with vascularized iliac crest bone graft in a prospective study design.
Virtual surgical planning was based on preoperative CT-data using specific surgical planning software. A rapid prototyping guide transferred the virtual surgery plan to the operation site. During surgery the transplant ischemic time, reconstruction time, time for shaping the transplant and amount of bone removed were measured. Additionally, the difference in the intercondylar distance before and after surgery was calculated.
Computer-assisted surgery shortened the time of transplant ischemia (P < 0.005) and defect reconstruction (P < 0.001) compared to conventional surgery. The time to saw and shape the transplant at the donor site was shorter using conventional surgery (P < 0.005); therefore, the overall time for surgery didn’t change (P = 0.527). In the computer-assisted group, the amount of bone harvested equaled the defect size, whereas the transplant size in the conventional group exceeded the defect site by 16.8 ± 5.6 mm (P < 0.001) on average. The intercondylar distance before compared to after surgery was less affected in the computer-assisted than in the conventional group (P < 0.001).
The presented study shows that computer-assisted surgery can help reduce the time for mandibular defect reconstruction and consequently the transplant ischemic time. In the computer-assisted group, the iliac crest donor site defect was downsized and the postoperative condyle position was less altered, reducing possible risks of postoperative complications and donor site morbidity.
Trial Registration
PMCID: PMC3998950  PMID: 24716651
Computer-assisted surgery; Mandibular reconstruction; Vascularized iliac crest bone graft; Surgical guide; Virtual planning
2.  Carotid sinus syndrome as the presenting symptom of cystadenolymphoma 
Head & Face Medicine  2012;8:31.
Carotid sinus syndrome is a serious manifestation of head and neck malignancy. The purpose of this study was to clarify the presence of carotid sinus syndrome in a patient with cystadenolymphoma. To our knowledge carotid sinus syndrome secondary to cystadenolymphoma has not been reported to date. A 45-year-old woman with one-week-old swelling in the left mandibular angle having disturbing symptoms of vertigo, consciousness and sinus arrest. Holter monitoring revealed several episodes of sinus arrest. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined space-occupying lesion of about 31 mm in length and 17 mm in width located in the deep lobe of the left parotid gland. Computerized tomography (CT) showed a large mass extending into the carotid space and protruding into the parapharyngeal space. Parotidectomy was performed. Surgical removal of the tumor resulted in complete amelioration of symptoms and disappearance of electrocardiogram abnormalities. Here we report on a clinical case of carotid sinus syndrome associated with cystadenolymphoma. To our knowledge carotid sinus syndrome secondary to cystadenolymphoma has not been reported to date, and is made more remarkable as a possible differential diagnosis after clarification of all possible causes. Early diagnosis and immediate management can minimize complications.
PMCID: PMC3528468  PMID: 23151249
Cystadenolymphoma; Warthin’s tumor; Parotid gland tumors; Syncope; Carotid sinus syndrome
3.  Analysis of trigeminal nerve disorders after oral and maxillofacial intervention 
Head & Face Medicine  2010;6:24.
Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is applied to evaluate somatosensory nerve fiber function in the spinal system. This study uses QST in patients with sensory dysfunctions after oral and maxillofacial surgery.
Orofacial sensory functions were investigated by psychophysical means in 60 volunteers (30 patients with sensory disturbances and 30 control subjects) in innervation areas of the infraorbital, mental and lingual nerves. The patients were tested 1 week, 4 weeks, 7 weeks and 10 weeks following oral and maxillofacial surgery.
QST monitored somatosensory deficits and recovery of trigeminal nerve functions in all patients. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between control group and patients were shown for cold, warm and mechanical detection thresholds and for cold, heat and mechanical pain thresholds. Additionally, QST monitored recovery of nerve functions in all patients.
QST can be applied for non-invasive assessment of sensory nerve function (Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fiber) in the orofacial region and is useful in the diagnosis of trigeminal nerve disorders in patients.
PMCID: PMC2984556  PMID: 20977760
4.  Gender specific quality of life in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas 
Head & Face Medicine  2010;6:21.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the somatic and psychological effects by means of QUALITY OF LIFE (QOL) of surgical treatment of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The factors gender, age, nicotine consumption, and tumour stage were taken into consideration.
54 patients after surgical resection of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were analysed from 01.09.2005 to 31.05.2008. Inclusion criteria for the study were: age at least 18 years, no indication or treatment of synchronous and metachronous tumours.
German translations of the EORTC H&N-35 and EORTC QLQ-C-30 questionnaires, as well as a general socioeconomic patient history were used as measuring instruments. The questionnaires were completed independently by the patients. The answers were translated into scale values for statistical evaluation using appropriate algorithms.
Analysis of the EORTC-QLQ-C-30 questionnaires demonstrated a tendency of more negative assessment of emotional function among the female participants, and a more negative evaluation of social function among the male participants. Greater tumour sizes showed significantly lower bodily function (p = 0.018). While a smaller tumour size was significantly associated with lower cognitive functioning (p = 0.031). Other cofactors such as age, nicotine consumption, and tumour stage only showed a tendency to influence the quality of sleep and daily life.
The data obtained within this investigation demonstrated that gender had the most significant power on the subjectively perceived postoperative quality of life. This factor is important e.g. in preoperative decision making regarding immediate microvascular reconstruction after e.g. mandibular resection and therefore QOL assessment should become integral component of the care of patients with OSCC.
PMCID: PMC2931465  PMID: 20727183
5.  A new biphasic osteoinductive calcium composite material with a negative Zeta potential for bone augmentation 
Head & Face Medicine  2009;5:13.
The aim of the present study was to analyze the osteogenic potential of a biphasic calcium composite material (BCC) with a negative surface charge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. In a 61 year old patient, the BCC material was used in a bilateral sinus floor augmentation procedure. Six months postoperative, a bone sample was taken from the augmented regions before two titanium implants were inserted at each side. We analyzed bone neoformation by histology, bone density by computed tomography, and measured the activity of voltage-activated calcium currents of osteoblasts and surface charge effects. Control orthopantomograms were carried out five months after implant insertion. The BCC was biocompatible and replaced by new mineralized bone after being resorbed completely. The material demonstrated a negative surface charge (negative Zeta potential) which was found to be favorable for bone regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants.
PMCID: PMC2706807  PMID: 19523239
6.  A new adhesive technique for internal fixation in midfacial surgery 
The current surgical therapy of midfacial fractures involves internal fixation in which bone fragments are fixed in their anatomical positions with osteosynthesis plates and corresponding screws until bone healing is complete. This often causes new fractures to fragile bones while drilling pilot holes or trying to insert screws. The adhesive fixation of osteosynthesis plates using PMMA bone cement could offer a viable alternative for fixing the plates without screws. In order to achieve the adhesive bonding of bone cement to cortical bone in the viscerocranium, an amphiphilic bone bonding agent was created, analogous to the dentin bonding agents currently on the market.
The adhesive bonding strengths were measured using tension tests. For this, metal plates with 2.0 mm diameter screw holes were cemented with PMMA bone cement to cortical bovine bone samples from the femur diaphysis. The bone was conditioned with an amphiphilic bone bonding agent prior to cementing. The samples were stored for 1 to 42 days at 37 degrees C, either moist or completely submerged in an isotonic NaCl-solution, and then subjected to the tension tests.
Without the bone bonding agent, the bonding strength was close to zero (0.2 MPa). Primary stability with bone bonding agent is considered to be at ca. 8 MPa. Moist storage over 42 days resulted in decreased adhesion forces of ca. 6 MPa. Wet storage resulted in relatively constant bonding strengths of ca. 8 MPa.
A new amphiphilic bone bonding agent was developed, which builds an optimizied interlayer between the hydrophilic bone surface and the hydrophobic PMMA bone cement and thus leads to adhesive bonding between them. Our in vitro investigations demonstrated the adhesive bonding of PMMA bone cement to cortical bone, which was also stable against hydrolysis. The newly developed adhesive fixing technique could be applied clinically when the fixation of osteosynthesis plates with screws is impossible. With the detected adhesion forces of ca. 6 to 8 MPa, it is assumed that the adhesive fixation system is able to secure bone fragments from the non-load bearing midfacial regions in their orthotopic positions until fracture consolidation is complete.
PMCID: PMC2430571  PMID: 18489785
7.  Distant metastases of a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in peripheral skeletal muscles and adjacent soft tissues 
A 66-year-old female patient was admitted to our department with a large tumor of the tongue measuring 10 cm in diameter. The tumor occupied nearly the entire oral cavity and showed exophytic and ulcerative areas. Histological analysis revealed a low grade squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue. Bilateral enlarged cervical lymphatic masses were also present. The extent of the tumor infiltration was assessed by fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography (PET) scans showing an elevated activity of the tracer corresponding to the assumed cervical metastases. Additionally, pulmonary metastases were identified. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans showed metastases in the soft tissues of the abdomen, legs and arms. Foci of distant metastases were found in the left upper anterior thoracal wall, near the intraabdominal portion of the aorta, near the right iliac crest and in both the right vastus medialis- and adductor magnus muscles. The final diagnosis was a T4N3M1(G3)(C3) SCC of the tongue with multiple distant thoracal, abdominal and intramuscular metastases. The survival expectancy was five weeks, and the patient finally deceased by cardiopulmonary complications.
PMCID: PMC2358884  PMID: 18366774
8.  Analysis of polymorphic TGFB1 codons 10, 25, and 263 in a German patient group with non-syndromic cleft lip, alveolus, and palate compared with healthy adults 
BMC Medical Genetics  2004;5:15.
Clefts of the lip, alveolus, and palate (CLPs) rank among the most frequent and significant congenital malformations. Leu10Pro and Arg25Pro polymorphisms in the precursor region and Thr263Ile polymorphism in the prodomain of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) gene have proved to be crucial to predisposition of several disorders.
In this study, polymorphism analysis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (LightCycler) and TGF-β1 levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Only 2/60 Caucasian non-syndromic patients with CLP (3.3%) carried the Arg25Pro and another 2/60 patients (3.3%) the Thr263Ile genotypes, whereas, in a control group of 60 healthy Caucasian blood donors, these heterozygous genotypes were more frequent 16.7% having Arg25Pro (10/60; p < 0.035) and 10,0% having Thr263Ile (6/60), respectively. TGF-β1 levels in platelet-poor plasma of heterozygous Arg25Pro individuals were lower than those of homozygous members (Arg25Arg) in the latter group, but this discrepancy narrowly failed to be significant. Although polymorphisms in codon 10 and 25 were associated with each other, no difference was found between patients and controls concerning the Leu10Pro polymorphism.
The genetic differences in codons 25 and 263 suggest that TGF-β1 could play an important role in occurrence of CLP, however, functional experiments will be required to confirm the mechanisms of disturbed development.
PMCID: PMC441379  PMID: 15212689

Results 1-8 (8)