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1.  Genomewide scan in Ashkenazi Jewish families demonstrates evidence of linkage of ocular refraction to a QTL on chromosome 1p36 
Human genetics  2006;119(4):389-399.
The development of refractive error is mediated by both environmental and genetic factors. We performed regression-based quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage analysis on Ashkenazi Jewish families to identify regions in the genome responsible for ocular refraction. We measured refractive error on individuals in 49 multi-generational American families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. The average family size was 11.1 individuals and was composed of 2.7 generations. Recruitment criteria specified that each family contain at least two myopic members. The mean spherical equivalent refractive error in the sample was −3.46D (SD=3.29) and 87% of individuals were myopic. Microsatellite genotyping with 387 markers was performed on 411 individuals. We performed multipoint regression-based linkage analysis for ocular refraction and a log transformation of the trait using the statistical package Merlin-Regress. Empirical genomewide significance levels were estimated through gene-dropping simulations by generating random genotypes at each of the 387 markers in 200 replicates of our pedigrees. Maximum LOD scores of 9.5 for ocular refraction and 8.7 for log-transformed refraction (LTR) were observed at 49.1 cM on chromosome 1p36 between markers D1S552 and D1S1622. The empirical genomewide significance levels were P=0.065 for ocular refraction and P<0.005 for LTR, providing strong evidence for linkage of refraction to this locus. The inter-marker region containing the peak spans 11 Mb and contains approximately 189 genes. Conclusion: We found genomewide significant evidence for linkage of refractive error to a novel QTL on chromosome 1p36 in an Ashkenazi Jewish population.
doi:10.1007/s00439-006-0153-x
PMCID: PMC3123998  PMID: 16501916
2.  Candidate high myopia loci on chromosomes 18p and 12q do not play a major role in susceptibility to common myopia 
BMC Medical Genetics  2004;5:20.
Background
To determine whether previously reported loci predisposing to nonsyndromic high myopia show linkage to common myopia in pedigrees from two ethnic groups: Ashkenazi Jewish and Amish. We hypothesized that these high myopia loci might exhibit allelic heterogeneity and be responsible for moderate /mild or common myopia.
Methods
Cycloplegic and manifest refraction were performed on 38 Jewish and 40 Amish families. Individuals with at least -1.00 D in each meridian of both eyes were classified as myopic. Genomic DNA was genotyped with 12 markers on chromosomes 12q21-23 and 18p11.3. Parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses were conducted to determine whether susceptibility alleles at these loci are important in families with less severe, clinical forms of myopia.
Results
There was no strong evidence of linkage of common myopia to these candidate regions: all two-point and multipoint heterogeneity LOD scores were < 1.0 and non-parametric linkage p-values were > 0.01. However, one Amish family showed slight evidence of linkage (LOD>1.0) on 12q; another 3 Amish families each gave LOD >1.0 on 18p; and 3 Jewish families each gave LOD >1.0 on 12q.
Conclusions
Significant evidence of linkage (LOD> 3) of myopia was not found on chromosome 18p or 12q loci in these families. These results suggest that these loci do not play a major role in the causation of common myopia in our families studied.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-5-20
PMCID: PMC512288  PMID: 15291966

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