Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play an important role in the recalcitrant inflammatory and hyperproliferative dermatosis of psoriasis, and there may be a relationship between TNF-α polymorphisms and psoriasis risk.
We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between TNF-α polymorphisms and psoriasis. Electronic searches of Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science were performed for all publications on the associations between TNF-α polymorphisms and psoriasis through September 26, 2012. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence interval (95%CIs) were calculated to assess the associations.
Sixteen case-control studies with a total of 2,253 psoriasis cases and 1,947 controls on TNF-α 308 G/A polymorphism and fourteen studies on TNF-α 238 G/A polymorphism with 2,104 cases and 1,838 controls were finally included into the meta-analysis. Overall, TNF-α 308 G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of psoriasis under three genetic comparison models (for A versus G: fixed-effects OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.62-0.82, P < 0.001; for AG versus GG: fixed-effects OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.57-0.78, P < 0.001; for AA/AG versus GG: fixed-effects OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.58-0.78, P < 0.001). In addition, TNF-α 238 G/A polymorphism was associated with increased risk of psoriasis under three genetic models (for A versus G: fixed-effects OR 2.46, 95%CI 2.04-2.96, P < 0.001; for AG versus GG: fixed-effects OR 2.69, 95%CI 2.20-3.28, P < 0.001; for AA/AG versus GG: fixed-effects OR 2.68, 95%CI 2.20-3.26, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity identified a significant association between TNF-α 308 G/A polymorphism and decreased risk of psoriasis in both Caucasians and Asians and a significant association between TNF-α 238 G/A polymorphism and increased risk of psoriasis in Caucasians.
The meta-analysis suggests that TNF-α 308 G/A polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of psoriasis, while TNF-α 238 G/A is associated with increased risk of psoriasis.
There are unpredictable inter-individual differences in sensitivity to psoralen-UVA (PUVA) photochemotherapy, used to treat skin diseases including psoriasis. Psoralens are metabolised by cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450), and we hypothesised that variability in cutaneous P450 expression may influence PUVA sensitivity. We previously showed that P450 CYP1B1 was abundantly expressed in human skin and regulated by PUVA, and described marked inter-individual differences in cutaneous CYP1B1 expression.
We investigated whether CYP1B1 made a significant contribution to 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) metabolism, and whether individuality in CYP1B1 activity influenced PUVA sensitivity.
We used E. coli membranes co-expressing various P450s and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to study 8-MOP metabolism and cytotoxicity assays in CYP1B1-expressing mammalian cells to assess PUVA sensitivity.
We showed that P450s CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 influence 8-MOP metabolism. As CYP1B1 is the most abundant P450 in human skin, we further demonstrated that: (i) CYP1B1 interacts with 8-MOP (ii) metabolism of the CYP1B1 substrates 7-ethoxyresorufin and 17-β-estradiol showed concentration-dependent inhibition by 8-MOP and (iii) inhibition of 7-ethoxyresorufin metabolism by 8-MOP was influenced by CYP1B1 genotype. The influence of CYP1B1 on PUVA cytotoxicity was further investigated in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, stably expressing CYP1B1 and CPR, which was more sensitive to PUVA than control cells, suggesting that CYP1B1 metabolises 8-MOP to a more phototoxic metabolite(s).
Our data therefore suggest that CYP1B1 significantly contributes to cutaneous 8-MOP metabolism, and that individuality in CYP1B1 expression may influence PUVA sensitivity.
Background and Aim
Warfarin is the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant worldwide. However, warfarin therapy is associated with a high risk of bleeding and thromboembolic events because of a large interindividual dose-response variability. We investigated the effect of genetic and non genetic factors on warfarin dosage in a South Italian population in the attempt to setup an algorithm easily applicable in the clinical practice.
Materials and Methods
A total of 266 patients from Southern Italy affected by cardiovascular diseases were enrolled and their clinical and anamnestic data recorded. All patients were genotyped for CYP2C9*2,*3, CYP4F2*3, VKORC1 -1639 G>A by the TaqMan assay and for variants VKORC1 1173 C>T and VKORC1 3730 G>A by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. The effect of genetic and not genetic factors on warfarin dose variability was tested by multiple linear regression analysis, and an algorithm based on our data was established and then validated by the Jackknife procedure.
Warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1-1639 G>A (29.7%), CYP2C9*3 (11.8%), age (8.5%), CYP2C9*2 (3.5%), gender (2.0%) and lastly CYP4F2*3 (1.7%); VKORC1 1173 C>T and VKORC1 3730 G>A exerted a slight effect (<1% each). Taken together, these factors accounted for 58.4% of the warfarin dose variability in our population. Data obtained with our algorithm significantly correlated with those predicted by the two online algorithms: Warfarin dosing and Pharmgkb (p<0.001; R2 = 0.805 and p<0.001; R2 = 0.773, respectively).
Our algorithm, which is based on six polymorphisms, age and gender, is user-friendly and its application in clinical practice could improve the personalized management of patients undergoing warfarin therapy.
The number of identified genetic variants associated to complex disease cannot fully explain heritability. This may be partially due to more complicated patterns of predisposition than previously suspected. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) may consist of multiple disease causing mechanisms, each comprised of several elements. We describe how the effect of subgroups can be calculated using the standard association measurement odds ratio, which is then manipulated to provide a formula for the true underlying association present within the subgroup. This is sensitive to the initial minor allele frequencies present in both cases and the subgroup of patients. The methodology is then extended to the χ2 statistic, for two related scenarios. First, to determine the true χ2 when phenocopies or disease subtypes reduce association and are reclassified as controls when calculating statistics. Here, the χ2 is given by, or for equal numbers of cases and controls. Second, when subgroups corresponding to heterogeneity mask the true effect size, but no reclassification is made. Here, the proportion increase in total sample size required to attain the same χ2 statistic as the subgroup is given as , and a python script to calculate and plot this value is provided at kirc.se. Practical examples show how in a study of modest size (1000 cases and 1000 controls), a non-significant SNP may exceed genome-wide significance when corresponding to a subgroup of 20% of cases, and may occur in heterozygous form in all cases. This methodology may explain the modest association found in diseases such as MS wherein heterogeneity confounds straightforward measurement of association.
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder that is inherited as a complex genetic trait. Although genome-wide association scans (GWAS) have identified 36 disease susceptibility regions, more than 50% of the genetic variance can be attributed to a single Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) locus, known as PSORS1. Genetic studies indicate that HLA-C is the strongest PSORS1 candidate gene, since markers tagging HLA-Cw*0602 consistently generate the most significant association signals in GWAS. However, it is unclear whether HLA-Cw*0602 is itself the causal PSORS1 allele, especially as the role of SNPs that may affect its expression has not been investigated. Here, we have undertaken an in-depth molecular characterization of the PSORS1 interval, with a view to identifying regulatory variants that may contribute to disease susceptibility. By analysing high-density SNP data, we refined PSORS1 to a 179 kb region encompassing HLA-C and the neighbouring HCG27 pseudogene. We compared multiple MHC sequences spanning this refined locus and identified 144 candidate susceptibility variants, which are unique to chromosomes bearing HLA-Cw*0602. In parallel, we investigated the epigenetic profile of the critical PSORS1 interval and uncovered three enhancer elements likely to be active in T lymphocytes. Finally we showed that nine candidate susceptibility SNPs map within a HLA-C enhancer and that three of these variants co-localise with binding sites for immune-related transcription factors. These data indicate that SNPs affecting HLA-Cw*0602 expression are likely to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility and highlight the importance of integrating multiple experimental approaches in the investigation of complex genomic regions such as the MHC.
Due to the low percentage of fetal DNA present in maternal plasma (< 10%) during early gestation, efficient extraction processes are required for successful downstream detection applications in non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing. In this study, two extraction methods using similar chemistries but different workflows were compared for isolation efficiency and percent fetal DNA recovery. The Akonni Biosystems TruTip technology uses a binding matrix embedded in a pipette tip; the Circulating Nucleic Acids Kit from Qiagen employs a spin column approach. The TruTip method adds an extra step to decrease the recovery of DNA fragments larger than 600 bp from the sample to yield an overall higher percentage of smaller molecular weight DNA, effectively enriching for fetal DNA. In this evaluation, three separate extraction comparison studies were performed - a dilution series of fragmented DNA in plasma, a set of clinical maternal samples, and a blood collection tube time point study of maternal samples. Both extraction methods were found to efficiently extract small fragment DNA from large volumes of plasma. In the amended samples, the TruTip extraction method was ~15% less efficient with overall DNA recovery, but yielded an 87% increase in % fetal DNA relative to the Qiagen method. The average percent increase of fetal DNA of TruTip extracted samples compared to the Qiagen method was 55% for all sets of blinded clinical samples. A study comparing extraction efficiencies from whole blood samples incubated up to 48 hours prior to processing into plasma resulted in more consistent % fetal DNA recoveries using TruTip. The extracted products were tested on two detection platforms, quantitative real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR, and yielded similar results for both extraction methods.
Dizygotic (DZ) twinning has a genetic component and is common among sub-Saharan Africans; in The Gambia its frequency is up to 3% of live births. Variation in Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a soluble pattern recognition receptor that plays an important role both in humoral innate immunity and in female fertility, has been associated with resistance to M. tuberculosis infection and to P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. We tested whether PTX3 variants in Gambian women associate with DZ twinning, by genotyping five PTX3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 130 sister pairs (96 full sibs and 34 half sibs) who had DZ twins. We found that two, three and five SNP haplotypes differed in frequency between twinning mothers and those without a history of twinning (from p = 0.006 to 3.03e-06 for two SNP and three SNP haplotypes, respectively). Twinning mothers and West African tuberculosis-controls from a previous study shared several frequent haplotypes. Most importantly, our data are consistent with the previously reported association of PTX3 and female fertility in a West African sample from Ghana. Taken together, these results indicate that selective pressure on PTX3 variants that affect the innate immune response to infectious agents, could also produce the observed high incidence of DZ twinning in Gambians.
dizygotic twinning; fertility; innate immunity; Pentraxin 3; The Gambia; Africa
Different gene targeting approaches have been developed to modify endogenous genomic DNA in both human and mouse cells. Briefly, the process involves the targeting of a specific mutation in situ leading to the gene correction and the restoration of a normal gene function. Most of these protocols with therapeutic potential are oligonucleotide based, and rely on endogenous enzymatic pathways. One gene targeting approach, “Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR)”, has been found to be effective in modifying genomic DNA. This approach uses small DNA fragments (SDF) to target specific genomic loci and induce sequence and subsequent phenotypic alterations. This study shows that SFHR can stably introduce a 3-bp deletion (deltaF508, the most frequent cystic fibrosis (CF) mutation) into the Cftr (CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) locus in the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell genome. After transfection of deltaF508-SDF into murine ES cells, SFHR-mediated modification was evaluated at the molecular levels on DNA and mRNA obtained from transfected ES cells. About 12% of transcript corresponding to deleted allele was detected, while 60% of the electroporated cells completely last any measurable CFTR-dependent chloride efflux The data indicate that the SFHR technique can be used to effectively target and modify genomic sequences in ES cells. Once the SFHR-modified ES cells differentiate into different cell lineages they can be useful for elucidating tissue-specific gene function and for the development of transplantation-based cellular and therapeutic protocols.
Homologous Replacement; Real-Time PCR; SFHR; Embryonic Stem Cells; CFTR
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in China. Given the ubiquitous nature of gene-to-gene interaction in lung carcinogenesis, we sought to evaluate five common polymorphisms from advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (RAGE) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) genes in association with lung cancer among Han Chinese.
Methods and Results
819 patients with lung cancer and 803 cancer-free controls were recruited from Qiqihar city. Genotypes of five examined polymorphisms (RAGE gene: rs1800625, rs1800624, rs2070600; APE1 gene: rs1760944, rs1130409) were determined by ligase detection reaction method. Data were analyzed by R software and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was satisfied for all five polymorphisms. Overall differences in the genotype and allele distributions were significant for rs1800625 (Pgenotype<0.0005; Pallele<0.0005), rs2070600 (Pgenotype = 0.005; Pallele = 0.004) and rs1130409 (Pgenotype = 0.009; Pallele = 0.004) polymorphisms. Haplotype C-A-A (alleles in order of rs1800625, rs1800624 and rs2070600) of RAGE gene was overrepresented in patients, and conferred a 2.1-fold increased risk of lung cancer (95% confidence interval: 1.52–2.91), independent of confounding factors. Further application of MDR method to five examined polymorphisms identified the overall best interaction model including rs2070600 and rs1130409 polymorphisms. This model had a maximal testing accuracy of 64.63% and a maximal cross-validation consistency of 9 out of 10 at the significant level of 0.006.
Our findings demonstrated a potential interactive contribution of RAGE and APE1 genes to the pathogenesis of lung cancer among Han Chinese. Further studies are warranted to confirm or refute these findings.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of blindness in the developed world. The etiology of AMD is multifactorial due to the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. IL-8 has a role in inflammation and angiogenesis; we report the genetic characterization of IL-8 allele architecture and evaluate the role of SNPs or haplotypes in the susceptibility to wet AMD, case-control study.
Case-control study including 721 AMD patients and 660 controls becoming from Italian population. Genotyping was carried out by Real Time-PCR. Differences in the frequencies were estimated by the chi-square test. Direct sequencing was carried out by capillary electrophoresis trough ABI3130xl.
rs2227306 showed a p–value of 4.15*10−5 and an Odds Ratio (OR) for T allele of 1.39 [1.19–1.62]. After these positive results, we sequenced the entire IL-8 regulatory and coding regions of 60 patients and 30 controls stratified for their genotype at rs2227306. We defined two different haplotypes involving rs4073 (A/T), rs2227306 (C/T), rs2227346 (C/T) and rs1126647 (A/T): A-T-T-T (p-value: 2.08*10−9; OR: 1.68 [1.43–1.97]) and T-C-C-A (p-value: 7.07*10−11; OR: 0.60 [0.51–0.70]). To further investigate a potential functional role of associated haplotypes, we performed an expression study on RNA extracted from whole blood of 75 donors to verify a possible direct correlation between haplotype and gene expression, failing to reveal significant differences.
These results suggest a possible secondary role of IL-8 gene in the development of the disease. This paper outlines the importance of association between inflammation and AMD. Moreover IL-8 is a new susceptibility genomic biomarker of AMD.
To gain further insight into the genetic architecture of psoriasis, we conducted a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and two independent datasets genotyped on the Immunochip, involving 10,588 cases and 22,806 controls in total. We identified 15 new disease susceptibility regions, increasing the number of psoriasis-associated loci to 36 for Caucasians. Conditional analyses identified five independent signals within previously known loci. The newly identified shared disease regions encompassed a number of genes whose products regulate T-cell function (e.g. RUNX3, TAGAP and STAT3). The new psoriasis-specific regions were notable for candidate genes whose products are involved in innate host defense, encoding proteins with roles in interferon-mediated antiviral responses (DDX58), macrophage activation (ZC3H12C), and NF-κB signaling (CARD14 and CARM1). These results portend a better understanding of shared and distinctive genetic determinants of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and emphasize the importance of the skin in innate and acquired host defense.
Peptic ulcer is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders with complex etiology. Recently we conducted the genome wide association study for duodenal ulcer and identified disease susceptibility variations at two genetic loci corresponding to the Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene and the ABO blood group (ABO) gene. Here we investigated the association of these variations with gastric ulcer in two Japanese case-control sample sets, a total of 4,291 gastric ulcer cases and 22,665 controls. As a result, a C-allele of rs2294008 at PSCA increased the risk of gastric ulcer with odds ratio (OR) of 1.13 (P value of 5.85×10−7) in an additive model. On the other hand, SNP rs505922 on ABO exhibited inconsistent result between two cohorts. Our finding implies presence of the common genetic variant in the pathogenesis of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
Susceptibility to and severity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are largely genetically determined. PPARGC1B, RUNX3 and TBKBP1 have recently been found to be associated with AS in patients of western European descent. Our purpose is to examine the influence of PPARGC1B, RUNX3 and TBKBP1 polymorphisms on the susceptibility to and the severity of ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese ethnic majority Han population.
Blood samples are drawn from 396 AS patients and 404 unrelated healthy controls. All the patients and the controls are Han Chinese and the patients are HLA-B27 positive. The AS patients are classified based on the severity of the disease. Twelve tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in PPARGC1B, RUNX3 and TBKBP1 are selected and genotyped. Frequencies of different genotypes and alleles are analyzed among the different severity AS patients and the controls.
After Bonferroni correction, the rs7379457 SNP in PPARGC1B shows significant difference when comparing all AS patients to controls (p = 0.005). This SNP also shows significant difference when comparing normal AS patients to controls (p = 0.002). The rs1395621 SNP in RUNX3 shows significant difference when comparing severe AS patients to controls (p = 0.007). The rs9438876 SNP in RUNX3 shows significant difference when comparing normal AS patients to controls (p = 0.007). The rs8070463 SNP in TBKBP1 shows significant difference in genotype distribution when comparing severe AS patients to controls (p = 0.003).
The rs7379457 SNP in PPARGC1B is related to susceptibility to AS in Chinese Han population. The rs7379457 SNP in PPARGC1B, the rs1395621 and rs9438876 SNPs in RUNX3, and the rs8070463 SNP in TBKBP1 are related to the severity of AS in Chinese Han population.
The aim of this study was to develop an improved technique for DNA extraction from 1 ml of uncultured AF from patients with a gestational age less than 16 weeks and to allow the use of array-CGH without DNA amplification. The DNA extraction protocol was tested in a series of 90 samples including 41 of uncultured AF at less than 16 weeks of gestation. Statistical analyses were performed using linear regression. To evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of array-CGH on 1 ml of uncultured AF, five samples with an abnormal karyotype (three with aneuploidy, two with structural abnormalities) and five with a normal karyotype were studied. This protocol was reproducible and we were able to show a great improvement with higher yield of DNA obtained from all patients, including those with a gestational age less than 16 weeks (p = 0.003). All chromosomal abnormalities were detected and characterized by array-CGH and normal samples showed normal profiles. This new DNA extraction protocol associated with array-CGH analysis could be used in prenatal testing even when gestational age is less than 16 weeks, especially in cases with abnormal ultrasound findings.
Members of the Ashkenazi Jewish community are at an increased risk for inheritance of numerous genetic diseases such that carrier screening is medically recommended. This paper describes the development and evaluation of 30 TaqMan allelic discrimination qPCR assays for 29 mutations on 2 different high-throughput platforms. Four of these mutations are in the GBA gene and are successfully examined using short amplicons due to the qualitative nature of TaqMan allelic discrimination. Two systems were tested for their reliability (call rate) and consistency with previous diagnoses (diagnostic accuracy) indicating a call rate of 99.04% and a diagnostic accuracy of 100% (+/−0.00%) from one platform, and a call rate of 94.66% and a diagnostic accuracy of 93.35% (+/−0.29%) from a second for 9,216 genotypes. Results for mutations tested at the expected carrier frequency indicated a call rate of 97.87% and a diagnostic accuracy of 99.96% (+/−0.05%). This study demonstrated the ability of a high throughput qPCR methodology to accurately and reliably genotype 29 mutations in parallel. The universally applicable nature of this technology provides an opportunity to increase the number of mutations that can be screened simultaneously, and reduce the cost and turnaround time for accommodating newly identified and clinically relevant mutations.
GSTP1, which is one major group of the glutathione S-transferase family, plays an important role in the metabolism of carcinogens and toxins, reducing damage of DNA as a suppressor of carcinogenesis. The 341C>T polymorphism of the GSTP1 has been implicated in cancer risk through cutting down its metabolic detoxification activities. However, results from previous studies remain conflicting rather than conclusive. To clarify the correlation and provide more statistical evidence for detecting the significance of 341C>T, a meta-analysis was conducted.
The relevant studies were identified through searching of PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge and China National Knowledge Infrastructure in August 2012, and selected based on the established inclusion criteria for publications, then a meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively summarize the association of GSTP1 341C>T polymorphism with cancer susceptibility. Stratified analyses were employed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated as well as sensitivity analysis. Based on 28 case-control studies with 13249 cases and 16798 controls, the pooled results indicated that the variant genotypes significantly increased the risk of cancer in homozygote comparison (TT versus CC: P = 0.012, OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81, Phet. = 0.575), and recessive model (TT versus CT/CC: P = 0.012, OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81, Phet. = 0.562). This was confirmed when stratified analyses were conducted according to ethnicity, source of control, matched control, quality score and cancer types. Moreover, significantly increased risk of cancer was also found in lung cancer (heterozygote comparison and dominant model). The stability of these observations was confirmed by a sensitivity analysis. Begger's funnel plot and Egger's test did not reveal any publication bias.
This meta-analysis suggests that the GSTP1 341C>T polymorphism may contribute to genetic susceptibility to cancer, especially to lung cancer, and in Asian population. Nevertheless, additional well-designed studies focusing on different ethnicity and cancer types are needed to provide a more exact and comprehensive conclusion.
Genes, environment, and the interaction between them are each known to play an important role in the risk for developing complex diseases such as metabolic syndrome. For environmental factors, most studies focused on the measurements observed at the individual level, and therefore can only consider the gene-environment interaction at the same individual scale. Indeed the group-level (called contextual) environmental variables, such as community factors and the degree of local area development, may modify the genetic effect as well. To examine such cross-level interaction between genes and contextual factors, a flexible statistical model quantifying the variability of the genetic effects across different categories of the contextual variable is in need. With a Bayesian generalized linear mixed-effects model with an unconditional likelihood, we investigate whether the individual genetic effect is modified by the group-level residential environment factor in a matched case-control metabolic syndrome study. Such cross-level interaction is evaluated by examining the heterogeneity in allelic effects under various contextual categories, based on posterior samples from Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The Bayesian analysis indicates that the effect of rs1801282 on metabolic syndrome development is modified by the contextual environmental factor. That is, even among individuals with the same genetic component of PPARG_Pro12Ala, living in a residential area with low availability of exercise facilities may result in higher risk. The modification of the group-level environment factors on the individual genetic attributes can be essential, and this Bayesian model is able to provide a quantitative assessment for such cross-level interaction. The Bayesian inference based on the full likelihood is flexible with any phenotype, and easy to implement computationally. This model has a wide applicability and may help unravel the complexity in development of complex diseases.
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by swelling of the face, lips, tongue, larynx, genitalia, or extremities, with abdominal pain caused by intra-abdominal edema. HAE is caused by mutations affecting the C1 inhibitor gene, SERPING1, resulting in low levels of C1 inhibitor (Type I HAE) or normal levels of ineffective C1 inhibitor (Type II HAE). A nationwide survey identified nine unrelated families with HAE in Slovenia, among whom 17 individuals from eight families were recruited for genetic analyses. A diagnosis of HAE was established in the presence of clinical and laboratory criteria (low C1 inhibitor antigenic levels and/or function), followed up by a positive family history. Genetic studies were carried out using PCR and sequencing to detect SERPING1 mutations in promoter, noncoding exon 1, the 7 coding exons, and exon-intron boundaries. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed in order to search for large deletions/duplications in SERPING1 gene. A mutation responsible for HAE was identified in patients from seven families with the disease. In HAE type I families, one previously reported substitution (Gln67Stop, c.265C>T) and four novel mutations were identified. The new mutations included two missense substitutions, Ser128Phe (c.449C>T), and Glu429Lys (c.1351G>A), together with two frameshift mutations, indel (c.49delGinsTT) and deletion (c.593_594delCT). Both families with HAE type II harbored the two well-known substitutions affecting the arginyl residue at the reactive center in exon 8, Arg444Cys (c.1396C>T) and Arg444His (c.1397G>A), respectively. In one patient only the homozygous variant g.566T>C (c.-21T>C) was identified. Our study identified four novel mutations in the Slovenian HAE population, highlighting the heterogeneity of mutations in the SERPING1 gene causing C1 inhibitor deficiency and HAE. In a single patient with HAE a homozygous variant g.566T>C (c.-21T>C) might be responsible for the disease.
Critical functional properties are embedded in the non-coding portion of the human genome. Recent successful studies have shown that variations in distant-acting gene enhancer sequences can contribute to disease. In fact, various disorders, such as thalassaemias, preaxial polydactyly or susceptibility to Hirschsprung’s disease, may be the result of rearrangements of enhancer elements. We have analyzed the distribution of enhancer loci in the genome and compared their localization to that of previously described copy-number variations (CNVs). These data suggest a negative selection of copy number variable enhancers. To identify CNVs covering enhancer elements, we have developed a simple and cost-effective test. Here we describe the gene selection, design strategy and experimental validation of a customized oligonucleotide Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH), designated Enhancer Chip. It has been designed to investigate CNVs, allowing the analysis of all the genome with a 300 Kb resolution and specific disease regions (telomeres, centromeres and selected disease loci) at a tenfold higher resolution. Moreover, this is the first aCGH able to test over 1,250 enhancers, in order to investigate their potential pathogenic role. Validation experiments have demonstrated that Enhancer Chip efficiently detects duplications and deletions covering enhancer loci, demonstrating that it is a powerful instrument to detect and characterize copy number variable enhancers.
A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts) from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis.
Via sequencing the genes of apelin/angiotensin receptor-like 1 (apelin/APJ) pathway, we have recently identified and validated four common polymorphisms (rs3761581, rs56204867, rs7119375, and rs10501367) implicated in the development of hypertension. Extending these findings, we, in Chinese hypertensive patients, sought to investigate the association of these four polymorphisms and one additional promising candidate (rs9943582) from this pathway with the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD).
Genotypes were obtained from 994 sporadic CAD patients and 708 age- and sex-matched controls. All participants were hypertensives and angiographically-confirmed. Data were analyzed by Haplo.Stats and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) softwares. Genotype distributions of five examined polymorphisms satisfied Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls of both genders. Single-locus analyses exhibited no significant differences in the genotype/allele frequencies of examined polymorphisms between CAD patients and controls (P>0.05), even after controlling traditional cardiovascular confounders. In haplotype analyses, low-penetrance haplotype G-A (in order of rs56204867 and rs3761581 from apelin gene) was significantly overrepresented in controls (1.73%) relative to in CAD patients (0.4%) in males (P = 0.047). Further interaction analyses suggested an overall best MDR model including rs3761581 in males (P = 0.0408) and including rs7119375 and rs9943582 in females (P<0.0001), which were further substantiated in the classical logistical regression model.
Our findings demonstrated a contributive role of low-penetrance haplotype in apelin gene on CAD in males, and more importantly, interactive effects of genetic defects in apelin/APJ pathway might confer a potential risk in Chinese hypertensive patients.
Many pharmacogenomic biomarkers (PGBM) were identified and translated into clinical practice, affecting the usage of drugs via label updates. In this context, abacavir is one of the most brilliant examples of pharmacogenetic studies translated into clinical practice. Pharmacogenetic studies have revealed that abacavir HSRs are highly associated with the major histocompatibility complex class I. Large studies established the effectiveness of prospective HLA-B*57:01 screening to prevent HSRs to abacavir. Accordingly to these results the abacavir label has been modified: the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the FDA recommend/suggested that the administration of abacavir must be preceded by a specific genotyping test. The HLA locus is extremely polymorphic, exhibiting many closely related alleles, making it difficult to discriminate HLA-B*57:01 from other related alleles, and a number of different molecular techniques have been developed recently to detect the presence of HLA-B*57:01. In this review, we provide a summary of the available techniques used by laboratories to genotype HLA-B*57:01, outlining the scientific and pharmacoeconomics pros and cons.
HLA-B*57:01; abacavir; hypersensitivity reaction (HSR); pharmacogenomics.
CCHCR1 (Coiled-Coil α-Helical Rod protein 1), within the major psoriasis susceptibility locus PSORS1, is a plausible candidate gene with the psoriasis associated risk allele CCHCR1*WWCC. Although its expression pattern in psoriatic skin differs from healthy skin and its overexpression influences cell proliferation in transgenic mice, its role as a psoriasis effector gene has remained unsettled. The 5′-region of the gene contains a SNP (rs3130453) that controls a 5′-extended open reading frame and thus the translation of alternative isoforms. We have now compared the function of two CCHCR1 isoforms: the novel longer isoform 1 and the previously studied isoform 3. In samples of Finnish and Swedish families, the allele generating only isoform 3 shows association with psoriasis (P<10−7). Both isoforms localize at the centrosome, a cell organelle playing a role in cell division. In stably transfected cells the isoform 3 affects cell proliferation and with the CCHCR1*WWCC allele, also apoptosis. Furthermore, cells overexpressing CCHCR1 show isoform- and haplotype-specific influences in the cell size and shape and alterations in the organization and expression of the cytoskeletal proteins actin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The isoform 1 with the non-risk allele induces the expression of keratin 17, a hallmark for psoriasis; the silencing of CCHCR1 reduces its expression in HEK293 cells. CCHCR1 also regulates EGF-induced STAT3 activation in an isoform-specific manner: the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is disturbed in isoform 3-transfected cells. The centrosomal localization of CCHCR1 provides a connection to the abnormal cell proliferation and offers a link to possible cellular pathways altered in psoriasis.