Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix protein expressed in several tissues including skeletal muscle. Mutations in COL6A genes cause Bethlem Myopathy (BM), Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (UCMD) and Myosclerosis Myopathy (MM). Collagen VI deficiency causes increased opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), leading to ultrastructural and functional alterations of mitochondria, amplified by impairment of autophagy. Here we report for the first time ultrastructural studies on muscle biopsies from BM and UCMD patients, showing swollen mitochondria with hypodense matrix, disorganized cristae and paracrystalline inclusions, associated with dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and apoptotic changes. These data were supported by scanning electron microscopy analysis on BM and UCMD cultured cells, showing alterations of the mitochondrial network. Morphometric analysis also revealed a reduced short axis and depicted swelling in about 3% of mitochondria. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial defects underlie the pathogenetic mechanism in muscle tissue of patients affected by collagen VI myopathies.
collagen VI; mitochondria; mPTP; scanning electron microscopy back-scattered imaging; transmission electron microscopy
Cations leaking through the voltage sensor of mutant sodium or calcium channels underlie hypokalaemic periodic paralysis. Groome et al. use muscle fibre recordings, voltage clamp, and molecular dynamics, to investigate recently discovered Nav1.4 channel mutations. They identify a novel voltage sensor movement that may explain the muscle pathology.
Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is typically associated with mutations of voltage sensor residues in calcium or sodium channels of skeletal muscle. To date, causative sodium channel mutations have been studied only for the two outermost arginine residues in S4 voltage sensor segments of domains I to III. These mutations produce depolarization of skeletal muscle fibres in response to reduced extracellular potassium, owing to an inward cation-selective gating pore current activated by hyperpolarization. Here, we describe mutations of the third arginine, R3, in the domain III voltage sensor i.e. an R1135H mutation which was found in two patients in separate families and a novel R1135C mutation identified in a third patient in another family. Muscle fibres from a patient harbouring the R1135H mutation showed increased depolarization tendency at normal and reduced extracellular potassium compatible with the diagnosis. Additionally, amplitude and rise time of action potentials were reduced compared with controls, even for holding potentials at which all NaV1.4 are fully recovered from inactivation. These findings may be because of an outward omega current activated at positive potentials. Expression of R1135H/C in mammalian cells indicates further gating defects that include significantly enhanced entry into inactivation and prolonged recovery that may additionally contribute to action potential inhibition at the physiological resting potential. After S4 immobilization in the outward position, mutant channels produce an inward omega current that most likely depolarizes the resting potential and produces the hypokalaemia-induced weakness. Gating current recordings reveal that mutations at R3 inhibit S4 deactivation before recovery, and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this defect is caused by disrupted interactions of domain III S2 countercharges with S4 arginines R2 to R4 during repolarization of the membrane. This work reveals a novel mechanism of disrupted S4 translocation for hypokalaemic periodic paralysis mutations at arginine residues located below the gating pore constriction of the voltage sensor module.
hypokalaemic periodic paralysis; molecular dynamics; omega pore current; sodium channel; voltage sensor
The four-and-half LIM domain protein 1 (FHL1) is highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mutations of the FHL1 gene have been associated with diverse chronic myopathies including reducing body myopathy, rigid spine syndrome (RSS), and Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. We investigated a family with a mutation (p.C150R) in the second LIM domain of FHL1. In this family, a brother and a sister were affected by RSS, and their mother had mild lower limbs weakness. The 34-year-old female had an early and progressive rigidity of the cervical spine and severe respiratory insufficiency. Muscle mass evaluated by DXA was markedly reduced, while fat mass was increased to 40%. CT scan showed an almost complete substitution of muscle by fibro-adipose tissue. Muscle biopsy showed accumulation of FHL1 throughout the cytoplasm and around myonuclei into multiprotein aggregates with aggresome/autophagy features as indicated by ubiquitin, p62, and LC3 labeling. DNA deposits, not associated with nuclear lamina components and histones, were also detected in the aggregates, suggesting nuclear degradation. Ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of dysmorphic nuclei, accumulation of tubulofilamentous and granular material, and perinuclear accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. These data point to involvement of the aggresome–autophagy pathway in the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the muscle pathology of FHL1 C150R mutation.
myopathy; sarcopenia; FHL1; autophagy; protein aggregates
Aging sarcopenia and muscular dystrophy (MD) are two conditions characterized by lower skeletal muscle quantity, lower muscle strength, and lower physical performance. Aging is associated with a peculiar alteration in body composition called “sarcopenic obesity” characterized by a decrease in lean body mass and increase in fat mass. To evaluate the presence of sarcopenia and obesity in a cohort of adult patients with MD, we have used the measurement techniques considered golden standard for sarcopenia that is for muscle mass dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), for muscle strength hand-held dynamometry (HHD), and for physical performance gait speed. The study involved 14 adult patients with different types of MD. We were able to demonstrate that all patients were sarcopenic obese. We showed, in fact, that all were sarcopenic based on appendicular lean, fat and bone free, mass index (ALMI). In addition, all resulted obese according to the percentage of body fat determined by DXA in contrast to their body mass index ranging from underweight to obese. Skeletal muscle mass determined by DXA was markedly reduced in all patients and correlated with residual muscle strength determined by HHD, and physical performances determined by gait speed and respiratory function. Finally, we showed that ALMI was the best linear explicator of muscle strength and physical function. Altogether, our study suggests the relevance of a proper evaluation of body composition in MD and we propose to use, both in research and practice, the measurement techniques that has already been demonstrated effective in aging sarcopenia.
muscular dystrophy; sarcopenia; sarcopenic obesity; body composition; muscle strength; physical performance
Collagen VI mutations lead to disabling myopathies like Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). We have investigated the nutritional and metabolic status of one UCMD and seven BM patients (five female, three male, mean age 31 ± 9 years) in order to find a potential metabolic target for nutritional intervention. For this study, we used standard anthropometric tools, such as BMI evaluation and body circumference measurements. All results were compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), considered the “gold standard” method. Energy intake of each patient was evaluated through longitudinal methods (7-day food diary) while resting energy expenditure (REE) was predicted using specific equations and measured by indirect calorimetry. Clinical evaluation included general and nutritional blood and urine laboratory analyses and quantitative muscle strength measurement by hand-held dynamometry. BM and UCMD patients showed an altered body composition, characterized by low free fat mass (FFM) and high fat mass (FM), allowing us to classify them as sarcopenic, and all but one as sarcopenic-obese. Another main result was the negative correlation between REE/FFM ratio (basal energy expenditure per kilograms of fat-free mass) and the severity of the disease, as defined by the muscle megascore (correlation coefficient −0.955, P-value <0.001). We postulate that the increase of the REE/FFM ratio in relation to the severity of the disease may be due to an altered and pathophysiological loss of energetic efficiency at the expense of skeletal muscle. We show that a specific metabolic disequilibrium is related to the severity of the disease, which may represent a target for a nutritional intervention in these patients.
collagen VI; muscular dystrophies; nutritional assessment; body composition; basal energy expenditure
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy are caused by mutations in collagen VI (ColVI) genes, which encode an extracellular matrix protein; yet, mitochondria play a major role in disease pathogenesis through a short circuit caused by inappropriate opening of the permeability transition pore, a high-conductance channel, which causes a shortage in ATP production. We find that melanocytes do not produce ColVI yet they bind it at the cell surface, suggesting that this protein may play a trophic role and that its absence may cause lesions similar to those seen in skeletal muscle. We show that mitochondria in melanocytes of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy patients display increased size, reduced matrix density, and disrupted cristae, findings that suggest a functional impairment. In keeping with this hypothesis, mitochondria (i) underwent anomalous depolarization after inhibition of the F-ATP synthase with oligomycin, and (ii) displayed decreased respiratory reserve capacity. The non-immunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitor NIM811 prevented mitochondrial depolarization in response to oligomycin in melanocytes from both Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy patients, and partially restored the respiratory reserve of melanocytes from one Bethlem myopathy patient. These results match our recent findings on melanocytes from patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Pellegrini et al., 2013), and suggest that skin biopsies may represent a minimally invasive tool to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction and to evaluate drug efficacy in ColVI-related myopathies and possibly in other muscle wasting conditions like aging sarcopenia.
collagen VI; muscular dystrophy; mitochondria; melanocytes; permeability transition; cyclophilin inhibitors
Objective. To determine the contributions of body mass, adiposity, and muscularity to physical function and muscle strength in adult patients with Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). Materials and Methods. Evaluation involved one UCMD and 7 BM patients. Body composition was determined by body mass index (BMI) and dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry (DXA), muscle strength by dynamometry, physical function by the distance walked in 6 minutes (6MWD), forced vital capacity (FVC) by a spirometer. Results. Six participants were of normal weight and 2 overweight based on BMI; all were sarcopenic based on appendicular fat free mass index (AFFMI); and 7 were sarcopenic obese based on AFFMI and % fat mass. Average muscle strength was reduced below 50% of normal. The 6MWD was in BM patients 30% less than normal. FVC was reduced in 4 of the BM patients. Muscle strength had a good correlation with the physical function variables. Correlation between muscle strength and BMI was poor; it was very high with AFFMI. AFFMI was the best single explicator of muscle strength and physical function. Conclusion. Muscle mass determined by DXA explains most of the variability of the measures of muscle strength and physical function in patients with BM and UCMD.
Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzyme regulating cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in cells. To date, 40 families with CNM-related DNM2 mutations have been described, and here we report 60 additional families encompassing a broad genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. In total, 18 different mutations are reported in 100 families and our cohort harbors nine known and four new mutations, including the first splice-site mutation. Genotype–phenotype correlation hypotheses are drawn from the published and new data, and allow an efficient screening strategy for molecular diagnosis. In addition to CNM, dissimilar DNM2 mutations are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy (CMTD1B and CMT2M), suggesting a tissue-specific impact of the mutations. In this study, we discuss the possible clinical overlap of CNM and CMT, and the biological significance of the respective mutations based on the known functions of dynamin 2 and its protein structure. Defects in membrane trafficking due to DNM2 mutations potentially represent a common pathological mechanism in CNM and CMT.
centronuclear myopathy; congenital myopathy; Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy; DNM2; ADCNM; CMTD1B; DI-CMTB; CMT2M; hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type II; HMSNII; MTM1; myotubular myopathy; BIN1; RYR1; endocytosis
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the exon-skipping approach has obtained proof of concept in animal models, myogenic cell cultures, and following local and systemic administration in Duchenne patients. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that low doses (7.5 mg/Kg/week) of 2′-O-methyl-phosphorothioate antisense oligoribonucleotides (AONs) adsorbed onto ZM2 nanoparticles provoke widespread dystrophin restoration 7 days after intraperitoneal treatment in mdx mice. In this study, we went on to test whether this dystrophin restoration was still measurable 90 days from the end of the same treatment. Interestingly, we found that both western blot and immunohistochemical analysis (up to 7% positive fibres) were still able to detect dystrophin protein in the skeletal muscles of ZM2-AON-treated mice at this time, and the level of exon-23 skipping could still be assessed by RT real-time PCR (up to 10% of skipping percentage). In contrast, the protein was undetectable by western blot analysis in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice treated with an identical dose of naked AON, and the percentage of dystrophin-positive fibres and exon-23 skipping were reminiscent of those of untreated mdx mice. Our data therefore demonstrate the long-term residual efficacy of this systemic low-dose treatment and confirm the protective effect nanoparticles exert on AON molecules.
Although Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, X-linked recessive myopathies, predominantly affect males, a clinically significant proportion of females manifesting symptoms have also been reported. They represent an heterogeneous group characterized by variable degrees of muscle weakness and/or cardiac involvement. Though preferential inactivation of the normal X chromosome has long been considered the principal mechanism behind disease manifestation in these females, supporting evidence is controversial.
Eighteen females showing a mosaic pattern of dystrophin expression on muscle biopsy were recruited and classified as symptomatic (7) or asymptomatic (11), based on the presence or absence of muscle weakness. The causative DMD gene mutations were identified in all cases, and the X-inactivation pattern was assessed in muscle DNA. Transcriptional analysis in muscles was performed in all females, and relative quantification of wild-type and mutated transcripts was also performed in 9 carriers. Dystrophin protein was quantified by immunoblotting in 2 females.
The study highlighted a lack of relationship between dystrophic phenotype and X-inactivation pattern in females; skewed X-inactivation was found in 2 out of 6 symptomatic carriers and in 5 out of 11 asymptomatic carriers. All females were characterized by biallelic transcription, but no association was found between X-inactivation pattern and allele transcriptional balancing. Either a prevalence of wild-type transcript or equal proportions of wild-type and mutated RNAs was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic females. Moreover, very similar levels of total and wild-type transcripts were identified in the two groups of carriers.
This is the first study deeply exploring the DMD transcriptional behaviour in a cohort of female carriers. Notably, no relationship between X-inactivation pattern and transcriptional behaviour of DMD gene was observed, suggesting that the two mechanisms are regulated independently. Moreover, neither the total DMD transcript level, nor the relative proportion of the wild-type transcript do correlate with the symptomatic phenotype.
Dystrophinopathy; Female carriers; X-inactivation; Transcriptional balancing
Collagen VI is a major extracellular matrix (ECM) protein with a critical role in maintaining skeletal muscle functional integrity. Mutations in COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes cause Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (UCMD), Bethlem Myopathy, and Myosclerosis. Moreover, Col6a1−/− mice and collagen VI deficient zebrafish display a myopathic phenotype. Recently, two additional collagen VI chains were identified in humans, the α5 and α6 chains, however their distribution patterns and functions in human skeletal muscle have not been thoroughly investigated yet. By means of immunofluorescence analysis, the α6 chain was detected in the endomysium and perimysium, while the α5 chain labeling was restricted to the myotendinous junctions. In normal muscle cultures, the α6 chain was present in traces in the ECM, while the α5 chain was not detected. In the absence of ascorbic acid, the α6 chain was mainly accumulated into the cytoplasm of a sub-set of desmin negative cells, likely of interstitial origin, which can be considered myofibroblasts as they expressed α-smooth muscle actin. TGF-β1 treatment, a pro-fibrotic factor which induces trans-differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, increased the α6 chain deposition in the extracellular matrix after addition of ascorbic acid. In order to define the involvement of the α6 chain in muscle fibrosis we studied biopsies of patients affected by Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). We found that the α6 chain was dramatically up-regulated in fibrotic areas where, in contrast, the α5 chain was undetectable. Our results show a restricted and differential distribution of the novel α6 and α5 chains in skeletal muscle when compared to the widely distributed, homologous α3 chain, suggesting that these new chains may play specific roles in specialized ECM structures. While the α5 chain may have a specialized function in tissue areas subjected to tensile stress, the α6 chain appears implicated in ECM remodeling during muscle fibrosis.
► We study collagen VI alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains expression in human skeletal muscle. ► ► We show that alpha 5 chain is exclusively present at the myotendinous junctions. ► We show that alpha 6 chain is present in the ECM but not at the basement membranes. ► We show that alpha 6 chain increases in Duchenne muscular dystrophy muscle fibrosis. ► We hypothesize the possible formation of alpha1-2-6 or alpha1-2-5 chains trimers.
Collagen VI; Skeletal muscle; Myotendinous junctions; Fibrosis; Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Lamin A is a nuclear lamina constituent expressed in differentiated cells. Mutations in the LMNA gene cause several diseases, including muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. Among nuclear envelope partners of lamin A are SUN1 and SUN2, which mediate nucleo-cytoskeleton interactions critical to the anchorage of nuclei. In this study, we show that differentiating human myoblasts accumulate farnesylated prelamin A, which elicits upregulation and recruitment of SUN1 to the nuclear envelope and favors SUN2 enrichment at the nuclear poles. Indeed, impairment of prelamin A farnesylation alters SUN1 recruitment and SUN2 localization. Moreover, nuclear positioning in myotubes is severely affected in the absence of farnesylated prelamin A. Importantly, reduced prelamin A and SUN1 levels are observed in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy myoblasts, concomitant with altered myonuclear positioning. These results demonstrate that the interplay between SUN1 and farnesylated prelamin A contributes to nuclear positioning in human myofibers and may be implicated in pathogenetic mechanisms.
Six individuals with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and mutations in the genes-encoding collagen VI, aging 5–9, received 3–5 mg/kg of cyclosporine A (CsA) daily for 1 to 3.2 years. The primary outcome measure was the muscle strength evaluated with a myometer and expressed as megalimbs. The megalimbs score showed significant improvement (P = 0.01) in 5 of the 6 patients. Motor function did not change. Respiratory function deteriorated in all. CsA treatment corrected mitochondrial dysfunction, increased muscle regeneration, and decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei. Results from this study demonstrate that long-term treatment with CsA ameliorates performance in the limbs, but not in the respiratory muscles of UCMD patients, and that it is well tolerated. These results suggest considering a trial of CsA or nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporins, that retains the PTP-desensitizing properties of CsA, as early as possible in UCMD patients when diaphragm is less compromised.
Hereditary neuropathies form a heterogeneous group of disorders for which over 40 causal genes have been identified to date. Recently, dominant mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 gene were found to be associated with three distinct neuromuscular phenotypes: hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 2C, scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy and congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 encodes a cation channel previously implicated in several types of dominantly inherited bone dysplasia syndromes. We performed DNA sequencing of the coding regions of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 in a cohort of 145 patients with various types of hereditary neuropathy and identified five different heterozygous missense mutations in eight unrelated families. One mutation arose de novo in an isolated patient, and the remainder segregated in families. Two of the mutations were recurrent in unrelated families. Four mutations in transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 targeted conserved arginine residues in the ankyrin repeat domain, which is believed to be important in protein–protein interactions. Striking phenotypic variability between and within families was observed. The majority of patients displayed a predominantly, or pure, motor neuropathy with axonal characteristics observed on electrophysiological testing. The age of onset varied widely, ranging from congenital to late adulthood onset. Various combinations of additional features were present in most patients including vocal fold paralysis, scapular weakness, contractures and hearing loss. We identified six asymptomatic mutation carriers, indicating reduced penetrance of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 defects. This finding is relatively unusual in the context of hereditary neuropathies and has important implications for diagnostic testing and genetic counselling.
transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 gene; hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 2C; scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy; congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy; skeletal dysplasia
Molecular characterization of collagen-VI related myopathies currently relies on standard sequencing, which yields a detection rate approximating 75-79% in Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and 60-65% in Bethlem myopathy (BM) patients as PCR-based techniques tend to miss gross genomic rearrangements as well as copy number variations (CNVs) in both the coding sequence and intronic regions.
We have designed a custom oligonucleotide CGH array in order to investigate the presence of CNVs in the coding and non-coding regions of COL6A1, A2, A3, A5 and A6 genes and a group of genes functionally related to collagen VI. A cohort of 12 patients with UCMD/BM negative at sequencing analysis and 2 subjects carrying a single COL6 mutation whose clinical phenotype was not explicable by inheritance were selected and the occurrence of allelic and genetic heterogeneity explored.
A deletion within intron 1A of the COL6A2 gene, occurring in compound heterozygosity with a small deletion in exon 28, previously detected by routine sequencing, was identified in a BM patient. RNA studies showed monoallelic transcription of the COL6A2 gene, thus elucidating the functional effect of the intronic deletion. No pathogenic mutations were identified in the remaining analyzed patients, either within COL6A genes, or in genes functionally related to collagen VI.
Our custom CGH array may represent a useful complementary diagnostic tool, especially in recessive forms of the disease, when only one mutant allele is detected by standard sequencing. The intronic deletion we identified represents the first example of a pure intronic mutation in COL6A genes.
The commonest pathogenic DMD changes are intragenic deletions/duplications which make up to 78% of all cases and point mutations (roughly 20%) detectable through direct sequencing. The remaining mutations (about 2%) are thought to be pure intronic rearrangements/mutations or 5'-3' UTR changes. In order to screen the huge DMD gene for all types of copy number variation mutations we designed a novel custom high density comparative genomic hybridisation array which contains the full genomic region of the DMD gene and spans from 100 kb upstream to 100 kb downstream of the 2.2 Mb DMD gene.
We studied 12 DMD/BMD patients who either had no detectable mutations or carried previously identified quantitative pathogenic changes in the DMD gene. We validated the array on patients with previously known mutations as well as unaffected controls, we identified three novel pure intronic rearrangements and we defined all the mutation breakpoints both in the introns and in the 3' UTR region. We also detected a novel polymorphic intron 2 deletion/duplication variation. Despite the high resolution of this approach, RNA studies were required to confirm the functional significance of the intronic mutations identified by CGH. In addition, RNA analysis identified three intronic pathogenic variations affecting splicing which had not been detected by the CGH analysis.
This novel technology represents an effective high throughput tool to identify both common and rarer DMD rearrangements. RNA studies are required in order to validate the significance of the CGH array findings. The combination of these tools will fully cover the identification of causative DMD rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions, particularly in patients in whom standard although extensive techniques are unable to detect a mutation.
Dystrophin is a subsarcolemmal protein that, by linking the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix via dystroglycans, is critical for the integrity of muscle fibers. Here, we report that epidermal melanocytes, obtained from conventional skin biopsy, express dystrophin with a restricted localization to the plasma membrane facing the dermal–epidermal junction. In addition the full-length muscle isoform mDp427 was clearly detectable in melanocyte cultures as assessed by immunohistochemistry, RNA, and Western blot analysis. Melanocytes of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients did not express dystrophin, and the ultrastructural analysis revealed typical mitochondrial alterations similar to those occurring in myoblasts from the same patients. Mitochondria of melanocytes from DMD patients readily accumulated tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester, indicating that they are energized irrespective of the presence of dystrophin but, at variance from mitochondria of control donors, depolarized upon the addition of oligomycin, suggesting that they are affected by a latent dysfunction unmasked by inhibition of the ATP synthase. Pure melanocyte cultures can be readily obtained by conventional skin biopsies and may be a feasible and reliable tool alternative to muscle biopsy for functional studies in dystrophinopathies. The mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in DMD melanocytes could represent a promising cellular biomarker for monitoring dystrophinopathies also in response to pharmacological treatments. J. Cell. Physiol. 228: 1323–1331, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.