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1.  Transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms are associated with progression of liver fibrosis in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C infection 
AIM: Considerable attention is focused on polymorphisms in the gene encoding transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a multifunctional cytokine that is in turn a potent growth inhibitor involved in wound healing and differentiation. In humans, it promotes the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis, atherosclerosis, cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, keloid disease, and hypertrophic scarring. For this reason, much emphasis has been placed on studies elucidating the impact of TGF-β1 and its gene variations for the susceptibility and pathogenesis of these diseases. Unfortunately, some studies have serious limitations.
METHODS: We have recently described a high-throughput method for investigation the Arg25Pro polymorphism of human TGF-β1 gene and showed that the frequency of the Pro25 allele is significantly associated with hepatic fibrogenesis. In this report, we describe two novel LightCycler (LC) techniques that facilitate the examination of the two other known alterations in the coding region of TGF-β1. We investigated whether these polymorphisms contribute to hepatitis-induced progression of fibrogenesis in Chinese and Caucasians.
RESULTS: In the Chinese ancestry, the gene polymorphisms at codons 25 and 263 were not found and the genetic variant at codon 10 is unlikely to confer susceptibility to hepatic fibrosis. Contrarily, in Caucasians TGF-β1 allelic variations are more frequent and the presence of prolines either in codon 25 or 10 is associated with the interindividual variability in developing more severe fibrosis during chronic hepatitis C infection.
CONCLUSION: In summary, these results confirm the hypothesis that TGF-β1 polymorphisms are associated with fibrosis progression in Caucasians chronically infected with hepatitis C.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i13.1929
PMCID: PMC4305713  PMID: 15800982
TGF-β1; Gene polymorphism; LightCycler; Viral hepatitis; Fibrosis
2.  Analysis of polymorphic TGFB1 codons 10, 25, and 263 in a German patient group with non-syndromic cleft lip, alveolus, and palate compared with healthy adults 
BMC Medical Genetics  2004;5:15.
Background
Clefts of the lip, alveolus, and palate (CLPs) rank among the most frequent and significant congenital malformations. Leu10Pro and Arg25Pro polymorphisms in the precursor region and Thr263Ile polymorphism in the prodomain of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) gene have proved to be crucial to predisposition of several disorders.
Methods
In this study, polymorphism analysis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (LightCycler) and TGF-β1 levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Only 2/60 Caucasian non-syndromic patients with CLP (3.3%) carried the Arg25Pro and another 2/60 patients (3.3%) the Thr263Ile genotypes, whereas, in a control group of 60 healthy Caucasian blood donors, these heterozygous genotypes were more frequent 16.7% having Arg25Pro (10/60; p < 0.035) and 10,0% having Thr263Ile (6/60), respectively. TGF-β1 levels in platelet-poor plasma of heterozygous Arg25Pro individuals were lower than those of homozygous members (Arg25Arg) in the latter group, but this discrepancy narrowly failed to be significant. Although polymorphisms in codon 10 and 25 were associated with each other, no difference was found between patients and controls concerning the Leu10Pro polymorphism.
Conclusions
The genetic differences in codons 25 and 263 suggest that TGF-β1 could play an important role in occurrence of CLP, however, functional experiments will be required to confirm the mechanisms of disturbed development.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-5-15
PMCID: PMC441379  PMID: 15212689

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