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1.  Parent–Youth Agreement on Self-Reported Competencies of Youth With Depressive and Suicidal Symptoms 
A multi-informant approach is often used in child psychiatry. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment uses this approach, gathering parent reports on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and youth reports on the Youth Self-Report (YSR), which contain scales assessing both the child’s problems and competencies. Agreement between parent and youth perceptions of their competencies on these forms has not been studied to date.
Our study examined the parent–youth agreement of competencies on the CBCL and YSR from a sample of 258 parent–youth dyads referred to a specialized outpatient clinic for depressive and suicidal disorders. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for all competency scales (activity, social, and academic), with further examinations based on youth’s sex, age, and type of problem.
Weak-to-moderate parent–youth agreements were reported on the activities and social subscales. For the activities subscale, boys’ ratings had a strong correlation with parents’ ratings, while it was weak for girls. Also, agreement on activities and social subscales was stronger for dyads with the youth presenting externalizing instead of internalizing problems.
Agreement on competencies between parents and adolescents varied based on competency and adolescent sex, age, and type of problem.
PMCID: PMC4345849  PMID: 25886673
adolescence; depression; psychopathology; inter-informant agreement; risk factors; protective factors; competencies
2.  Dopamine transporter 3'UTR VNTR genotype is a marker of performance on executive function tasks in children with ADHD 
BMC Psychiatry  2008;8:45.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder from both clinical and pathogenic viewpoints. Executive function deficits are considered among the most important pathogenic pathways leading to ADHD and may index part of the heterogeneity in this disorder.
To investigate the relationship between the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) 3'-UTR VNTR genotypes and executive function in children with ADHD, 196 children diagnosed with ADHD were sequentially recruited, genotyped, and tested using a battery of three neuropsychological tests aimed at assessing the different aspects of executive functioning.
Taking into account a correction for multiple comparisons, the main finding of this study is a significant genotype effect on performances on the Tower of London (F = 6.902, p = 0.009) and on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III) Freedom From Distractibility Index (F = 7.125, p = 0.008), as well as strong trends on Self Ordered Pointing Task error scores (F = 4,996 p = 0.026) and WISC-III Digit Span performance (F = 6.28, p = 0.023). Children with the 9/10 genotype exhibited, on average, a poorer performance on all four measures compared to children with the 10/10 genotype. No effect of genotype on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measures of performance was detected.
Results are compatible with the view that SLC6A3 genotype may modulate components of executive function performance in children with ADHD.
PMCID: PMC2443797  PMID: 18559107
3.  Perinatal complications in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings  
Genetic and nonshared environmental factors (experienced by 1 family member to the exclusion of the others) have been strongly implicated in the causes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pregnancy, labour/delivery and neonatal complications (PLDNC) have often been associated with ADHD; however, no investigations aimed at delineating the shared or nonshared nature of these factors have been reported. We aimed to identify those elements of the PLDNC that are more likely to be of a nonshared nature.
We used an intrafamily study design, comparing the history of PLDNC between children diagnosed with ADHD, according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), and their unaffected siblings. Children with ADHD were recruited from the outpatient, day-treatment program of the Child Psychiatry Department, Douglas Hospital, Montréal. The unaffected sibling closest in age to the child with ADHD was used as a control. The history of PLDNC was assessed using the Kinney Medical and Gynecological Questionnaire and the McNeil–Sjöstrom Scale for both children with ADHD and their siblings. Seventy children with ADHD along with 50 of their unaffected siblings agreed to participate in the study. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS) scores were also used as measures of ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD.
The children with ADHD had significantly higher rates of neonatal complications compared with their unaffected siblings (F4,196 = 3.67, p < 0.006). Furthermore, neonatal complications in the children with ADHD were associated with worse CBCL total and externalizing scores and with poorer performance on the CPT.
These results suggest that neonatal complications are probably a nonshared environmental risk factor that may be pathogenic in children with ADHD.
PMCID: PMC551167  PMID: 15798787
attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; child; perinatal care; pregnancy complications; siblings
4.  Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158 Met polymorphism does not modulate executive function in children with ADHD 
BMC Medical Genetics  2004;5:30.
An association has been observed between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, the predominant means of catecholamine catabolism within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and neuropsychological task performance in healthy and schizophrenic adults. Since several of the cognitive functions typically deficient in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are mediated by prefrontal dopamine (DA) mechanisms, we investigated the relationship between a functional polymorphism of the COMT gene and neuropsychological task performance in these children.
The Val108/158 Met polymorphism of the COMT gene was genotyped in 118 children with ADHD (DSM-IV). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of London (TOL), and Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT) were employed to evaluate executive functions. Neuropsychological task performance was compared across genotype groups using analysis of variance.
ADHD children with the Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met genotypes were similar with regard to demographic and clinical characteristics. No genotype effects were observed for WCST standardized perseverative error scores [F2,97 = 0.67; p > 0.05], TOL standardized scores [F2,99 = 0.97; p > 0.05], and SOPT error scores [F2,108 = 0.62; p > 0.05].
Contrary to the observed association between WCST performance and the Val108/158 Met polymorphism of the COMT gene in both healthy and schizophrenic adults, this polymorphism does not appear to modulate executive functions in children with ADHD.
PMCID: PMC544598  PMID: 15613245
5.  Sensitivity of Tests to Assess Improvement In ADHD Symptomatology 
To assess which measurements best predict improvement on ADHD symptomatology after medication is given.
147 children aged 6 to 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD, participated in a double-blind placebo controlled twoweek crossover trial of methylphenidate.
There were statistically significant differences on all measures between placebo and medication. Effect size for the overall group was 0.33 (CGI-P), 0.80 (CGI-T), 1.33 (CGI), 0.56 (CPT), 0.82 (RASS).
Acute behavioural response measures, where children are observed by clinicians (RASS and CGI), were overall more reliable than parent reports in detecting improvement on ADHD symptomatology. Teacher reports were also very important, especially in the 9 to 12 year old group.
PMCID: PMC2538631  PMID: 19030484
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder; medication response; methylphenidate; trouble déficitaire de l’attention avec hyperactivité; réponse à la médication; méthylphénidate

Results 1-5 (5)