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1.  Dopamine transporter 3'UTR VNTR genotype is a marker of performance on executive function tasks in children with ADHD 
BMC Psychiatry  2008;8:45.
Background
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder from both clinical and pathogenic viewpoints. Executive function deficits are considered among the most important pathogenic pathways leading to ADHD and may index part of the heterogeneity in this disorder.
Methods
To investigate the relationship between the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) 3'-UTR VNTR genotypes and executive function in children with ADHD, 196 children diagnosed with ADHD were sequentially recruited, genotyped, and tested using a battery of three neuropsychological tests aimed at assessing the different aspects of executive functioning.
Results
Taking into account a correction for multiple comparisons, the main finding of this study is a significant genotype effect on performances on the Tower of London (F = 6.902, p = 0.009) and on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III) Freedom From Distractibility Index (F = 7.125, p = 0.008), as well as strong trends on Self Ordered Pointing Task error scores (F = 4,996 p = 0.026) and WISC-III Digit Span performance (F = 6.28, p = 0.023). Children with the 9/10 genotype exhibited, on average, a poorer performance on all four measures compared to children with the 10/10 genotype. No effect of genotype on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measures of performance was detected.
Conclusion
Results are compatible with the view that SLC6A3 genotype may modulate components of executive function performance in children with ADHD.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-8-45
PMCID: PMC2443797  PMID: 18559107
2.  Perinatal complications in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings  
Objectives
Genetic and nonshared environmental factors (experienced by 1 family member to the exclusion of the others) have been strongly implicated in the causes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pregnancy, labour/delivery and neonatal complications (PLDNC) have often been associated with ADHD; however, no investigations aimed at delineating the shared or nonshared nature of these factors have been reported. We aimed to identify those elements of the PLDNC that are more likely to be of a nonshared nature.
Methods
We used an intrafamily study design, comparing the history of PLDNC between children diagnosed with ADHD, according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), and their unaffected siblings. Children with ADHD were recruited from the outpatient, day-treatment program of the Child Psychiatry Department, Douglas Hospital, Montréal. The unaffected sibling closest in age to the child with ADHD was used as a control. The history of PLDNC was assessed using the Kinney Medical and Gynecological Questionnaire and the McNeil–Sjöstrom Scale for both children with ADHD and their siblings. Seventy children with ADHD along with 50 of their unaffected siblings agreed to participate in the study. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS) scores were also used as measures of ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD.
Results
The children with ADHD had significantly higher rates of neonatal complications compared with their unaffected siblings (F4,196 = 3.67, p < 0.006). Furthermore, neonatal complications in the children with ADHD were associated with worse CBCL total and externalizing scores and with poorer performance on the CPT.
Conclusions
These results suggest that neonatal complications are probably a nonshared environmental risk factor that may be pathogenic in children with ADHD.
PMCID: PMC551167  PMID: 15798787
attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; child; perinatal care; pregnancy complications; siblings
3.  Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158 Met polymorphism does not modulate executive function in children with ADHD 
BMC Medical Genetics  2004;5:30.
Background
An association has been observed between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, the predominant means of catecholamine catabolism within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and neuropsychological task performance in healthy and schizophrenic adults. Since several of the cognitive functions typically deficient in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are mediated by prefrontal dopamine (DA) mechanisms, we investigated the relationship between a functional polymorphism of the COMT gene and neuropsychological task performance in these children.
Methods
The Val108/158 Met polymorphism of the COMT gene was genotyped in 118 children with ADHD (DSM-IV). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of London (TOL), and Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT) were employed to evaluate executive functions. Neuropsychological task performance was compared across genotype groups using analysis of variance.
Results
ADHD children with the Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met genotypes were similar with regard to demographic and clinical characteristics. No genotype effects were observed for WCST standardized perseverative error scores [F2,97 = 0.67; p > 0.05], TOL standardized scores [F2,99 = 0.97; p > 0.05], and SOPT error scores [F2,108 = 0.62; p > 0.05].
Conclusions
Contrary to the observed association between WCST performance and the Val108/158 Met polymorphism of the COMT gene in both healthy and schizophrenic adults, this polymorphism does not appear to modulate executive functions in children with ADHD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-5-30
PMCID: PMC544598  PMID: 15613245
4.  Sensitivity of Tests to Assess Improvement In ADHD Symptomatology 
Objective
To assess which measurements best predict improvement on ADHD symptomatology after medication is given.
Methods
147 children aged 6 to 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD, participated in a double-blind placebo controlled twoweek crossover trial of methylphenidate.
Results
There were statistically significant differences on all measures between placebo and medication. Effect size for the overall group was 0.33 (CGI-P), 0.80 (CGI-T), 1.33 (CGI), 0.56 (CPT), 0.82 (RASS).
Conclusions
Acute behavioural response measures, where children are observed by clinicians (RASS and CGI), were overall more reliable than parent reports in detecting improvement on ADHD symptomatology. Teacher reports were also very important, especially in the 9 to 12 year old group.
PMCID: PMC2538631  PMID: 19030484
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder; medication response; methylphenidate; trouble déficitaire de l’attention avec hyperactivité; réponse à la médication; méthylphénidate

Results 1-4 (4)