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1.  Identification of novel mutant PAX6 alleles in Indian cases of familial aniridia 
BMC Ophthalmology  2006;6:28.
Background
Haploinsufficiency at the PAX6 locus causes aniridia, a panocular eye condition characterized by iris hypoplasia and a variety of other anterior and posterior eye defects leading to poor vision. This study was performed to identify novel PAX6 mutations that lead to familial aniridia in Indian patients.
Methods
Genomic DNA was isolated from affected individuals (clinically diagnosed aniridia) from nine unrelated aniridic pedigrees, unaffected family members, and unrelated normal controls. The coding regions of PAX6 were amplified and subjected to single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gel analysis, and direct cloning and sequencing.
Results
SSCP band shifts, indicative of DNA base pair mutations, were observed in five of these unrelated families. Four mutations were shown to be previously unreported insertion or deletions in PAX6, leading to frameshifts. These new mutations were c.1174delTG (in exon 10), c.710delC (exon 6), c.406delTT (exon 5) and c.393insTCAGC (exon 5). The other nonsense mutation, a transition (c.1080C>T) in exon 9, has been reported previously as a mutation hotspot for PAX6 in other ethnic pedigrees. All mutant alleles transmitted through aniridic individuals in each family.
Conclusion
These new deletions and an insertion create frameshifts, which are predicted to introduce premature termination codons into the PAX6 reading frame. The genetic alterations carried by affected individuals are predicted to lead to loss-of-function mutations that would segregate in an autosomal dominant manner to subsequent generations. This is the first report of the 'hotspot' c.1080C>T transition from Indian families.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-6-28
PMCID: PMC1544350  PMID: 16803629
2.  PAX6 gene variations associated with aniridia in south India 
Background
Mutations in the transcription factor gene PAX6 have been shown to be the cause of the aniridia phenotype. The purpose of this study was to analyze patients with aniridia to uncover PAX6 gene mutations in south Indian population.
Methods
Total genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of twenty-eight members of six clinically diagnosed aniridia families and 60 normal healthy controls. The coding exons of the human PAX6 gene were amplified by PCR and allele specific variations were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) followed by automated sequencing.
Results
The sequencing results revealed novel PAX6 mutations in three patients with sporadic aniridia: c.715ins5, [c.1201delA; c.1239A>G] and c.901delA. Two previously reported nonsense mutations were also found: c.482C>A, c.830G>A. A neutral polymorphism was detected (IVS9-12C>T) at the boundary of intron 9 and exon 10. The two nonsense mutations found in the coding region of human PAX6 gene are reported for the first time in the south Indian population.
Conclusion
The genetic analysis confirms that haploinsuffiency of the PAX6 gene causes the classic aniridia phenotype. Most of the point mutations detected in our study results in stop codons. Here we add three novel PAX6 gene mutations in south Indian population to the existing spectrum of mutations, which is not a well-studied ethnic group. Our study supports the hypothesis that a mutation in the PAX6 gene correlates with expression of aniridia.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-5-9
PMCID: PMC419353  PMID: 15086958

Results 1-2 (2)