We conducted a meta-analysis of the iminodibenzyl antipsychotics carpipramine, clocapramine, and mosapramine, which are classified as second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for schizophrenia treatment.
We searched data that had been published in PubMed, the Cochrane Library databases, PsycINFO, CiNii, and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society up to August 29, 2014. Randomized controlled trials that compared iminodibenzyl antipsychotics with other antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia were included. Odds ratios and standardized mean differences were evaluated.
We included four randomized controlled trials on carpipramine (number of patients [n]=290), six on clocapramine (n=1,048), and five on mosapramine (n=986) in the meta-analysis. There were no significant differences in the response rates or in the discontinuation rates either between carpipramine and the other pooled antipsychotics or between clocapramine and the other pooled antipsychotics. On the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, mosapramine’s positive subscale scores were superior to those of the other pooled antipsychotics (standard mean of difference =−0.22); however, on that same scale, there were no significant differences in total scores, negative scores, general subscale scores, response rates, or the discontinuation rates between mosapramine and the other pooled antipsychotics. Furthermore, the incidences of extrapyramidal symptoms and of hyperprolactinemia were significantly greater with mosapramine than with the other pooled antipsychotics.
The pharmacological profiles of carpipramine and clocapramine, which are classified as SGAs, were similar to those of first-generation antipsychotics because there were no significant differences in efficacy and safety outcomes. However, mosapramine was associated with a greater risk of extrapyramidal symptoms and hyperprolactinemia than the other SGAs were, although it may be beneficial for the improvement of positive symptoms.
carpipramine; clocapramine; mosapramine; schizophrenia; meta-analysis
Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia.
An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8.
Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (P<0.0001) and in positive (P<0.0001), negative (P<0.0001), and general subscale scores (P<0.0001). In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores) were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and 51.6%, respectively.
Our results suggest that the blonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8.
efficacy; safety; antipsychotic
We investigated the association between serum proBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and response to fluvoxamine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR): physically healthy and free of current alcohol or drug abuse, comorbid anxiety, or personality disorders.
Fifty-one patients with MDD (M/F, 19:32; age, 38 ± 19 years) and 51 healthy controls (M/F, 22:29; age, 34 ± 17 years) were studied using DSM-IV-TR: physically healthy and free of current alcohol or drug abuse, comorbid anxiety, or personality disorders. Serum levels of proBDNF and MDNF were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Serum mature BDNF levels in the MDD patients were significantly lower than those in the healthy controls (t = 3.046, p = 0.0018). On the other hand, no difference was found in serum proBDNF between the MDD patients and the healthy controls (t = −0.979, p = 0.833). A trend of negative correlation was found between baseline serum BDNF and baseline scores of the 17 items of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17) (r = −0.183, p = 0.071). No correlation was however found between HAMD17 scores and proBDNF at baseline (r = 0.092, p = 0.421). Furthermore, no correlation was observed between baseline HAMD17 scores and baseline proBDNF/BDNF (r = −0.130, p = 0.190). No changes were observed in serum levels of proBDNF and BDNF during the treatment periods.
These results suggest that there is no association between serum proBDNF/BDNF and fluvoxamine response in MDD patients at least within 4 weeks of the treatment.
BDNF; proBDNF; Major depressive disorder; Serum; Fluvoxamine
We investigated the association between the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, and white matter changes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy subjects using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We studied 30 patients with MDD (17 males and 13 females, with mean age ± standard deviation [SD] =44±12 years) and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (17 males and 13 females, aged 44±13 years). Using DTI analysis with a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach, we investigated the differences in fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity distribution among the three groups (patients with the COMT gene Val158Met, those with the BDNF gene Val66Met, and the healthy subjects). In a voxel-wise-based group comparison, we found significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity within the temporal lobe white matter in the Met-carriers with MDD compared with the controls (P<0.05). No correlations in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, or radial diffusivity were observed between the MDD patients and the controls, either among those with the BDNF Val/Val genotype or among the BDNF Met-carriers. These results suggest an association between the COMT gene Val158Met and the white matter abnormalities found in the temporal lobe of patients with MDD.
catechol-O-methyltransferase; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol; homovanillic acid
The present study aimed to evaluate cardiometabolic risks [weight gain, blood lipid levels (total cholesterol and triglycerides), blood glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation] associated with the use of blonanserin and perospirone versus other antipsychotics in the management of patients with schizophrenia.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of patient data from randomized controlled trials comparing blonanserin or perospirone with other antipsychotics.
In total, 4 blonanserin studies (n = 1080) were identified [vs. risperidone (2 studies, n = 508); vs. haloperidol (2 studies, n = 572)]. Blonanserin produced less weight gain compared with risperidone (weighted mean difference = −0.86, 95% confidence intervals = −1.36 to −0.36, p = 0.0008; 2 studies, 480 patients). However, no significant differences were observed in blood lipid, glucose, and HbA1c levels or QTc prolongation between blonanserin and risperidone or haloperidol. For perospirone studies, 5 studies [562 adult patients with schizophrenia randomized to perospirone (n = 256), olanzapine (n = 20), quetiapine (n = 28), risperidone (n = 53), aripiprazole (n = 49), haloperidol (n = 75), or mosapramine (n = 81)] were identified. Perospirone did not differ from other antipsychotics with regard to weight gain and total cholesterol levels.
Our results suggest that blonanserin is associated with a lower of weight gain compared with other antipsychotics. Because the number of studies was small, additional controlled clinical trials with larger number of patients are indicated.
It is important to predict a response to an antidepressant in early time after starting the antidepressant. We previously reported that serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in responders to treatment with antidepressants were increased, whereas, those in nonresponders were not. Therefore, we hypothesized that the changes in serum levels of BDNF from baseline (T0) to 4 weeks (T4) after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) predict the response to the treatment at 8 weeks (T8) in depressed patients. To confirm the hypothesis, we measured serum BDNF at T0, T4, and T8 during the treatment with SSRIs (paroxetine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine).
One hundred fifty patients (M/F; 51/99, age; 50.4±15.1 years) met major depressive disorder (MDD) using by DSM-IV-TR enrolled in the present study. We measured serum BDNF concentrations at T0, T4, and T8 in patients with MDD treated with SSRIs.
The changes in serum BDNF, age, sex, dose of SSRIs, and HAMD-17 score did not predict the response to SSRIs at T8.
These results suggest that the changes in serum BDNF levels from T0 to T4 could not predict the subsequent responses to SSRIs at T8.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Serum; Depression; Response; Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients.
adherence; risperidone long-acting injection; psychoeducation; schizophrenia
Few controlled trials compared second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) regarding relapse prevention in schizophrenia. We conducted a systematic review/meta-analysis of randomized trials, lasting ≥6 months comparing SGAs with FGAs in schizophrenia. Primary outcome was study-defined relapse; secondary outcomes included relapse at 3, 6 and 12 months, treatment failure, hospitalization, and dropout due to any cause, non-adherence and intolerability. Pooled relative risk (RR) [+/−95%CIs] was calculated using random-effects model, with numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) calculations where appropriate. Across 23 studies (n=4,504, mean duration=61.9+/−22.4 weeks), none of the individual SGAs outperformed FGAs (mainly haloperidol) regarding study-defined relapse, except for isolated, single trial-based superiority, and except for risperidone's superiority at 3 and 6 months when requiring >/=3 trials. Grouped together, however, SGAs prevented relapse more than FGAs (29.0% vs. 37.5%, RR=0.80, CI:0.70–0.91, p=.0007, I2=37%; NNT=17, CI:10–50, p=.003). SGAs were also superior regarding relapse at 3, 6 and 12 months (p=.04, p<.0001, p=.0001), treatment failure (p=.003) and hospitalization (p=.004). SGAs showed trend-level superiority for dropout due to intolerability (p=.05). Superiority of SGAs regarding relapse was modest (NNT=17), but confirmed in double-blind trials, first- and multi-episode patients, using preferentially or exclusively raw or estimated relapse rates, and for different haloperidol equivalent-comparator doses. There was no significant heterogeneity or publication bias. The relevance of the somewhat greater efficacy of SGAs over FGAs on several relevant outcomes depends on whether SGAs form a meaningful group and whether mid- or low-potency FGAs differ from haloperidol. Regardless, treatment selection needs to be individualized considering patient- and medication-related factors.
Schizophrenia; Antipsychotics; Relapse Prevention; Maintenance; Long-term treatment; Meta-analysis
No studies have compared mirtazapine with duloxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Fifty-six patients were nonrandomly assigned to a 4-week treatment with either 15 to 45 mg/day of mirtazapine (n = 22) or 20 to 60 mg/day of duloxetine (n = 34). The primary efficacy measurements were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression 6-point Rating Scale (MADRS) scores. The second efficacy measurements were the response and remission rates of treatment. Tolerability assessments were also performed. Fifty-six patients (43 male; age, 43.6 years) were recruited. There was no significant difference in the discontinuation rate between the mirtazapine and duloxetine treatment groups (P = 0.867). Both mirtazapine and duloxetine significantly improved the HRSD and MADRS scores from baseline (P < 0.0001–0.0004). While mirtazapine was superior to duloxetine in the reduction of HRSD scores (P = 0.0421), there was no significant change in MADRS scores in terms of between-group differences (P = 0.171). While more somnolence was observed with mirtazapine (P = 0.0399), more nausea was associated with duloxetine (P = 0.0089). No serious adverse events were observed for either antidepressant. Mirtazapine and duloxetine were safe and well-tolerated treatments for Japanese patients with MDD. Double-blind controlled studies are needed to further explore the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine and duloxetine in Japanese patients with MDD.
mirtazapine; duloxetine; major depressive disorder
A previous meta-analysis reported a positive association between an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) and the risk of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we updated this meta-analysis and additionally assessed the association of this polymorphism with ALI/ARDS mortality.
We searched electronic databases through October 2011 for the terms “angiotensin-converting enzyme gene”, “acute lung injury”, and “acute respiratory distress syndrome,” and reviewed all studies that reported the relationship of the I/D polymorphism in ACE with ALI/ARDS in humans. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 532 ALI/ARDS patients, 3032 healthy controls, and 1432 patients without ALI/ARDS. We used three genetic models: the allele, dominant, and recessive models.
The ACE I/D polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to ALI/ARDS for any genetic model. However, the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with the mortality risk of ALI/ARDS in Asian subjects ( Pallele < 0.0001, Pdominant = 0.001, Precessive = 0.002). This finding remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons.
There is a possible association between the ACE I/D polymorphism genotype and the mortality risk of ALI/ARDS in Asians.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene; Acute lung injury (ALI); Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); Meta-analysis
This study examined the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (Val66Met) polymorphism and the response to the addition of an atypical antipsychotic drug to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) in treatment-refractory depression.
The study enrolled 64 patients meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for major depressive disorder who were treated with at least two courses of a single antidepressant, but who had Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) scores ≥15 points that were reduced less than 50% over at least a 4-week treatment period. There were 24 males and 40 females (age range 27-68 years; mean±SD, 48±13 years). The patients' clinical improvement was evaluated using the HAMD-17. Patients with at least a 50% decrease in the HAMD-17 score were defined as responders. Serum BDNF levels were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and the presence of the BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphism was determined using the TaqMan genotyping assay.
No correlation was found between the BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphism and a positive response to adding an atypical antipsychotic drug. No differences were observed in the changes in the serum BDNF levels and HAMD-17 scores between Val66Val and Met-carriers. In addition, in patients who experienced remission, the atypical antipsychotic drug was discontinued after at least 3 months of treatment and the patients were then followed for 1 year; 14 of 27 patients (52%) relapsed within 1 year.
These results suggest that the BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphism is not associated with the response to the augmentation of a SSRI or SNRI with an atypical antipsychotic drug, and that the combination of an atypical antipsychotic drug and a SSRI or SNRI should be continued for 3 months or more in refractory depressed patients in the Japanese population.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Treatment-resistant depressive disorder; Antipsychotic drug; Polymorphism; Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor; Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor
Several investigations suggested abnormalities in circadian rhythms are related to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Recently, orphan nuclear receptor rev-erb alpha and glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3β) were shown to be important circadian components. In addition, the orphan nuclear receptor rev-erb alpha is a key negative feedback regulator of the circadian clock. These evidences indicate that rev-erb alpha gene (NR1D1) is a good candidate gene for the pathogenesis of methamphetamine dependence. To evaluate the association between NR1D1 and methamphetamine dependence, we conducted a case-control study of Japanese samples (215 methamphetamine dependence and 232 controls) with three tagging SNPs selected by HapMap database. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. This study was approved by the ethics committees at Fujita Health University, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine and each participating member of the Institute of the Japanese Genetics Initiative for Drug Abuse (JGIDA). We did not detect an association between NR1D1 and Japanese methamphetamine dependence patients in allele/genotype-wise analysis, or the haplotype analysis. Our findings suggest that NR1D1 does not play a major role in the pathophysiology of methamphetamine dependence in the Japanese population.
Orphan nuclear receptor Rev-erb alpha gene (NR1D1); methamphetamine dependence; tagging SNPs; linkage disequilibrium.
Disruption of circadian rhythms may be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Recently, we detected the significant association between prokineticin 2 receptor gene (PROKR2) and Japanese methamphetamine dependence patients. Also, prokineticin 2 (PK2) gene deficient mice showed reduced physiological and behavioral parameters, including circadian locomotor activity, circulating glucocorticoid, glucose levels and the expression of peripheral clock genes compared with WT mice. These evidences indicate that PK2 gene (PROK2) is a good candidate gene for the pathogenesis of methamphetamine dependence. To evaluate the association between PROK2 and methamphetamine dependence, we conducted a case-control study of Japanese samples (215 methamphetamine dependence and 232 controls) with four tagging SNPs selected by HapMap database. The age and sex of the control subjects did not differ from those of the methamphetamine dependence patients. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. This study was approved by the ethics committees at Fujita Health University, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine and each participating member of the Institute of the Japanese Genetics Initiative for Drug Abuse (JGIDA). We did not detect an association between PROK2 and Japanese methamphetamine dependence patients in allele/genotype-wise analysis, or the haplotype analysis. Our findings suggest that PROK2 does not play a major role in the pathophysiology of methamphetamine dependence in the Japanese population.
Prokineticin 2 gene (PROK2); methamphetamine dependence; tagging SNPs; linkage disequilibrium.
The neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS1) is located at 12q24, a susceptibility region for schizophrenia, and produces nitric oxide (NO). NO has been reported to play important roles as a gaseous neurotransmitter in brain. NO is a second messenger for the N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) receptor and is related to the dopaminergic system. Because the symptomatology of methamphetamine (METH) use disorder patients with psychosis is similar to that of patients with schizophrenia, NOS1 is a good candidate gene for METH-induced psychosis. Therefore, we conducted a case-control association study between NOS1 and METH-induced psychosis with Japanese subjects (183 with METH-induced psychosis patients and 519 controls). We selected seven SNPs (rs41279104, rs3782221, rs3782219, rs561712, rs3782206, rs6490121, rs2682826) in NOS1 from previous reports. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee at Fujita Health University School of Medicine and each participating institute of the Japanese Genetics Initiative for Drug Abuse (JGIDA). No significant association was found between NOS1 and METH-induced psychosis in the allele/genotype-wise or haplotype-wise analyses. In conclusion, we suggest that NOS1 might not contribute to the risk of METH-induced psychosis in the Japanese population.
Methamphetamine-induced psychosis; neuronal nitric oxide synthase 1 gene (NOS1); case-control association study.
Several investigations have suggested that abnormalities in glutamate neural transmission play a role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. The metabotropic glutamate 3 receptor (mGluR3) gene was reported to be associated with schizophrenia, and paranoid type schizophrenia has symptoms that are similar to those of methamphetamine-induced psychosis. This suggests that mGluR3 gene (GRM3) is a good candidate gene for the pathogenesis of methamphetamine-induced psychosis. To evaluate the association between GRM3 and methamphetamine-induced psychosis, we conducted a case-control study of Japanese samples (181 methamphetamine-induced psychosis and 232 controls).
We selected one functional SNP (rs6465084), reported to be associated with prefrontal brain functioning, for an association analysis. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. This study was approved by the ethics committees at Fujita Health University, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine and each participating member of the Institute of the Japanese Genetics Initiative for Drug Abuse (JGIDA).
We did not detect an association between rs6465084 in GRM3 and Japanese methamphetamine-induced psychosis.
Our findings suggest that rs6465084 in GRM3 does not play a major role in the pathophysiology of methamphetamine-induced psychosis in the Japanese population. However, because we did not perform an association analysis based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) or a mutation scan of GRM3, a replication study using a larger sample and based on LD may be required for conclusive results.
GRM3; Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis; case-control study.