We evaluate a method for the incorporation of covariates into linkage analysis using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 simulated data. Focusing on a randomly chosen replicate (42) we investigated the effect of the 12 subclinical phenotypes, sex, population, and parent-of-origin on the linkage signal from a model-free linkage analysis of Kofendrerd Personality Disorder.
We detected a linkage peak on chromosome 1, at about 175 cM, which varied depending upon individuals' status for subclinical phenotype b. A linkage peak on chromosome 3 (310 cM) was found not to depend upon subclinical phenotype status. Further peaks were found on chromosomes 5 (12 cM), 9 (4 cM), and 10 (95 cM), depending on the status of subclinical phenotypes a, k, and c/d/g, respectively.
Retrospective comparison of our results with the simulation model showed correct identification of disease loci D1-5 on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 9 and 10, respectively.