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1.  New insights in the composition of extracellular vesicles from pancreatic cancer cells: implications for biomarkers and functions 
Proteome Science  2014;12(1):50.
Background
Pancreatic cancer development is associated with characteristic alterations like desmoplastic reaction and immune escape which are mediated by the cell-cell communication mechanism and by the microenvironment of the cells. The whole of released components are important determinants in these processes. Especially the extracellular vesicles released by pancreatic cancer cells play a role in cell communication and modulate cell growth and immune responses.
Results
Here, we present the proteomic description of affinity purified extracellular vesicles from pancreatic tumour cells, compared to the secretome, defined as the whole of the proteins released by pancreatic cancer cells. The proteomic data provide comprehensive catalogues of hundreds of proteins, and the comparison reveals a special proteomic composition of pancreatic cancer cell derived extracellular vesicles. The functional analysis of the protein composition displayed that membrane proteins, glycoproteins, small GTP binding proteins and a further, heterogeneous group of proteins are enriched in vesicles, whereas proteins derived from proteasomes and ribosomes, as well as metabolic enzymes, are not components of the vesicles. Furthermore proteins playing a role in carcinogenesis and modulators of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or cell-cell interactions are components of affinity purified extracellular vesicles.
Conclusion
The data deepen the knowledge of extracellular vesicle composition by hundreds of proteins that have not been previously described as vesicle components released by pancreatic cancer cells. Extracellular vesicles derived from pancreatic cancer cells show common proteins shared with other vesicles as well as cell type specific proteins indicating biomarker candidates and suggesting functional roles in cancer cell stroma interactions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12953-014-0050-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12953-014-0050-5
PMCID: PMC4251850  PMID: 25469109
Extracellular vesicles; Exosome; Secretome; Proteomics; Affinity purification; Biomarker; Pancreatic cancer
2.  Analysis of MicroRNAs in Pancreatic Fine-Needle Aspirates Can Classify Benign and Malignant Tissues 
Clinical chemistry  2008;54(10):1716-1724.
BACKGROUND
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are RNA molecules that are involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including those related to human cancers. The aim of this study was to determine, as a proof of principle, whether specific candidate miRNAs could be detected in fine-needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and could accurately differentiate malignant from benign pancreatic tissues.
METHODS
We used TaqMan® assays to quantify miRNA levels in FNA samples collected in RNARetain (n = 16) and compared the results with a training set consisting of frozen macrodissected pancreatic samples (n = 20).
RESULTS
Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analysis confirmed that miRNA levels are affected in PDAC FNAs and correlate well with the changes observed in the training set of frozen pancreatic samples. Analysis of the amounts produced for a few specific miRNAs enabled identification of PDAC samples. The combination of miR-196a and miR-217 biomarkers further improved the ability to distinguish between healthy tissue, PDAC, and chronic pancreatitis in the training set (P = 8.2 × 10−10), as well as segregate PDAC FNA samples from other FNA samples (P = 1.1 × 10−5). Furthermore, we showed that miR-196a production is likely specific to PDAC cells and that its incidence paralleled the progression of PDAC.
CONCLUSIONS
To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the diagnostic potential of miRNAs in a clinical setting and has shown that miRNA analysis of pancreatic FNA biopsy samples can aid in the pathologic evaluation of suspicious cases and may provide a new strategy for improving the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases.
doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.109603
PMCID: PMC4040292  PMID: 18719196
3.  A Soluble Form of the Giant Cadherin Fat1 Is Released from Pancreatic Cancer Cells by ADAM10 Mediated Ectodomain Shedding 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90461.
In pancreatic cancer, there is a clear unmet need to identify new serum markers for either early diagnosis, therapeutic stratification or patient monitoring. Proteomic analysis of tumor cell secretomes is a promising approach to indicate proteins released from tumor cells in vitro. Ectodomain shedding of transmembrane proteins has previously been shown to contribute significant fractions the tumor cell secretomes and to generate valuable serum biomarkers. Here we introduce a soluble form of the giant cadherin Fat1 as a novel biomarker candidate. Fat1 expression and proteolytic processing was analyzed by mass spectrometry and Western blotting using pancreatic cancer cell lines as compared to human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. RNA expression in cancer tissues was assessed by in silico analysis of publically available microarray data. Involvement of ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) in Fat1 ectodomain shedding was analyzed by chemical inhibition and knockdown experiments. A sandwich ELISA was developed to determine levels of soluble Fat1 in serum samples. In the present report we describe the release of high levels of the ectodomain of Fat1 cadherin into the secretomes of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, a process that is mediated by ADAM10. We confirm the full-length and processed heterodimeric form of Fat1 expressed on the plasma membrane and also show the p60 C-terminal transmembrane remnant fragment corresponding to the shed ectodomain. Fat1 and its sheddase ADAM10 are overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinomas and ectodomain shedding is also recapitulated in vivo leading to increased Fat1 serum levels in some pancreatic cancer patients. We suggest that soluble Fat1 may find an application as a marker for patient monitoring complementing carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). In addition, detailed analysis of the diverse processed protein isoforms of the candidate tumor suppressor Fat1 can also contribute to our understanding of cell biology and tumor behavior.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090461
PMCID: PMC3953070  PMID: 24625754
4.  The pancreatic expression database: recent extensions and updates 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(Database issue):D944-D949.
The Pancreatic Expression Database (PED, http://www.pancreasexpression.org) is the only device currently available for mining of pancreatic cancer literature data. It brings together the largest collection of multidimensional pancreatic data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, microRNA, methylomic and transcriptomic profiles. PED allows the user to ask specific questions on the observed levels of deregulation among a broad range of specimen/experimental types including healthy/patient tissue and body fluid specimens, cell lines and murine models as well as related treatments/drugs data. Here we provide an update to PED, which has been previously featured in the Database issue of this journal. Briefly, PED data content has been substantially increased and expanded to cover methylomics studies. We introduced an extensive controlled vocabulary that records specific details on the samples and added data from large-scale meta-analysis studies. The web interface has been improved/redesigned with a quick search option to rapidly extract information about a gene/protein of interest and an upload option allowing users to add their own data to PED. We added a user guide and implemented integrated graphical tools to overlay and visualize retrieved information. Interoperability with biomart-compatible data sets was significantly improved to allow integrative queries with pancreatic cancer data.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt959
PMCID: PMC3965100  PMID: 24163255
5.  Keratin23 (KRT23) Knockdown Decreases Proliferation and Affects the DNA Damage Response of Colon Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73593.
Keratin 23 (KRT23) is strongly expressed in colon adenocarcinomas but absent in normal colon mucosa. Array based methylation profiling of 40 colon samples showed that the promoter of KRT23 was methylated in normal colon mucosa, while hypomethylated in most adenocarcinomas. Promoter methylation correlated with absent expression, while increased KRT23 expression in tumor samples correlated with promoter hypomethylation, as confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. Demethylation induced KRT23 expression in vitro. Expression profiling of shRNA mediated stable KRT23 knockdown in colon cancer cell lines showed that KRT23 depletion affected molecules of the cell cycle and DNA replication, recombination and repair. In vitro analyses confirmed that KRT23 depletion significantly decreased the cellular proliferation of SW948 and LS1034 cells and markedly decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA damage response, mainly molecules of the double strand break repair homologous recombination pathway. KRT23 knockdown decreased the transcript and protein expression of key molecules as e.g. MRE11A, E2F1, RAD51 and BRCA1. Knockdown of KRT23 rendered colon cancer cells more sensitive to irradiation and reduced proliferation of the KRT23 depleted cells compared to irradiated control cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073593
PMCID: PMC3767798  PMID: 24039993
6.  Multimodal Treatment Eliminates Cancer Stem Cells and Leads to Long-Term Survival in Primary Human Pancreatic Cancer Tissue Xenografts 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66371.
Purpose
In spite of intense research efforts, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains one of the most deadly malignancies in the world. We and others have previously identified a subpopulation of pancreatic cancer stem cells within the tumor as a critical therapeutic target and additionally shown that the tumor stroma represents not only a restrictive barrier for successful drug delivery, but also serves as a paracrine niche for cancer stem cells. Therefore, we embarked on a large-scale investigation on the effects of combining chemotherapy, hedgehog pathway inhibition, and mTOR inhibition in a preclinical mouse model of pancreatic cancer.
Experimental Design
Prospective and randomized testing in a set of almost 200 subcutaneous and orthotopic implanted whole-tissue primary human tumor xenografts.
Results
The combined targeting of highly chemoresistant cancer stem cells as well as their more differentiated progenies, together with abrogation of the tumor microenvironment by targeting the stroma and enhancing tissue penetration of the chemotherapeutic agent translated into significantly prolonged survival in preclinical models of human pancreatic cancer. Most pronounced therapeutic effects were observed in gemcitabine-resistant patient-derived tumors. Intriguingly, the proposed triple therapy approach could be further enhanced by using a PEGylated formulation of gemcitabine, which significantly increased its bioavailability and tissue penetration, resulting in a further improved overall outcome.
Conclusions
This multimodal therapeutic strategy should be further explored in the clinical setting as its success may eventually improve the poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066371
PMCID: PMC3688976  PMID: 23825539
7.  Identification of microRNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker for the diagnosis of glioma 
Neuro-Oncology  2011;14(1):29-33.
Malignant gliomas are the most common and lethal primary intracranial tumors. To date, no reliable biomarkers for the detection and risk stratification of gliomas have been identified. Recently, we demonstrated significant levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) to be present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with primary CNS lymphoma. Because of the involvement of miRNA in carcinogenesis, miRNAs in CSF may serve as unique biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis of glioma. The objective of this pilot study was to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in CSF samples from patients with glioma as potential novel glioma biomarkers. With use of a candidate approach of miRNA quantification by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), miRNAs with significant levels in CSF samples from patients with gliomas were identified. MiR-15b and miR-21 were differentially expressed in CSF samples from patients with gliomas, compared to control subjects with various neurologic disorders, including patients with primary CNS lymphoma and carcinomatous brain metastases. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis of miR-15b level revealed an area under the curve of 0.96 in discriminating patients with glioma from patients without glioma. Moreover, inclusion of miR-15b and miR-21 in combined expression analyses resulted in an increased diagnostic accuracy with 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity to distinguish patients with glioma from control subjects and patients with primary CNS lymphoma. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study demonstrate that miR-15b and miR-21 are markers for gliomas, which can be assessed in the CSF by means of qRT-PCR. Accordingly, miRNAs in the CSF have the potential to serve as novel biomarkers for the detection of gliomas.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nor169
PMCID: PMC3245991  PMID: 21937590
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); glioma; microRNA (miRNA); primary central nervous system lymphoma
8.  Keratin 23, a novel DPC4/Smad4 target gene which binds 14-3-3ε 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:137.
Background
Inactivating mutations of SMAD4 are frequent in metastatic colorectal carcinomas. In previous analyses, we were able to show that restoration of Smad4 expression in Smad4-deficient SW480 human colon carcinoma cells was adequate to suppress tumorigenicity and invasive potential, whereas in vitro cell growth was not affected. Using this cellular model system, we searched for new Smad4 targets comparing nuclear subproteomes derived from Smad4 re-expressing and Smad4 negative SW480 cells.
Methods
High resolution two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis was applied to identify novel Smad4 targets in the nuclear subproteome of Smad4 re-expressing SW480 cells. The identified candidate protein Keratin 23 was further characterized by tandem affinity purification. Immunoprecipitation, subfractionation and immunolocalization studies in combination with RNAi were used to validate the Keratin 23-14-3-3ε interaction.
Results
We identified keratins 8 and 18, heat shock proteins 60 and 70, plectin 1, as well as 14-3-3ε and γ as novel proteins present in the KRT23-interacting complex. Co-immunoprecipitation and subfractionation analyses as well as immunolocalization studies in our Smad4-SW480 model cells provided further evidence that KRT23 associates with 14-3-3ε and that Smad4 dependent KRT23 up-regulation induces a shift of the 14-3-3ε protein from a nuclear to a cytoplasmic localization.
Conclusion
Based on our findings we propose a new regulatory circuitry involving Smad4 dependent up-regulation of KRT23 (directly or indirectly) which in turn modulates the interaction between KRT23 and 14-3-3ε leading to a cytoplasmic sequestration of 14-3-3ε. This cytoplasmic KRT23-14-3-3 interaction may alter the functional status of the well described 14-3-3 scaffold protein, known to regulate key cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle control, and apoptosis and may thus be a previously unappreciated facet of the Smad4 tumor suppressive circuitry.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-137
PMCID: PMC3095566  PMID: 21492476
9.  Gene expression analysis of cell death induction by Taurolidine in different malignant cell lines 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:595.
Background
The anti-infective agent Taurolidine (TRD) has been shown to have cell death inducing properties, but the mechanism of its action is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify potential common target genes modulated at the transcriptional level following TRD treatment in tumour cell lines originating from different cancer types.
Methods
Five different malignant cell lines (HT29, Chang Liver, HT1080, AsPC-1 and BxPC-3) were incubated with TRD (100 μM, 250 μM and 1000 μM). Proliferation after 8 h and cell viability after 24 h were analyzed by BrdU assay and FACS analysis, respectively. Gene expression analyses were carried out using the Agilent -microarray platform to indentify genes which displayed conjoint regulation following the addition of TRD in all cell lines. Candidate genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and selected genes were validated by qRT-PCR and Western Blot.
Results
TRD 250 μM caused a significant inhibition of proliferation as well as apoptotic cell death in all cell lines. Among cell death associated genes with the strongest regulation in gene expression, we identified pro-apoptotic transcription factors (EGR1, ATF3) as well as genes involved in the ER stress response (PPP1R15A), in ubiquitination (TRAF6) and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways (PMAIP1).
Conclusions
This is the first conjoint analysis of potential target genes of TRD which was performed simultaneously in different malignant cell lines. The results indicate that TRD might be involved in different signal transduction pathways leading to apoptosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-595
PMCID: PMC2988031  PMID: 21034493
10.  The Pancreatic Expression database: 2011 update 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(Database issue):D1023-D1028.
The Pancreatic Expression database (PED, http://www.pancreasexpression.org) has established itself as the main repository for pancreatic-derived -omics data. For the past 3 years, its data content and access have increased substantially. Here we describe several of its new and improved features, such as data content, which now includes over 60 000 measurements derived from transcriptomics, proteomics, genomics and miRNA profiles from various pancreas-centred reports on a broad range of specimen and experimental types. We also illustrate the capabilities of its interface, which allows integrative queries that can combine PED data with a growing number of biological resources such as NCBI, Ensembl, UniProt and Reactome. Thus, PED is capable of retrieving and integrating different types of -omics, annotations and clinical data. We also focus on the importance of data sharing and interoperability in the cancer field, and the integration of PED into the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) data portal.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq937
PMCID: PMC3013788  PMID: 20959292
11.  Comparative analysis of cell death induction by Taurolidine in different malignant human cancer cell lines 
Background
Taurolidine (TRD) represents an anti-infective substance with anti-neoplastic activity in many malignant cell lines. So far, the knowledge about the cell death inducing mechanisms and pathways activated by TRD is limited. The aim of this study was therefore, to perform a comparative analysis of cell death induction by TRD simultaneously in different malignant cell lines.
Materials and methods
Five different malignant cell lines (HT29/Colon, Chang Liver/Liver, HT1080/fibrosarcoma, AsPC-1/pancreas and BxPC-3/pancreas) were incubated with increasing concentrations of TRD (100 μM, 250 μM and 1000 μM) for 6 h and 24 h. Cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed by FACS analysis (Propidiumiodide/AnnexinV staining). Additionally, cells were co-incubated with the caspase Inhibitor z-VAD, the radical scavenger N-Acetylcystein (NAC) and the Gluthation depleting agent BSO to examine the contribution of caspase activation and reactive oxygen species in TRD induced cell death.
Results
All cell lines were susceptible to TRD induced cell death without resistance toward this anti-neoplastic agent. However, the dose response effects were varying largely between different cell lines. The effect of NAC and BSO co-treatment were highly different among cell lines - suggesting a cell line specific involvement of ROS in TRD induced cell death. Furthermore, impact of z-VAD mediated inhibition of caspases was differing strongly among the cell lines.
Conclusion
This is the first study providing a simultaneous evaluation of the anti-neoplastic action of TRD across several malignant cell lines. The involvement of ROS and caspase activation was highly variable among the five cell lines, although all were susceptible to TRD induced cell death. Our results indicate, that TRD is likely to provide multifaceted cell death mechanisms leading to a cell line specific diversity.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-29-21
PMCID: PMC2846881  PMID: 20205945
12.  Divergent mechanisms underlie Smad4-mediated positive regulation of the three genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332 (laminin-5) 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:215.
Background
Functional inactivation of the tumor suppressor Smad4 in colorectal and pancreatic carcinogenesis occurs coincident with the transition to invasive growth. Breaking the basement membrane (BM) barrier, a prerequisite for invasive growth, can be due to tumor induced proteolytic tissue remodeling or to reduced synthesis of BM molecules by incipient tumor cells. Laminin-332 (laminin-5), a heterotrimeric BM component composed of α3-, β3- and γ2-chains, has recently been identified as a target structure of Smad4 and represents the first example for expression control of an essential BM component by a tumor and invasion suppressor. Biochemically Smad4 is a transmitter of signals of the TGFβ superfamily of cytokines. We have reported previously, that Smad4 functions as a positive transcriptional regulator of constitutive and of TGFβ-induced transcription of all three genes encoding Laminin-332, LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2.
Methods
Promoter-reporter constructs harboring 4 kb upstream regions, each of the three genes encoding Laminin-322 as well as deletion and mutations constructs were established. Promoter activities and TGFβ induction were assayed through transient transfections in Smad4-negative human cancer cells and their stable Smad4-positive derivatives. Functionally relevant binding sites were subsequently confirmed through chromatin immunoprecipitation.
Results
Herein, we report that Smad4 mediates transcriptional regulation through three different mechanisms, namely through Smad4 binding to a functional SBE site exclusively in the LAMA3 promoter, Smad4 binding to AP1 (and Sp1) sites presumably via interaction with AP1 family components and lastly a Smad4 impact on transcription of AP1 factors. Whereas Smad4 is essential for positive regulation of all three genes, the molecular mechanisms are significantly divergent between the LAMA3 promoter as compared to the LAMB3 and LAMC2 promoters.
Conclusion
We hypothesize that this divergence in modular regulation of the three promoters may lay the ground for uncoupled regulation of Laminin-332 in Smad4-deficient tumor cells in response to stromally expressed cytokines acting on budding tumor cells.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-215
PMCID: PMC2525660  PMID: 18664273
13.  Pancreatic Expression database: a generic model for the organization, integration and mining of complex cancer datasets 
BMC Genomics  2007;8:439.
Background
Pancreatic cancer is the 5th leading cause of cancer death in both males and females. In recent years, a wealth of gene and protein expression studies have been published broadening our understanding of pancreatic cancer biology. Due to the explosive growth in publicly available data from multiple different sources it is becoming increasingly difficult for individual researchers to integrate these into their current research programmes. The Pancreatic Expression database, a generic web-based system, is aiming to close this gap by providing the research community with an open access tool, not only to mine currently available pancreatic cancer data sets but also to include their own data in the database.
Description
Currently, the database holds 32 datasets comprising 7636 gene expression measurements extracted from 20 different published gene or protein expression studies from various pancreatic cancer types, pancreatic precursor lesions (PanINs) and chronic pancreatitis. The pancreatic data are stored in a data management system based on the BioMart technology alongside the human genome gene and protein annotations, sequence, homologue, SNP and antibody data. Interrogation of the database can be achieved through both a web-based query interface and through web services using combined criteria from pancreatic (disease stages, regulation, differential expression, expression, platform technology, publication) and/or public data (antibodies, genomic region, gene-related accessions, ontology, expression patterns, multi-species comparisons, protein data, SNPs). Thus, our database enables connections between otherwise disparate data sources and allows relatively simple navigation between all data types and annotations.
Conclusion
The database structure and content provides a powerful and high-speed data-mining tool for cancer research. It can be used for target discovery i.e. of biomarkers from body fluids, identification and analysis of genes associated with the progression of cancer, cross-platform meta-analysis, SNP selection for pancreatic cancer association studies, cancer gene promoter analysis as well as mining cancer ontology information. The data model is generic and can be easily extended and applied to other types of cancer. The database is available online with no restrictions for the scientific community at .
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-439
PMCID: PMC2216037  PMID: 18045474
14.  High-level inducible Smad4-reexpression in the cervical cancer cell line C4-II is associated with a gene expression profile that predicts a preferential role of Smad4 in extracellular matrix composition 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:209.
Background
Smad4 is a tumour suppressor frequently inactivated in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. We have recently reported loss of Smad4 in every fourth carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Smad4 transmits signals from the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines and functions as a versatile transcriptional co-modulator. The prevailing view suggests that the tumour suppressor function of Smad4 primarily resides in its capability to mediate TGF-β growth inhibitory responses. However, accumulating evidence indicates, that the acquisition of TGF-β resistance and loss of Smad4 may be independent events in the carcinogenic process. Through inducible reexpression of Smad4 in cervical cancer cells we wished to shed more light on this issue and to identify target genes implicated in Smad4 dependent tumor suppression.
Methods
Smad4-deficient human C4-II cervical carcinoma cells were used to establish inducible Smad4 reexpression using the commercial Tet-on™ system (Clontech). The impact of Smad4 reexpression on cell growth was analysed in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional responses were assessed through profiling on cDNA macroarrays (Clontech) and validated through Northern blotting.
Results
Clones were obtained that express Smad4 at widely varying levels from approximately physiological to 50-fold overexpression. Smad4-mediated tumour suppression in vivo was apparent at physiological expression levels as well as in Smad4 overexpressing clones. Smad4 reexpression in a dose-dependent manner was associated with transcriptional induction of the extracellular matrix-associated genes, BigH3, fibronectin and PAI-1, in response to TGF-β. Smad4-dependent regulation of these secreted Smad4 targets is not restricted to cervical carcinoma cells and was confirmed in pancreatic carcinoma cells reexpressing Smad4 after retroviral transduction and in a stable Smad4 knockdown model. On the other hand, the classical cell cycle-associated TGF-β target genes, c-myc, p21 and p15, remained unaltered.
Conclusion
Our results show that Smad4-mediated tumour suppression in cervical cancer cells is not due to restoration of TGF-β growth inhibitory responses. Rather, tumour cell-ECM interactions may be more relevant for Smad4-mediated tumour suppression. C4-II cells with a high level inducible Smad4 expression may serve as a model to indicate further Smad4 targets responsive to diverse environmental stimuli operative in vivo.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-209
PMCID: PMC2186346  PMID: 17997817
15.  Discarding duplicate ditags in LongSAGE analysis may introduce significant error 
BMC Bioinformatics  2007;8:92.
Background
During gene expression analysis by Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), duplicate ditags are routinely removed from the data analysis, because they are suspected to stem from artifacts during SAGE library construction. As a consequence, naturally occurring duplicate ditags are also removed from the analysis leading to an error of measurement.
Results
An algorithm was developed to analyze the differential occurrence of SAGE tags in different ditag combinations. Analysis of a pancreatic acinar cell LongSAGE library showed no sign of a general amplification bias that justified the removal of all duplicate ditags. Extending the analysis to 10 additional LongSAGE libraries showed no justification for removal of all duplicate ditags either. On the contrary, while the error introduced in original SAGE by removal of naturally occurring duplicate ditags is insignificant, it leads to an error of up to 3 fold in LongSAGE. However, the algorithm developed for the analysis of duplicate ditags was able to identify individual artifact ditags that originated from rare nucleotide variations of tags and vector contamination.
Conclusion
The removal of all duplicate ditags was unfounded for the datasets analyzed and led to large errors. This may also be the case for other LongSAGE datasets already present in databases. Analysis of the ditag population, however, can identify artifact tags that should be removed from analysis or have their tag count adjusted.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-8-92
PMCID: PMC1839111  PMID: 17359537
16.  aRNA-longSAGE: a new approach to generate SAGE libraries from microdissected cells 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(16):e131.
Large-scale gene expression analyses of microdissected primary tissue are still difficult because generally only a limited amount of mRNA can be obtained from microdissected cells. The introduction of the T7-based RNA amplification technique was an important step to reduce the amount of RNA needed for such analyses. This amplification technique produces amplified antisense RNA (aRNA), which so far has precluded its direct use for serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) library production. We describe a method, termed ‘aRNA-longSAGE’, which is the first to allow the direct use of aRNA for standard longSAGE library production. The aRNA-longSAGE protocol was validated by comparing two aRNA-longSAGE libraries with two Micro-longSAGE libraries that were generated from the same RNA preparations of two different cell lines. Using a conservative validation approach, we were able to verify 68% of the differentially expressed genes identified by aRNA-longSAGE. Furthermore, the identification rate of differentially expressed genes was roughly twice as high in our aRNA-longSAGE libraries as in the standard Micro-longSAGE libraries. Using our validated aRNA-longSAGE protocol, we were able to successfully generate longSAGE libraries from as little as 40 ng of total RNA isolated from 2000–3000 microdissected pancreatic ductal epithelial cells or cells from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias.
doi:10.1093/nar/gnh130
PMCID: PMC519129  PMID: 15371555
17.  The NOD2 3020insC Mutation and The Risk of Familial Pancreatic Cancer? 
doi:10.1186/1897-4287-2-3-149
PMCID: PMC3835413  PMID: 20233470
NOD2; pancreatic cancer
18.  HNPCC: Six new pathogenic mutations 
BMC Medical Genetics  2004;5:16.
Background
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant disease with a high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes (MMR). HNPCC accounts for approximately 2 to 5% of all colorectal cancers. Here we present 6 novel mutations in the DNA mismatch-repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6.
Methods
Patients with clinical diagnosis of HNPCC were counselled. Tumor specimen were analysed for microsatellite instability and immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 protein was performed. If one of these proteins was not detectable in the tumor mutation analysis of the corresponding gene was carried out.
Results
We identified 6 frameshift mutations (2 in MLH1, 3 in MSH2, 1 in MSH6) resulting in a premature stop: two mutations in MLH1 (c.2198_2199insAACA [p.N733fsX745], c.2076_2077delTG [p.G693fsX702]), three mutations in MSH2 (c.810_811delGT [p.C271fsX282], c.763_766delAGTGinsTT [p.F255fsX282], c.873_876delGACT [p.L292fsX298]) and one mutation in MSH6 (c.1421_1422dupTG [p.C475fsX480]). All six tumors tested for microsatellite instability showed high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H).
Conclusions
HNPCC in families with MSH6 germline mutations may show an age of onset that is comparable to this of patients with MLH1 and MSH2 mutations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-5-16
PMCID: PMC446196  PMID: 15217520

Results 1-18 (18)