This paper provides the first epidemiological evidence that IGF axis genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of advanced AMD and that IGF1R may predispose obese people to higher risk.
To investigate whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis genes, together with a novel dietary risk factor, the dietary glycemic index (dGI), and body mass index (BMI) affect the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
This case–control study involved 962 subjects originally recruited through the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Genetic Repository. After those with missing covariates or invalid calorie intake (n = 23), diabetes (n = 59), and non-Caucasian race (n = 16) were excluded, 864 participants were used, including 209 AREDS category 1 participants (control group), 354 category 2 or 3 participants (drusen group), and 301 category 4 participants (advanced AMD group). A total of 25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from IGF-1 (n = 9), IGF-2 (n = 1), IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1; n = 3), IGFBP3 (n = 3), acid-labile subunit of IGFBP (IGFALS; n = 2), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R; n = 4), and IGF2R (n = 3) were genotyped. SNP-AMD associations were measured with genotype, allele χ2 tests and Armitage's trend test. Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and SNP-exposure interactions were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression.
One SNP (rs2872060) in IGF1R revealed a significant association with advanced AMD (P-allele = 0.0009, P-trend = 0.0008; the significance level was set at 0.05/25 = 0.002 for multiple comparisons). The risk allele (G) in the heterozygous and homozygous states (OR, 1.67 and 2.93; 95% CI, 1.03–2.71 and 1.60–5.36, respectively) suggests susceptibility and an additive effect on AMD risk. Further stratification analysis remained significant for both neovascularization (OR, 1.49 and 2.61; 95% CI, 0.90–2.48 and 1.39–4.90, respectively) and geographic atrophy (OR, 2.57 and 4.52; 95% CI, 0.99–6.71 and 1.49–13.74, respectively). The G allele interaction analysis with BMI was significant for neovascularization (P = 0.042) but not for geographic atrophy (P = 0.47). No significant interaction was found with dGI.
These data suggest a role of IGF1R on the risk for advanced AMD in this group of subjects.