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1.  Migalastat HCl Reduces Globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-Gb3) in Fabry Transgenic Mice and in the Plasma of Fabry Patients 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e57631.
Fabry disease (FD) results from mutations in the gene (GLA) that encodes the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), and involves pathological accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) and globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3). Migalastat hydrochloride (GR181413A) is a pharmacological chaperone that selectively binds, stabilizes, and increases cellular levels of α-Gal A. Oral administration of migalastat HCl reduces tissue GL-3 in Fabry transgenic mice, and in urine and kidneys of some FD patients. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to measure lyso-Gb3 in mouse tissues and human plasma. Oral administration of migalastat HCl to transgenic mice reduced elevated lyso-Gb3 levels up to 64%, 59%, and 81% in kidney, heart, and skin, respectively, generally equal to or greater than observed for GL-3. Furthermore, baseline plasma lyso-Gb3 levels were markedly elevated in six male FD patients enrolled in Phase 2 studies. Oral administration of migalastat HCl (150 mg QOD) reduced urine GL-3 and plasma lyso-Gb3 in three subjects (range: 15% to 46% within 48 weeks of treatment). In contrast, three showed no reductions in either substrate. These results suggest that measurement of tissue and/or plasma lyso-Gb3 is feasible and may be warranted in future studies of migalastat HCl or other new potential therapies for FD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057631
PMCID: PMC3589404  PMID: 23472096
2.  Safety and pharmacodynamic effects of a pharmacological chaperone on α-galactosidase A activity and globotriaosylceramide clearance in Fabry disease: report from two phase 2 clinical studies 
Background
Fabry disease (FD) is a genetic disorder resulting from deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), which leads to globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) accumulation in multiple tissues. We report on the safety and pharmacodynamics of migalastat hydrochloride, an investigational pharmacological chaperone given orally at 150 mg every-other-day.
Methods
Two open-label uncontrolled phase 2 studies of 12 and 24 weeks (NCT00283959 and NCT00283933) in 9 males with FD were combined. At multiple time points, α-Gal A activity and GL-3 levels were quantified in blood cells, kidney and skin. GL-3 levels were also evaluated through skin and renal histology.
Results
Compared to baseline, increased α-Gal A activity of at least 50% was demonstrated in blood, skin and kidney in 6 of 9 patients. Patients’ increased α-Gal A activities paralleled the α-Gal A increases observed in vitro in HEK-293 cells transfected with the corresponding mutant form of the enzyme. The same 6 patients who demonstrated increases of α-Gal A activity also had GL-3 reduction in skin, urine and/or kidney, and had α-Gal A mutations that responded in transfected cells incubated with the drug. The 3 patients who did not show a consistent response in vivo had α-Gal A mutations that did not respond to migalastat HCl in transfected cells. Migalastat HCl was well tolerated.
Conclusions
Migalastat HCl is a candidate pharmacological chaperone that provides a novel genotype-specific treatment for FD. It enhanced α-Gal A activity and resulted in GL-3 substrate decrease in patients with responsive GLA mutations. Phase 3 studies are ongoing.
Trial registration
Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT00283959 and NCT00283933
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-91
PMCID: PMC3527132  PMID: 23176611
Pharmacological chaperone; Conformational diseases; Protein-misfolding; Fabry disease; Lysosomal storage disorder
3.  Renal outcomes of agalsidase beta treatment for Fabry disease: role of proteinuria and timing of treatment initiation 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2011;27(3):1042-1049.
Background.
The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of renal disease progression in adults with Fabry disease during treatment with agalsidase beta.
Methods.
Renal function was evaluated in 151 men and 62 women from the Fabry Registry who received agalsidase beta at an average dose of 1 mg/kg/2 weeks for at least 2 years. Patients were categorized into quartiles based on slopes of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with renal disease progression.
Results.
Men within the first quartile had a mean eGFR slope of –0.1 mL/min/1.73m2/year, whereas men with the most rapid renal disease progression (Quartile 4) had a mean eGFR slope of –6.7 mL/min/1.73m2/year. The risk factor most strongly associated with renal disease progression was averaged urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UP/Cr) ≥1 g/g (odds ratio 112, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4–3109, P = 0.0054). Longer time from symptom onset to treatment was also associated with renal disease progression (odds ratio 19, 95% CI 2–184, P = 0.0098). Women in Quartile 4 had the highest averaged UP/Cr (mean 1.8 g/g) and the most rapid renal disease progression: (mean slope –4.4 mL/min/1.73m2/year).
Conclusions.
Adults with Fabry disease are at risk for progressive loss of eGFR despite enzyme replacement therapy, particularly if proteinuria is ≥1 g/g. Men with little urinary protein excretion and those who began receiving agalsidase beta sooner after the onset of symptoms had stable renal function. These findings suggest that early intervention may lead to optimal renal outcomes.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfr420
PMCID: PMC3289896  PMID: 21804088
alpha galactosidase; enzyme replacement therapy; Fabry disease; genetic renal disease; proteinuria
4.  Fabry disease 
Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal α-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual α-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked α-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human α-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs, nephroprotection (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers) and antiarrhythmic agents, whereas dialysis or renal transplantation are available for patients experiencing end-stage renal failure. With age, progressive damage to vital organ systems develops and at some point, organs may start to fail in functioning. End-stage renal disease and life-threatening cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications limit life-expectancy of untreated males and females with reductions of 20 and 10 years, respectively, as compared to the general population. While there is increasing evidence that long-term enzyme therapy can halt disease progression, the importance of adjunctive therapies should be emphasized and the possibility of developing an oral therapy drives research forward into active site specific chaperones.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-5-30
PMCID: PMC3009617  PMID: 21092187
5.  Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV 
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS), is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria) in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae) are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular complication in a patient suffering from EDS type IV. Surgery may, however, be required urgently to treat potentially fatal complications.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-2-32
PMCID: PMC1971255  PMID: 17640391
7.  Patients affected with Fabry disease have an increased incidence of progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness: an investigation of twenty-two hemizygous male patients 
BMC Medical Genetics  2002;3:10.
Background
Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A, a lysosomal enzyme. While the progressive systemic deposition of uncleaved glycosphingolipids throughout the body is known to have protean clinical manifestations, few data are available regarding the cochlear involvement.
Methods
We non-invasively investigated cochlear functions in 22 consecutive hemizygous males (age 19–64 years, mean 39) affected with classic FD. Conventional audiometry, tympanometry, ABR audiometry, otoacoustic emissions were performed in all patients, together with medical history record and physical examination as part of an exhaustive baseline evaluation prior to enzyme replacement therapy.
Results
A total of 12 patients (54.5%) with classic FD were found to have abnormal audition. Five patients had progressive hearing loss and seven patients (32%) experienced sudden deafness. In addition, a hearing loss on high-tone frequencies was found in 7 out of the 10 remaining patients without clinical impairment, despite their young age at time of examination. The incidence of hearing loss appeared significantly increased in FD patients with kidney failure (P < 0.01) or cerebrovascular lesions (P < 0.01), whereas there was no correlation with left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, tinnitus aurium was also found in six patients (27%).
Conclusion
This is the first evidence of a high incidence of both progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness in a cohort of male patients affected with classic Fabry disease. The exact pathophysiologic mechanism(s) of the cochlear involvement deserves further studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-3-10
PMCID: PMC134464  PMID: 12377100
8.  Fabry disease: twenty novel alpha-galactosidase A mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in classical and variant phenotypes. 
Molecular Medicine  2002;8(6):306-312.
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (OMIM 301500) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism resulting from mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A) gene. The disease is phenotypically heterogeneous with classic and variant phenotypes. To assess the molecular heterogeneity, define genotype/phenotype correlations, and for precise carrier identification, the nature of the molecular lesions in the alpha-Gal A gene was determined in 40 unrelated families with Fabry disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from affected males or obligate carrier females and the entire alpha-Gal A coding region and flanking sequences were amplified by PCR and analyzed by automated sequencing. Haplotype analyses were performed with polymorphisms within and flanking the alpha-Gal A gene. RESULTS: Twenty new mutations were identified (G43R, R49G, M72I, G138E, W236X, L243F, W245X, S247C, D266E, W287C, S297C, N355K, E358G, P409S, g1237del15, g10274insG, g10679insG, g10702delA, g11018insA, g11185-delT), each in a single family. In the remaining 20 Fabry families, 18 previously reported mutations were detected (R49P, D92N, C94Y, R112C [two families], F113S, W162X, G183D, R220X, R227X, R227Q, Q250X, R301X, R301Q, G328R, R342Q, E358K, P409A, g10208delAA [two families]). Haplotype analyses indicated that the families with the R112C or g10208delAA mutations were not related. The proband with the D266E lesion had a severe classic phenotype, having developed renal failure at 15 years. In contrast, the patient with the S247C mutation had a variant phenotype, lacking the classic manifestations and having mild renal involvement at 64 years. CONCLUSIONS: These results further define the heterogeneity of alpha-Gal A mutations causing Fabry disease, permit precise heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis in these families, and provide additional genotype/phenotype correlations in this lysosomal storage disease.
PMCID: PMC2039995  PMID: 12428061

Results 1-8 (8)