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1.  Mutations in Hedgehog pathway genes in fetal rhabdomyomas 
The Journal of pathology  2013;231(1):10.1002/path.4229.
Ligand-independent, constitutive activation of Hedgehog signalling in mice expressing a mutant, activated SmoM2 allele results in the development of multifocal, highly differentiated tumours that express myogenic markers (including desmin, actin, MyoD and myogenin). The histopathology of these tumours, commonly classified as rhabdomyosarcomas, more closely resembles human fetal rhabdomyoma (FRM), a benign tumour that can be difficult to distinguish from highly differentiated rhabdomyosarcomas. We evaluated the spectrum of Hedgehog (HH) pathway gene mutations in a cohort of human FRM tumours by targeted Illumina sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing for PTCH1. Our studies identified functionally relevant aberrations at the PTCH1 locus in three of five FRM tumours surveyed, including a PTCH1 frameshift mutation in one tumour and homozygous deletions of PTCH1 in two tumours. These data suggest that activated Hedgehog signalling contributes to the biology of human FRM.
doi:10.1002/path.4229
PMCID: PMC3875333  PMID: 23780909
fetal rhabdomyoma; hedgehog signalling; PTCH1
2.  Polymorphisms in the genes coding for iron binding and transporting proteins are associated with disability, severity, and early progression in multiple sclerosis 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:70.
Background
Iron involvement/imbalance is strongly suspected in multiple sclerosis (MS) etiopathogenesis, but its role is quite debated. Iron deposits encircle the veins in brain MS lesions, increasing local metal concentrations in brain parenchyma as documented by magnetic resonance imaging and histochemical studies. Conversely, systemic iron overload is not always observed. We explored the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the main iron homeostasis genes in MS patients.
Methods
By the pyrosequencing technique, we investigated 414 MS cases [Relapsing-remitting (RR), n=273; Progressive, n=141, of which: Secondary (SP), n=103 and Primary (PP), n=38], and 414 matched healthy controls. Five SNPs in 4 genes were assessed: hemochromatosis (HFE: C282Y, H63D), ferroportin (FPN1: -8CG), hepcidin (HEPC: -582AG), and transferrin (TF: P570S).
Results
The FPN1-8GG genotype was overrepresented in the whole MS population (OR=4.38; 95%CI, 1.89-10.1; P<0.0001) and a similar risk was found among patients with progressive forms. Conversely, the HEPC -582GG genotype was overrepresented only in progressive forms (OR=2.53; 95%CI, 1.34-4.78; P=0.006) so that SP and PP versus RR yielded significant outputs (P=0.009). For almost all SNPs, MS disability score (EDSS), severity score (MSSS), as well as progression index (PI) showed a significant increase when comparing homozygotes versus individuals carrying other genotypes: HEPC -582GG (EDSS, 4.24±2.87 vs 2.78±2.1; P=0.003; MSSS, 5.6±3.06 vs 3.79±2.6; P=0.001); FPN1-8GG (PI, 1.11±2.01 vs 0.6±1.31; P=0.01; MSSS, 5.08±2.98 vs 3.85±2.8; P=0.01); HFE 63DD (PI, 1.63±2.6 vs 0.6±0.86; P=0.009). Finally, HEPC -582G-carriers had a significantly higher chance to switch into the progressive form (HR=3.55; 1.83-6.84; log-rank P=0.00006).
Conclusions
Polymorphisms in the genes coding for iron binding and transporting proteins, in the presence of local iron overload, might be responsible for suboptimal iron handling. This might account for the significant variability peculiar to MS phenotypes, particularly affecting MS risk and progression paving the way for personalized pharmacogenetic applications in the clinical practice.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-70
PMCID: PMC3490944  PMID: 22883388
3.  Loss of insulin signaling in vascular endothelial cells accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice 
Cell metabolism  2010;11(5):379-389.
Summary
To determine whether insulin action on endothelial cells promotes or protects against atherosclerosis, we generated apolipoprotein E null mice in which the insulin receptor gene was intact or conditionally deleted in vascular endothelial cells. Insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and blood pressure were not different between the two groups, but atherosclerotic lesion size was more than 2-fold higher in mice lacking endothelial insulin signaling. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired and endothelial cell VCAM-1 expression was increased in these animals. Adhesion of mononuclear cells to endothelium in vivo was increased 4-fold compared with controls, but reduced to below control values by a VCAM-1 blocking antibody. These results provide definitive evidence that loss of insulin signaling in endothelium, in the absence of competing systemic risk factors, accelerates atherosclerosis. Therefore, improving insulin sensitivity in the endothelium of patients with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes may prevent cardiovascular complications.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.03.013
PMCID: PMC3020149  PMID: 20444418

Results 1-3 (3)