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2.  Patient accounts of diagnostic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: comparing responses to genetic and non-genetic testing methods 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:87.
Background
Continuing developments in genetic testing technology together with research revealing gene-disease associations have brought closer the potential for genetic screening of populations. A major concern, as with any screening programme, is the response of the patient to the findings of screening, whether the outcome is positive or negative. Such concern is heightened for genetic testing, which it is feared may elicit stronger reactions than non-genetic testing.
Methods
This paper draws on thematic analysis of 113 semi-structured interviews with 39 patients being tested for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), an inherited predisposition to early-onset heart disease. It examines the impact of disease risk assessments based on both genetic and non-genetic information, or solely non-genetic information.
Results
The impact of diagnostic testing did not seem to vary according to whether or not genetic information was used. More generally, being given a positive or negative diagnosis of FH had minimal discernible impact on people's lives as they maintained the continuity of their beliefs and behaviour.
Conclusions
The results suggest that concerns about the use of genetic testing in this context are unfounded, a conclusion that echoes findings from studies in this and other health contexts.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-87
PMCID: PMC3495051  PMID: 22994377
Behaviour change; Genetics; Genetic testing; Health behaviour; Risk; Qualitative
3.  Chronic Antagonism of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor Ameliorates Hypertension and End Organ Damage in a Rodent Model of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension 
We investigated the effects of chronic mineralocorticoid receptor blockade with eplerenone on the development and progression of hypertension and end organ damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Eplerenone significantly attenuated the progressive rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (204 ± 3 vs. 179±3 mmHg, p < 0.05), reduced proteinuria (605.5 ± 29.6 vs. 479.7 ± 26.1 mg/24h, p < 0.05), improved injury scores of glomeruli, tubules, renal interstitium, and vasculature in Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet. These results demonstrate that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism provides target organ protection and attenuates the development of elevated blood pressure (BP) in a model of salt-sensitive hypertension.
doi:10.3109/10641963.2011.566956
PMCID: PMC3231850  PMID: 21950654
mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; hypertension; end organ protection; eplerenone; Dahl salt-sensitive rats
4.  Disruption of Protein Arginine N-Methyltransferase 2 regulates leptin signaling and produces leanness in vivo through loss of STAT3 methylation 
Circulation research  2010;107(8):992-1001.
Rationale
Arginine methylation by protein N-arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) is an important post-translational modification in the regulation of protein signaling. PRMT2 contains a highly conserved catalytic Ado-Met binding domain, but the enzymatic function of PRMT2 with respect to methylation is unknown. The JAK-STAT pathway is proposed to be regulated through direct arginine methylation of STAT transcription factors, and STAT3 signaling is known to be required for leptin regulation of energy balance.
Objective
To identify the potential role of STAT3 arginine methylation by PRMT2 in the regulation of leptin signaling and energy homeostasis.
Methods and Results
We identified that PRMT2-/- mice are hypophagic, lean, and have significantly reduced serum leptin levels. This lean phenotype is accompanied by resistance to food-dependent obesity and an increased sensitivity to exogenous leptin administration. PRMT2 co-localizes with STAT3 in hypothalamic nuclei, where it binds and methylates STAT3 through its Ado-Met binding domain. In vitro studies further clarified that the Ado-Met binding domain of PRMT2 induces STAT3 methylation at the Arg31 residue. Absence of PRMT2 results in decreased methylation and prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation of hypothalamic STAT3, which was associated with increased expression of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin following leptin stimulation.
Conclusions
These data elucidate a molecular pathway that directly links arginine methylation of STAT3 by PRMT2 to the regulation of leptin signaling, suggesting a potential role for PRMT2 antagonism in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related syndromes.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.225326
PMCID: PMC2997704  PMID: 20798359
PRMT2; leptin; methylation; STAT3
5.  KIS protects against adverse vascular remodeling by opposing stathmin-mediated VSMC migration in mice 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2008;118(12):3848-3859.
Vascular proliferative diseases are characterized by VSMC proliferation and migration. Kinase interacting with stathmin (KIS) targets 2 key regulators of cell proliferation and migration, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 and the microtubule-destabilizing protein stathmin. Phosphorylation of p27Kip1 by KIS leads to cell-cycle progression, whereas the target sequence and the physiological relevance of KIS-mediated stathmin phosphorylation in VSMCs are unknown. Here we demonstrated that vascular wound repair in KIS–/– mice resulted in accelerated formation of neointima, which is composed predominantly of VSMCs. Deletion of KIS increased VSMC migratory activity and cytoplasmic tubulin destabilizing activity, but abolished VSMC proliferation through the delayed nuclear export and degradation of p27Kip1. This promigratory phenotype resulted from increased stathmin protein levels, caused by a lack of KIS-mediated stathmin phosphorylation at serine 38 and diminished stathmin protein degradation. Downregulation of stathmin in KIS–/– VSMCs fully restored the phenotype, and stathmin-deficient mice demonstrated reduced lesion formation in response to vascular injury. These data suggest that KIS protects against excessive neointima formation by opposing stathmin-mediated VSMC migration and that VSMC migration represents a major mechanism of vascular wound repair, constituting a relevant target and mechanism for therapeutic interventions.
doi:10.1172/JCI33206
PMCID: PMC2582439  PMID: 19033656
7.  Bone marrow–derived immune cells regulate vascular disease through a p27Kip1-dependent mechanism 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2004;114(3):419-426.
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are key regulators of cell cycle progression. Although implicated in carcinogenesis, they inhibit the proliferation of a variety of normal cell types, and their role in diverse human diseases is not fully understood. Here, we report that p27Kip1 plays a major role in cardiovascular disease through its effects on the proliferation of bone marrow–derived (BM-derived) immune cells that migrate into vascular lesions. Lesion formation after mechanical arterial injury was markedly increased in mice with homozygous deletion of p27Kip1, characterized by prominent vascular infiltration by immune and inflammatory cells. Vascular occlusion was substantially increased when BM-derived cells from p27–/– mice repopulated vascular lesions induced by mechanical injury in p27+/+ recipients, in contrast to p27+/+ BM donors. To determine the contribution of immune cells to vascular injury, transplantation was performed with BM derived from RAG–/– and RAG+/+ mice. RAG+/+ BM markedly exacerbated vascular proliferative lesions compared with what was found in RAG–/– donors. Taken together, these findings suggest that vascular repair and regeneration is regulated by the proliferation of BM-derived hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells through a p27Kip1-dependent mechanism and that immune cells largely mediate these effects.
doi:10.1172/JCI200420176
PMCID: PMC484975  PMID: 15286808

Results 1-7 (7)