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1.  Medio-Lateral Postural Instability in Subjects with Tinnitus 
Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration, and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor) and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus. Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right, and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40 cm for 51 s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40 Hz) for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx). This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx) and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusion: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory–tinnitus eye position and attention.
doi:10.3389/fneur.2011.00035
PMCID: PMC3103995  PMID: 21647364
lateral body sway; Romberg test; tinnitus; gaze position
2.  Central Crosstalk for Somatic Tinnitus: Abnormal Vergence Eye Movements 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(7):e11845.
Background
Frequent oulomotricity problems with orthoptic testing were reported in patients with tinnitus. This study examines with objective recordings vergence eye movements in patients with somatic tinnitus patients with ability to modify their subjective tinnitus percept by various movements, such as jaw, neck, eye movements or skin pressure.
Methods
Vergence eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II video system in 15 (23–63 years) control adults and 19 (36–62 years) subjects with somatic tinnitus.
Findings
1) Accuracy of divergence but not of convergence was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 2) Vergence duration was longer and peak velocity was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 3) The number of embedded saccades and the amplitude of saccades coinciding with the peak velocity of vergence were higher for tinnitus subjects. Yet, saccades did not increase peak velocity of vergence for tinnitus subjects, but they did so for controls. 4) In contrast, there was no significant difference of vergence latency between these two groups.
Interpretation
The results suggest dysfunction of vergence areas involving cortical-brainstem-cerebellar circuits. We hypothesize that central auditory dysfunction related to tinnitus percept could trigger mild cerebellar-brainstem dysfunction or that tinnitus and vergence dysfunction could both be manifestations of mild cortical-brainstem-cerebellar syndrome reflecting abnormal cross-modality interactions between vergence eye movements and auditory signals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011845
PMCID: PMC2911381  PMID: 20676372
3.  Screening for Staphylococcal Superantigen Genes Shows No Correlation with the Presence or the Severity of Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyposis 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(3):e9525.
Background
Staphylococcus aureus secretes numerous exotoxins which may exhibit superantigenic properties. Whereas the virulence of several of them is well documented, their exact biological effects are not fully understood. Exotoxins may influence the immune and inflammatory state of various organs, including the sinonasal mucosa: their possible involvement in chronic rhinosinusitis has been suggested and is one of the main trends in current research. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of any of the 22 currently known staphylococcal exotoxin genes could be correlated with chronic rhinosinusitis.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We conducted a prospective, multi-centred European study, analysing 93 Staphylococcus aureus positive swabs taken from the middle meatus of patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis, with or without nasal polyposis, and controls. Strains were systematically tested for the presence of the 22 currently known exotoxin genes and genotyped according to their agr groups. No direct correlation was observed between chronic rhinosinusitis, with or without nasal polyposis, and either agr groups or the presence of the most studied exotoxins genes (egc, sea, seb, pvl, exfoliatins or tsst-1). However, genes for enterotoxins P and Q were frequently observed in nasal polyposis for the first time, but absent in the control group. The number of exotoxin genes detected was not statistically different among the 3 patient groups.
Conclusions/Significance
Unlike many previous studies have been suggesting, we did not find any evident correlation between staphylococcal exotoxin genes and the presence or severity of chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyposis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009525
PMCID: PMC2832699  PMID: 20221434
5.  Patients affected with Fabry disease have an increased incidence of progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness: an investigation of twenty-two hemizygous male patients 
BMC Medical Genetics  2002;3:10.
Background
Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to the deficient activity of alpha-galactosidase A, a lysosomal enzyme. While the progressive systemic deposition of uncleaved glycosphingolipids throughout the body is known to have protean clinical manifestations, few data are available regarding the cochlear involvement.
Methods
We non-invasively investigated cochlear functions in 22 consecutive hemizygous males (age 19–64 years, mean 39) affected with classic FD. Conventional audiometry, tympanometry, ABR audiometry, otoacoustic emissions were performed in all patients, together with medical history record and physical examination as part of an exhaustive baseline evaluation prior to enzyme replacement therapy.
Results
A total of 12 patients (54.5%) with classic FD were found to have abnormal audition. Five patients had progressive hearing loss and seven patients (32%) experienced sudden deafness. In addition, a hearing loss on high-tone frequencies was found in 7 out of the 10 remaining patients without clinical impairment, despite their young age at time of examination. The incidence of hearing loss appeared significantly increased in FD patients with kidney failure (P < 0.01) or cerebrovascular lesions (P < 0.01), whereas there was no correlation with left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, tinnitus aurium was also found in six patients (27%).
Conclusion
This is the first evidence of a high incidence of both progressive hearing loss and sudden deafness in a cohort of male patients affected with classic Fabry disease. The exact pathophysiologic mechanism(s) of the cochlear involvement deserves further studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-3-10
PMCID: PMC134464  PMID: 12377100

Results 1-5 (5)