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author:("Aziz, monomer")
1.  Human Ghrelin Mitigates Intestinal Injury and Mortality after Whole Body Irradiation in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0118213.
Widespread use of ionizing radiation has led to the realization of the danger associated with radiation exposure. Although studies in radiation countermeasures were initiated a half century ago, an effective therapy for a radiomitigator has not been identified. Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone, and administration of ghrelin is protective in animal models of injuries including radiation combined injury. To test whether ghrelin can be protective in whole body irradiaton (WBI) alone, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with human ghrelin (20 nmol/rat) daily for 6 days starting at either 24 h or 48 h after 10 Gray (Gy) WBI and survival outcome was examined. The 10 Gy WBI produced a LD70/30 model in SD rats (30% survival in 30 days). The survival rate in rats treated with ghrelin starting at 24 h was significantly improved to 63% and when treatment was initiated at 48 h, the survival remained at 61%. At 7 days post WBI, plasma ghrelin was significantly reduced from the control value. Ghrelin treatment starting at 24 h after WBI daily for 6 days improved histological appearance of the intestine, reduced gut permeability, serum endotoxin levels and bacterial translocation to the liver by 38%, 42% and 61%, respectively at day 7 post WBI. Serum glucose and albumin were restored to near control levels with treatment. Ghrelin treatment also attenuated WBI-induced intestinal apoptosis by 62% as evidenced by TUNEL staining. The expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-xl was decreased by 38% in the vehicle and restored to 75% of the control with ghrelin treatment. Increased expression of intestinal CD73 and pAkt were observed with ghrelin treatment, indicating protection of the intestinal epithelium after WBI. These results indicate that human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI. Thus, human ghrelin can be developed as a novel mitigator for radiation injury.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118213
PMCID: PMC4325005  PMID: 25671547
2.  Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor VIII Ameliorates Liver Injury after Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion 
The Journal of surgical research  2012;180(1):e37-e46.
Background
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious clinical complication that may compromise liver function because of extensive hepatocyte loss. Therefore, the development of novel and effective therapies for hepatic I/R is critical for the improvement of patient outcome. It has been previously shown that administration of milk fat globule-EGF factor VIII (MFG-E8), a membrane-associated secretory glycoprotein, exerts significant beneficial effects under acute inflammatory conditions through multiple physiological processes associated with tissue remodeling.
Methods
To determine whether administration of recombinant human (rh) MFG-E8 attenuates liver injury in an animal model of hepatic I/R. Male adult rats were subjected to 70% hepatic ischemia for 90 min, followed by reperfusion. At the beginning of reperfusion, rats were treated intravenously with normal saline (Vehicle) or rhMFG-E8 (160 μg/kg) over a period of 30 min. MFG-E8 levels and various measurements were assessed 4 h after reperfusion. In addition, survival study was conducted in MFG-E8−/− and rhMFG-E8-treated wild-type (WT) mice using a total hepatic ischemia model.
Results
Liver and plasma MFG-E8 protein levels were significantly decreased after hepatic I/R. Administration of rhMFG-E8 significantly improved liver injury, suppressed apoptosis, attenuated inflammation and oxidative stress, and down-regulated NF-κB pathway. We also noticed that rhMFG-E8 treatment restored the down-regulated PPARγ expression after hepatic I/R. MFG-E8−/− mice showed deterioration on survival and, in contrast, rhMFG-E8-treated WT mice showed a significant improvement of survival compared with vehicle-treated WT mice.
Conclusions
MFG-E8-mediated multiple physiological events may represent an effective therapeutic option in tissue injury following an episode of hepatic I/R.
doi:10.1016/j.jss.2012.03.021
PMCID: PMC3401639  PMID: 22487387
MFG-E8; hepatic ischemia-reperfusion; inflammation; apoptosis; NF-κB; PPARγ
3.  Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitor C75 Ameliorates Experimental Colitis 
Molecular Medicine  2013;20(1):1-9.
Abnormalities of lipid metabolism through overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), which catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids, are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C75 is a synthetic α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone compound that inhibits FASN activity. We hypothesized that C75 treatment could effectively reduce the severity of experimental colitis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 d. C75 (5 mg/kg body weight) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (vehicle) was administered intraperitoneally from d 2 to 6. Clinical parameters were monitored daily. Mice were euthanized on d 8 for histological evaluation and measurements of colon length, chemokine, cytokine and inflammatory mediator expression. C75 significantly reduced body weight loss from 23% to 15% on d 8, compared with the vehicle group. The fecal bleeding, diarrhea and colon histological damage scores in the C75-treated group were significantly lower than scores in the vehicle animals. Colon shortening was significantly improved after C75 treatment. C75 protected colon tissues from DSS-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activity. Macrophage inflammatory protein 2, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, myeloperoxidase activity and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6) in the colon were significantly downregulated in the C75-treated group, compared with the vehicle group. Treatment with C75 in colitis mice inhibited the elevation of FASN, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression as well as IκB degradation in colon tissues. C75 administration alleviates the severity of colon damage and inhibits the activation of inflammatory pathways in DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inhibition of FASN may represent an attractive therapeutic potential for treating IBD.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2013.00113
PMCID: PMC3912252  PMID: 24306512
4.  Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8 Attenuates Neutrophil Infiltration in Acute Lung Injury via Modulation of CXCR2 
Excessive neutrophil infiltration to the lungs is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI). Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) was originally identified for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Subsequent studies revealed its diverse cellular functions. However, whether MFG-E8 can regulate neutrophil function to alleviate inflammation is unknown. We therefore aimed to reveal MFG-E8 roles in regulating lung neutrophil infiltration during ALI. To induce ALI, C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and Mfge8−/− mice were intra-tracheally injected with LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissue damage was assessed by histology and the neutrophils were counted by a hemacytometer. Apoptotic cells in lungs were determined by TUNEL, while caspase-3 and MPO activities were assessed spectrophotometrically. CXCR2 and GRK2 expressions in neutrophils were measured by flow cytometry. Following LPS challenge, Mfge8−/− mice exhibited extensive lung damage due to exaggerated infiltration of neutrophils and production of TNF-α, MIP-2 and MPO. Increased number of apoptotic cells was trapped into the lungs ofMfge8−/− mice than WT mice, which may be due to insufficient phagocytosis of apoptotic cells or increased occurrence of apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3. In vitro studies using MIP-2 mediated chemotaxis, revealed higher migration of neutrophils of Mfge8−/− mice than WT mice via increased surface exposures to CXCR2. Administration of recombinant mouse (rm)MFG-E8 reduces neutrophil migration through up-regulation of GRK2, and down-regulation of surface CXCR2 expression. Conversely, these effects could be blocked by anti-αv-integrin antibodies. These studies clearly indicate the importance of MFG-E8 in ameliorating neutrophil infiltration and suggest MFG-E8 as a novel therapeutic potential for ALI.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1200262
PMCID: PMC3382007  PMID: 22634615
MFG-E8; Neutrophil; LPS; MIP-2; CXCR2; GRK2; αvβ3-integrin
5.  Cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate attenuates acute lung injury in mice after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion 
Critical Care  2013;17(1):R19.
Introduction
Intestinal ischemia is a critical problem resulting in multiple organ failure and high mortality of 60 to 80%. Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries and contributes to the high mortality rate. Moreover, activated neutrophil infiltration into the lungs is known to play a significant role in the progression of ALI. Integrin-mediated interaction is involved in neutrophil transmigration. Synthetic peptides containing an arginine-glycine-aspartate sequence compete with adhesive proteins and inhibit integrin-mediated interaction and signaling. Thus, we hypothesized that the administration of a cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate peptide (cRGD) inhibited neutrophil infiltration and provided protection against ALI induced by intestinal I/R.
Methods
Ischemia in adult male C57BL/6 mice was induced by fastening the superior mesenteric artery with 4-0 suture. Forty-five minutes later, the vascular suture was released to allow reperfusion. cRGD (5 mg/kg body weight) or normal saline (vehicle) was administered by intraperitoneal injection 1 hour prior to ischemia. Blood, gut, and lung tissues were collected 4 hours after reperfusion for various measurements.
Results
Intestinal I/R caused severe widespread injury to the gut and lungs. Treatment with cRGD improved the integrity of microscopic structures in the gut and lungs, as judged by histological examination. Intestinal I/R induced the expression of β1, β2 and β3 integrins, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and fibronectin. cRGD significantly inhibited myeloperoxidase activity in the gut and lungs, as well as neutrophils and macrophages infiltrating the lungs. cRGD reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum, in addition to IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in the gut and lungs. Furthermore, the number of TUNEL-staining cells and levels of cleaved caspase-3 in the lungs were significantly lowered in the cRGD-treated mice in comparison with the vehicle mice.
Conclusions
Treatment with cRGD effectively protected ALI and gut injury, lowered neutrophil infiltration, suppressed inflammation, and inhibited lung apoptosis after intestinal I/R. Thus, there is potential for developing cRGD as a treatment for patients suffering from ALI caused by intestinal I/R.
doi:10.1186/cc12493
PMCID: PMC4057497  PMID: 23360591
6.  Association between insertion/deletion polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:76.
Background
A previous meta-analysis reported a positive association between an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) and the risk of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we updated this meta-analysis and additionally assessed the association of this polymorphism with ALI/ARDS mortality.
Methods
We searched electronic databases through October 2011 for the terms “angiotensin-converting enzyme gene”, “acute lung injury”, and “acute respiratory distress syndrome,” and reviewed all studies that reported the relationship of the I/D polymorphism in ACE with ALI/ARDS in humans. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 532 ALI/ARDS patients, 3032 healthy controls, and 1432 patients without ALI/ARDS. We used three genetic models: the allele, dominant, and recessive models.
Results
The ACE I/D polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to ALI/ARDS for any genetic model. However, the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with the mortality risk of ALI/ARDS in Asian subjects ( Pallele < 0.0001, Pdominant = 0.001, Precessive = 0.002). This finding remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons.
Conclusions
There is a possible association between the ACE I/D polymorphism genotype and the mortality risk of ALI/ARDS in Asians.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-76
PMCID: PMC3459791  PMID: 22938636
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene; Acute lung injury (ALI); Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); Meta-analysis
7.  Pre-Treatment of Recombinant Mouse MFG-E8 Downregulates LPS-Induced TNF-α Production in Macrophages via STAT3-Mediated SOCS3 Activation 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27685.
Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor factor 8 (MFG-E8) regulates innate immune function by modulating cellular signaling, which is less understood. Herein, we aimed to investigate the direct anti-inflammatory role of MFG-E8 in macrophages by pre-treatment with recombinant murine MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) followed by stimulation with LPS in RAW264.7 cells and in peritoneal macrophages, isolated from wild-type (WT) or MFG-E8−/− mice. RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages treated with rmMFG-E8 significantly downregulated LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA by 25% and 24%, and protein levels by 29% and 23%, respectively (P<0.05). Conversely, peritoneal macrophages isolated from MFG-E8−/− mice produced 28% higher levels of TNF-α, as compared to WT mice when treated with LPS. In in vivo, endotoxemia induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg BW), at 4 h after induction, serum level of TNF-α was significantly higher in MFG-E8−/− mice (837 pg/mL) than that of WT (570 pg/mL, P<0.05). To elucidate the direct anti-inflammatory effect of MFG-E8, we examined STAT3 and its target gene, SOCS3. Treatment with rmMGF-E8 significantly induced pSTAT3 and SOCS3 in macrophages. Similar results were observed in in vivo treatment of rmMFG-E8 in peritoneal cells and splenic tissues. Pre-treatment with rmMFG-E8 significantly reduced LPS-induced NF-κB p65 contents. These data clearly indicated that rmMFG-E8 upregulated SOCS3 which in turn interacted with NF-κB p65, facilitating negative regulation of TLR4 signaling for LPS-induced TNF-α production. Our findings strongly suggest that MFG-E8 is a direct anti-inflammatory molecule, and that it could be developed as a therapy in attenuating inflammation and tissue injury.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027685
PMCID: PMC3217009  PMID: 22114683

Results 1-7 (7)