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1.  Expression of Acetylcholine Receptors by Experimental Rat Renal Allografts 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:289656.
Chronic allograft injury (CAI) is a major cause for renal allograft dysfunction and characterized by vasculopathies, tubular atrophy, and fibrosis. We demonstrated that numerous leukocytes interact with vascular endothelial cells of allografts and produce acetylcholine, which contributes to vascular remodeling. The cholinergic system might be a promising target for the development of novel therapies. However, neither the cellular mechanisms nor the acetylcholine receptors involved in CAI are known. Kidney transplantation was performed in the Lewis to Lewis and in the Fischer-334 to Lewis rat strain combination, which is an established experimental model for CAI. Expression of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mRNA was quantified in renal tissue by real-time RT-PCR on days 9 and 42 after surgery. We detected CHRNA2–7, CHRNA10, CHRNB2, CHRNB4, and CHRM1–3 mRNA in normal kidneys and in renal transplants. In contrast, CHRNA9, CHRM4, and CHRM5 mRNA remained below the threshold of detection. In renal allografts, CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 mRNA expression were dramatically reduced compared to isografts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that most acetylcholine receptor subtypes are expressed by normal and transplanted kidneys. Allograft rejection downmodulates CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 mRNA. The role of different acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the development of CAI remains to be established.
doi:10.1155/2014/289656
PMCID: PMC4119892  PMID: 25121092
2.  Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:96.
Background
Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is late-onset kidney disease thought to arise from chronic exposure to aristolochic acid, a phytotoxin that contaminates wheat supplies in rural areas of Eastern Europe. It has recently been demonstrated that humans are capable of perceiving aristolochic acid at concentrations below 40 nM as the result of high-affinity interactions with the TAS2R43 bitter taste receptor. Further, TAS2R43 harbors high-frequency loss-of-function mutations resulting in 50-fold variability in perception. This suggests that genetic variation in TAS2R43 might affect susceptibility to BEN, with individuals carrying functional forms of the receptor being protected by an ability to detect tainted foods.
Methods
To determine whether genetic variation in TAS2R43 predicts BEN susceptibility, we examined genotype-phenotype associations in a case–control study. A cohort of 88 affected and 99 control subjects from western Bulgaria were genotyped with respect to two key missense variants and a polymorphic whole-gene deletion of TAS2R43 (W35S, H212R, and wt/Δ), which are known to affect taste sensitivity to aristolochic acid. Tests for association between haplotypes and BEN status were then performed.
Results
Three major TAS2R43 haplotypes observed in previous studies (TAS2R43-W35/H212, -S35/R212 and –Δ) were present at high frequencies (0.17, 0.36, and 0.47 respectively) in our sample, and a significant association between genotype and BEN status was present (P = 0.020; odds ratio 1.18). However, contrary to expectation, BEN was positively associated with TAS2R43-W35/H212, a highly responsive allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which should drive aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation.
Conclusions
Our findings are at strong odds with the prediction that carriers of functional alleles of TAS2R43 are protected from BEN by an ability to detect and avoid aristolochic acid exposure. Evidence for a positive association between high-sensitivity alleles and BEN status suggests instead that possession of toxin-responsive receptor variants may paradoxically increase vulnerability, possibly by shifting attractive responses associated with low-intensity bitter sensations. The broad-spectrum tuning of the ~25-member TAS2R family as a whole toward xenobiotics points to a potentially far-reaching relevance of bitter responses to exposure-related disease in both individuals and populations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-96
PMCID: PMC3495054  PMID: 23050764
3.  Development of the first marmoset-specific DNA microarray (EUMAMA): a new genetic tool for large-scale expression profiling in a non-human primate 
BMC Genomics  2007;8:190.
Background
The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus), a small non-endangered New World primate native to eastern Brazil, is becoming increasingly used as a non-human primate model in biomedical research, drug development and safety assessment. In contrast to the growing interest for the marmoset as an animal model, the molecular tools for genetic analysis are extremely limited.
Results
Here we report the development of the first marmoset-specific oligonucleotide microarray (EUMAMA) containing probe sets targeting 1541 different marmoset transcripts expressed in hippocampus. These 1541 transcripts represent a wide variety of different functional gene classes. Hybridisation of the marmoset microarray with labelled RNA from hippocampus, cortex and a panel of 7 different peripheral tissues resulted in high detection rates of 85% in the neuronal tissues and on average 70% in the non-neuronal tissues. The expression profiles of the 2 neuronal tissues, hippocampus and cortex, were highly similar, as indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.96. Several transcripts with a tissue-specific pattern of expression were identified. Besides the marmoset microarray we have generated 3215 ESTs derived from marmoset hippocampus, which have been annotated and submitted to GenBank [GenBank: EF214838 – EF215447, EH380242 – EH382846].
Conclusion
We have generated the first marmoset-specific DNA microarray and demonstrated its use to characterise large-scale gene expression profiles of hippocampus but also of other neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. In addition, we have generated a large collection of ESTs of marmoset origin, which are now available in the public domain. These new tools will facilitate molecular genetic research into this non-human primate animal model.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-190
PMCID: PMC1929077  PMID: 17592630

Results 1-3 (3)