Background & Aims
Celiac disease is an increasingly recognized disorder in Caucasian populations of European origin. Little is known about its prevalence in non-Caucasians. Although it is thought to be a cause of iron deficiency anemia, little is known about the extent to which celiac disease contributes to iron deficiency in Caucasians, and especially non-Caucasians. We analyzed samples collected from participants in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) study to identify individuals with iron deficiency and assess the frequency of celiac disease.
We analyzed serum samples from white men (25 y old or older) and women (50 y old or older) who participated the HEIRS study; cases were defined as individuals with iron deficiency (serum level of ferritin ≤12 mg/L) and controls were those without (serum level of ferritin >100 mg/L in men and >50 mg/L in women). All samples were also analyzed for human recombinant tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A; positive results were confirmed by an assay for endomysial antibodies. Patients with positive results from both celiac disease tests were presumed to have untreated celiac disease, and those with a positive result from only 1 test were excluded from analysis. We analyzed HLA genotypes and frequencies of celiac disease between Caucasians and non-Caucasians with iron deficiency.
Celiac disease occurred in 14 of 567 of cases (2.5%) and in only 1 of 1136 controls (0.1%; Fisher’s exact test, P=1.92 × 10−6). Celiac disease was more common in Caucasian cases (14/363, 4%) than non-Caucasian cases (0/204; P=.003). Only 1 Caucasian control and no non-Caucasian controls had celiac disease. The odds of celiac disease in individuals with iron deficiency was 28-fold (95% confidence interval, 3.7–212.8) that of controls; 13/14 cases with celiac disease carried the DQ2.5 variant of the HLA genotype.
Celiac disease is associated with iron deficiency of Caucasians. Celiac disease is rare among non-Caucasians—even among individuals with features of celiac disease, such as iron deficiency. Celiac disease is also rare among individuals without iron deficiency. Men and post-menopausal women with iron deficiency should be tested for celiac disease.
SNP; risk factor; gluten allergy; intestine; absorption
Background & Aims
Little is known about differences in the prevalence of severe iron overload at death in whites and blacks. We evaluated data and samples from 16,152 autopsies (8,484 whites, 7,668 blacks) performed at a single university hospital.
Cases of severe, multi-organ iron overload were identified by review of autopsy protocols and Perls-stained tissue specimens, analysis of hepatocyte and Kupffer cell iron levels, and measurement of liver tissue iron concentrations.
We analyzed autopsy data from 10,345 adults (age ≥ 21 y), 1,337 children (1–20 y), and 4,470 infants (<1y). Iron overload without reports of excessive exogenous iron was observed in 18 adults; the prevalence in whites and blacks was 0.0019 and 0.0015, respectively (p = 0.6494). Twenty-nine adults and 2 children had iron overload with reports of excessive exogenous iron. In adults, the prevalences of iron overload with reports of excessive exogenous iron in whites and blacks were 0.0040 and 0.0013, respectively (p = 0.0107). Among adults, the prevalence of cirrhosis was 6-fold greater in those with iron overload. In adults with severe iron overload, 67% without reports of excessive exogenous iron and 14% with reports of excessive exogenous iron died of hepatic failure or cardiomyopathy due to siderosis. The overall prevalence of deaths due to severe iron overload in whites and blacks was 0.0021 and 0.0009, respectively (p = 0.0842).
The prevalence of severe iron overload without reports of excessive exogenous iron did not differ significantly between whites and blacks. The prevalence of iron overload with reports of excessive exogenous iron was greater in whites. Hepatic failure and cardiomyopathy were common causes of death in severe iron overload cases.
African Americans; hemochromatosis; cirrhosis
Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) is a recessively inherited disorder of iron overload occurring commonly in subjects homozygous for the C282Y mutation in HFE gene localized on chromosome 6p21.3 in linkage disequilibrium with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A locus. Although its genetic homogeneity, the phenotypic expression is variable suggesting the presence of modifying factors. One such genetic factor, a SNP microhaplotype named A-A-T, was recently found to be associated with a more severe phenotype and also with low CD8+T-lymphocyte numbers. The present study aimed to test whether the predictive value of the A-A-T microhaplotype remained in other population settings. In this study of 304 HH patients from 3 geographically distant populations (Porto, Portugal 65; Alabama, USA 57; Nord-Trøndelag, Norway 182), the extended haplotypes involving A-A-T were studied in 608 chromosomes and the CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers were determined in all subjects. Patients from Porto had a more severe phenotype than those from other settings. Patients with A-A-T seemed on average to have greater iron stores (p = 0.021), but significant differences were not confirmed in the 3 separate populations. Low CD8+ T-lymphocytes were associated with HLA-A*03-A-A-T in Porto and Alabama patients but not in the greater series from Nord-Trøndelag. Although A-A-T may signal a more severe iron phenotype, this study was unable to prove such an association in all population settings, precluding its use as a universal predictive marker of iron overload in HH. Interestingly, the association between A-A-T and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, which was confirmed in Porto and Alabama patients, was not observed in Nord-Trøndelag patients, showing that common HLA haplotypes like A*01–B*08 or A*03–B*07 segregating with HFE/C282Y in the three populations may carry different messages. These findings further strengthen the relevance of HH as a good disease model to search for novel candidate loci associated with the genetic transmission of CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers.
We sought to determine if TNF promoter variants could explain iron phenotype heterogeneity in adults with previous HFE genotyping. HEIRS Study participants genotyped for C282Y and H63D were designated as high transferrin saturation (TS) and/or serum ferritin (SF) (high TS/SF), low TS/SF, or controls. We grouped 191 C282Y homozygotes as high TS/SF, low TS/SF, or controls, and 594 other participants by race/ethnicity as high TS/SF or controls. Using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), we screened the TNF promoter region in each participant. We performed multiple regression analyses in C282Y homozygotes using age, sex, HEIRS Study Field Center, and positivity for TNF −308G→A and −238G→A to determine if these attributes predicted ln TS or ln SF. DHPLC analyses were successful in 99.3% of 791 participants and detected 9 different variants; TNF −308G→A and −238G→A were the most prevalent. Most subjects positive for variants were heterozygous. The phenotype frequencies of each variant did not differ significantly (p <0.05) across subgroups of C282Y homozygotes, or across white, black, Hispanic, and Asian non-C282Y homozygotes subgrouped as high TS/SF phenotypes and controls. TNF −308G→A positivity was a significant predictor of initial screening ln TS but not ln SF; TNF −238G→A predicted neither ln TS nor ln SF. We conclude that TNF promoter variants have little, if any, effect on initial screening SF values in adults with or without C282Y homozygosity. We cannot exclude a possible association of homozygosity for TNF promoter variants on TS and SF values.
iron; iron overload; hemochromatosis; phenotype; tumor necrosis factor
Heritability is the proportion of observed variation in a trait among individuals in a population that is attributable to hereditary factors. The HEIRS Family Study estimated heritability of serum iron measures. Probands were HFE C282Y homozygotes or non-C282Y homozygotes with elevated transferrin saturation (TS > 50%, men; TS > 45%, women) and serum ferritin concentration (SF > 300 μg/L, men; SF > 200 μg/L, women). Heritability (h2) was estimated by variance component analysis of TS, natural logarithm (ln) of SF, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). Participants (N=942) were 77% Caucasians, 10% Asians, 8% Hispanics, and 5% other race/ethnicities. Average age (SD) was 49 (16) y; 57% were female. For HFE C282Y homozygote probands and their family members, excluding variation due to HFE C282Y and H63D genotype and measured demographic and environmental factors, the residual h2 (SE) was 0.21 (0.07) for TS, 0.37 (0.08) for ln SF, and 0.34 (0.08) for UIBC (all P < 0.0004 for comparisons with zero). For the non-C282Y homozygote proband group, residual h2 was significant with a value of 0.64 (0.26) for ln SF (p=0.0096). In conclusion, serum iron measures have significant heritability components, after excluding known genetic and non-genetic sources of variation.
HFE; familial aggregation; transferrin saturation; serum ferritin concentration
Bivariate mixture modeling was used to analyze joint population distributions of transferrin saturation (TS) and serum ferritin concentration (SF) measured in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study. Four components (C1, C2, C3, and C4) with successively age-adjusted increasing means for TS and SF were identified in data from 26,832 African Americans, 12,620 Asians, 12,264 Hispanics, and 43,254 whites. The largest component, C2, had normal mean TS (21% to 26% for women, 29% to 30% for men) and SF (43–82 μg/L for women, 165–242 μg/L for men), which consisted of component proportions greater than 0.59 for women and greater than 0.68 for men. C3 and C4 had progressively greater mean values for TS and SF with progressively lesser component proportions. C1 had mean TS values less than 16% for women (<20% for men) and SF values less than 28 μg/L for women (<47 μg/L for men). Compared with C2, adjusted odds of iron deficiency were significantly greater in C1 (14.9–47.5 for women, 60.6–3530 for men), adjusted odds of liver disease were significantly greater in C3 and C4 for African-American women and all men, and adjusted odds of any HFE mutation were increased in C3 (1.4–1.8 for women, 1.2–1.9 for men) and in C4 for Hispanic and white women (1.5 and 5.2, respectively) and men (2.8 and 4.7, respectively). Joint mixture modeling identifies a component with lesser SF and TS at risk for iron deficiency and 2 components with greater SF and TS at risk for liver disease or HFE mutations. This approach can identify populations in which hereditary or acquired factors influence metabolism measurement.
Background & Aims
The aim of this study was to assess the analytic validity of self-reported family history of hemochromatosis or iron overload.
A total of 141 probands, 549 family members, and 641 controls participated in the primary care Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study. Participants received a postscreening clinical examination and completed questionnaires about personal and family histories of hemochromatosis or iron overload, arthritis, diabetes, liver disease, and heart disease. We evaluated sensitivities and specificities of proband-reported family history, and concordance of HFE genotype C282Y/C282Y in probands and siblings who reported having hemochromatosis or iron overload.
The sensitivities of proband-reported family history ranged from 81.4% for hemochromatosis or iron overload to 18.4% for liver disease; specificities for diabetes, liver disease, and heart disease were greater than 94%. Hemochromatosis or iron overload was associated with a positive family history across all racial/ethnic groups in the study (odds ratio, 14.53; 95% confidence intervals, 7.41–28.49; P < .0001) and among Caucasians (odds ratio, 16.98; 95% confidence intervals, 7.53–38.32; P < .0001). There was 100% concordance of HFE genotype C282Y/C282Y in 6 probands and 8 of their siblings who reported having hemochromatosis or iron overload.
Self-reported family history of hemochromatosis or iron overload can be used to identify individuals whose risk of hemochromatosis or iron overload and associated conditions is increased. These individuals could benefit from further evaluation with iron phenotyping and HFE mutation analysis.
There are few descriptions of young adults with self-reported hemochromatosis or iron overload (H/IO). We analyzed initial screening data in 7,343 HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study participants ages 25–29 years, including race/ethnicity and health information; transferrin saturation (TS) and ferritin (SF) measurements; and HFE C282Y and H63D genotypes. We used denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography and sequencing to detect mutations in HJV, TFR2, HAMP, SLC40A1, and FTL. Fifty-one participants reported previous H/IO; 23 (45%) reported medical conditions associated with H/IO. Prevalences of reports of arthritis, diabetes, liver disease or liver cancer, heart failure, fertility problems or impotence, and blood relatives with H/IO were significantly greater in participants with previous H/IO reports than in those without. Only 7.8% of the 51 participants with previous H/IO reports had elevated TS; 13.7% had elevated SF. Only one participant had C282Y homozygosity. Three participants aged 25–29 years were heterozygous for potentially deleterious mutations in HFE2, TFR2, and HAMP promoter, respectively. Prevalences of self-reported conditions, screening iron phenotypes, and C282Y homozygosity were similar in 1,165 participants aged 30 years or greater who reported previous H/IO. We conclude that persons who report previous H/IO diagnoses in screening programs are unlikely to have H/IO phenotypes or genotypes. Previous H/IO reports in some participants could be explained by treatment that induced iron depletion before initial screening, misdiagnosis, or participant misunderstanding of their physician or the initial screening questionnaire.
How often elevated serum ferritin in primary-care patients reflects increased iron stores (normally 0.8 g in men, 0.4 g in women) is not known. The Hereditary Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) study screened 101,168 primary-care participants (44% Caucasians, 27% African-Americans, 14% Asians/Pacific Islanders, 13% Hispanics, 2% others). Follow-up clinical evaluation was performed in 302 of 333 HFE C282Y homozygotes regardless of iron measures and 1,375 of 1,920 nonhomozygotes with serum ferritin >300 μg/L (men), >200 μg/L (women) and transferrin saturation >50% (men), >45% (women). Quantitative phlebotomy was conducted in 122 of 175 C282Y homozygotes and 122 of 1,102 nonhomozygotes with non-transfusional serum ferritin elevation at evaluation. The estimated prevalence in the Caucasian population of C282Y homozygotes with serum ferritin >900 μg/L at evaluation was 20 per 10,000 men and 4 per 10,000 women; this constellation was predictive of iron stores >4 g in men and >2 g in women. The estimated prevalence per 10,000 of non-C282Y homozygotes with serum ferritin >900 μg/L at evaluation was 7 among Caucasians, 13 among Hispanics, 20 among African Americans, and 38 among Asians and Pacific Islanders, and this constellation was predictive of iron stores >2 g but <4 g. In conclusion, serum ferritin >900 μg/L after initial elevations of both serum ferritin and transferrin saturation is predictive of mildly increased iron stores in multiple ethnic populations regardless of HFE genotype. Serum ferritin >900 μg/L in male C282Y homozygotes is predictive of moderately increased iron stores.
The ferroportin (FPN1) Q248H polymorphism has been associated with increased serum ferritin (SF) levels in sub-Saharan Africans and in African Americans (AA). AA participants of the HEIRS Study who did not have HFE C282Y or H63D who had elevated initial screening SF (≥300 μg/L in men and ≥200 μg/L in women) (defined as cases) were frequency-matched to AA participants with normal SF (defined as controls) to investigate the association of the Q248H with elevated SF. 10.4% of cases and 6.7% of controls were Q248H heterozygotes (P = 0.257). Q248H homozygosity was observed in 0.5% of the cases and none of the controls. The frequency of Q248H was higher among men with elevated SF than among control men (P = 0.047); corresponding differences were not observed among women. This appeared to be unrelated to self-reports of a previous diagnosis of liver disease. Men with elevated SF were three times more likely than women with elevated SF to have Q248H (P = 0.012). There were no significant differences in Q248H frequencies in men and women control participants. We conclude that the frequency of the FPN1 Q248H polymorphism is greater in AA men with elevated SF than in those with normal SF.
genetics; mutation; transferrin saturation
HFEC282Y homozygotes have an increased risk for developing increased iron stores and related disorders. It is controversial whether dietary iron restrictions should be recommended to such individuals.
To determine whether dietary iron content influences iron stores in HFEC282Y homozygotes as assessed by serum ferritin concentration.
Serum ferritin concentration was measured and a dietary iron questionnaire was completed as part of the evaluation of 213 HFEC282Y homozygotes who were identified through screening of >100,000 primary care patients at five HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study Field Centers in the United States and Canada.
No significant relationships between serum ferritin concentration and dietary heme iron content, dietary nonheme iron content or reports of supplemental iron use were found.
These results do not support recommending dietary heme or nonheme iron restrictions for HFEC282Y homozygotes diagnosed through screening in North America.
Haemochromatosis; Hemochromatosis; Iron overload; Iron supplementation
The existence of multiple inherited disorders of iron metabolism suggests genetic contributions to iron deficiency. We previously performed a genome-wide association study of iron-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using DNA from white men aged ≥25 y and women ≥50 y in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study with serum ferritin (SF) ≤12 µg/L (cases) and controls (SF >100 µg/L in men, SF >50 µg/L in women). We report a follow-up study of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian HEIRS participants, analyzed for association between SNPs and eight iron-related outcomes. Three chromosomal regions showed association across multiple populations, including SNPs in the TF and TMPRSS6 genes, and on chromosome 18q21. A novel SNP rs1421312 in TMPRSS6 was associated with serum iron in whites (p = 3.7×10−6) and replicated in African Americans (p = 0.0012).Twenty SNPs in the TF gene region were associated with total iron-binding capacity in whites (p<4.4×10−5); six SNPs replicated in other ethnicities (p<0.01). SNP rs10904850 in the CUBN gene on 10p13 was associated with serum iron in African Americans (P = 1.0×10−5). These results confirm known associations with iron measures and give unique evidence of their role in different ethnicities, suggesting origins in a common founder.
The existence of multiple inherited disorders of iron metabolism in man, rodents and other vertebrates suggests genetic contributions to iron deficiency. To identify new genomic locations associated with iron deficiency, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using DNA collected from white men aged ≥25 y and women ≥50 y in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study with serum ferritin (SF) ≤ 12 µg/L (cases) and iron replete controls (SF>100 µg/L in men, SF>50 µg/L in women). Regression analysis was used to examine the association between case-control status (336 cases, 343 controls) and quantitative serum iron measures and 331,060 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes, with replication analyses performed in a sample of 71 cases and 161 controls from a population of white male and female veterans screened at a US Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. Five SNPs identified in the GWAS met genome-wide statistical significance for association with at least one iron measure, rs2698530 on chr. 2p14; rs3811647 on chr. 3q22, a known SNP in the transferrin (TF) gene region; rs1800562 on chr. 6p22, the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene; rs7787204 on chr. 7p21; and rs987710 on chr. 22q11 (GWAS observed P<1.51×10−7 for all). An association between total iron binding capacity and SNP rs3811647 in the TF gene (GWAS observed P = 7.0×10−9, corrected P = 0.012) was replicated within the VA samples (observed P = 0.012). Associations with the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene also were replicated. The joint analysis of the HEIRS and VA samples revealed strong associations between rs2698530 on chr. 2p14 and iron status outcomes. These results confirm a previously-described TF polymorphism and implicate one potential new locus as a target for gene identification.
The HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study provided data on a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort of participants in North America screened from primary care populations.
A total of 101,168 participants were screened by testing for HFE C282Y and H63D mutations, and measuring serum ferritin concentration and transferrin saturation. In the present review, lessons from the HEIRS Study are highlighted in the context of the principles of screening for a medical disease as previously outlined by the World Health Organization.
Genetic testing is well accepted, with minimal risk of discrimination. Transferrin saturation has high biological variability and relatively low sensitivity to detect HFE C282Y homozygotes, which limits its role as a screening test. Symptoms attributable to HFE C282Y homozygosity are no more common in individuals identified by population screening than in control subjects.
Generalized population screening in a primary care population as performed in the HEIRS Study is not recommended. There may be a role for focused screening in Caucasian men, with some debate regarding genotyping followed by phenotyping, or phenotyping followed by genotyping.
Haemochromatosis; Hemochromatosis; HFE; Iron overload
Heme carrier protein 1 (HCP1) has been identified as a possible heme carrier by in vitro analysis. To determine the association of mutations within the HCP1 gene with iron phenotypes, we examined the entire coding region of the HCP1 gene in 788 US and Canadian participants selected from the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. We sequenced the exon and flanking intronic regions if variants were detected. We tested 298 non-C282Y homozygotes from four racial/ethnic backgrounds (White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic) selected because they had high serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturations (TS). As controls, we chose 300 other random participants of the same racial/ethnic backgrounds from the same geographic locations. From the 333 HEIRS Study C282Y homozygotes, we selected 75 based on high SF and TS, 75 based on low SF and TS; 75 were selected randomly as controls. Thirty-five of the randomly selected C282Y homozygotes were also included in the high and the low SF and TS groups due to numerical limitations. We identified eight different HCP1 genetic variants; each occurred in a heterozygous state. Except one, each was found in a single HEIRS Study participant. Thus, HCP1 variants are infrequent in the populations that we tested. Five HEIRS Study participants had non-synonymous, coding region HCP1 variants. Each of these five had TS above the 84th gender- and ethnic/racial group-specific percentile (TS percentiles: 84.7, 91.3, 97.9, 99.5, and 99.9).
Patients with hemochromatosis may suffer organ damage from iron overload, often with serious clinical consequences.
To assess prevalences of self-reported symptoms and clinical signs and conditions in persons homozygous for the hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutation (C282Y) identified by screening.
Participants were adults 25 years of age or older enrolled in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study. C282Y homozygotes (n=282) were compared with control participants without the HFE C282Y or H63D alleles (ie, wild type/wild type; n=364).
Previously diagnosed C282Y homozygotes and newly diagnosed homozygotes with elevated serum ferritin levels had higher prevalences of certain symptoms such as chronic fatigue (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.34 to 5.95, and OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.07 to 3.75, respectively), and had more hyperpigmentation on physical examination (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.50 to 15.06, and OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.10 to 12.16, respectively) and swelling or tenderness of the second and third metacarpophalangeal joints (OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.37 to 13.03, and OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.17 to 9.49, respectively) than control subjects. Joint stiffness was also more common among newly diagnosed C282Y homozygotes with elevated serum ferritin than among control subjects (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.38 to 5.30). However, the sex- and age-adjusted prevalences of self-reported symptoms and signs of liver disease, heart disease, diabetes and most other major clinical manifestations of hemochromatosis were similar in C282Y homozygotes and control subjects.
Some symptoms and conditions associated with hemochromatosis were more prevalent among C282Y homozygotes identified by screening than among control subjects, but prevalences of most outcomes were similar in C282Y homozygotes and controls in this primary care-based study.
Complications; Cross-sectional study; Hemochromatosis; HFE; Iron overload; Prevalence
Although the influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin response has been studied, variability in dose explained by CYP2C9 and VKORC1 is lower among African–Americans compared with European–Americans. This has lead investigators to hypothesize that assessment of VKORC1 haplotypes may help capture a greater proportion of the variability in dose for this under-represented group. However, the inadequate representation of African–Americans and the assessment of a few VKORC1 polymorphisms have hindered this effort.
To determine if VKORC1 haplotypes or haplotype groups explain a higher variability in warfarin dose, we comprehensively assessed VKORC1 polymorphisms in 273 African–Americans and 302 European–Americans. The influence of VKORC1 polymorphisms, race-specific haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose was evaluated in race-stratified multivariable analyses after accounting for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *5, *6 and *11) and clinical covariates.
VKORC1 explained 18% (30% with CYP2C9) variability in warfarin dose among European–Americans and 5% (8% with CYP2C9) among African–Americans. Four common haplotypes in European–Americans and twelve in African–Americans were identified. In each race VKORC1 haplotypes emerged into two groups: low-dose (Group A) and high-dose (Group B). African–Americans had a lower frequency of Group A haplotype (10.6%) compared with European–Americans (35%, p < 0.0001).The variability in dose explained by VKORC1 haplotype or haplotype groups was similar to that of a single informative polymorphism.
Our findings support the use of CYP2C9, VKORC1 polymorphisms (rs9934438 or rs9923231) and clinical covariates to predict warfarin dose in both African– and European–Americans. A uniform set of common polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1, and limited clinical covariates can be used to improve warfarin dose prediction for a racially diverse population.
African–Americans; cohort study; CYP2C9; European–Americans; pharmacogenetics; VKORC1 haplotypes; warfarin
Relationships of thyroid and iron measures in large cohorts are unreported. We evaluated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) in white participants of the primary care–based Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study.
We measured serum TSH and free T4 in 176 HFE C282Y homozygotes without previous hemochromatosis diagnoses and in 312 controls without HFE C282Y or H63D who had normal serum iron measures and were matched to C282Y homozygotes for Field Center, age group, and initial screening date. We defined hypothyroidism as having TSH >5.00 mIU/L and free T4 <0.70 ng/dL, and hyperthyroidism as having TSH <0.400 mIU/L and free T4 >1.85 ng/dL. Multivariate analyses were performed using age, sex, Field Center, log10 serum ferritin (SF), HFE genotype, log10 TSH, and log10 free T4.
Prevalences of hypothyroidism in C282Y homozygotes and controls were 1.7% and 1.3%, respectively, and of hyperthyroidism 0% and 1.0%, respectively. Corresponding prevalences did not differ significantly. Correlations of log10 SF with log10 free T4 were positive (p = 0.2368, C282Y homozygotes; p = 0.0492, controls). Independent predictors of log10 free T4 were log10 TSH (negative association) and age (positive association); positive predictors of log10 SF were age, male sex, and C282Y homozygosity. Proportions of C282Y homozygotes and controls who took medications to supplement or suppress thyroid function did not differ significantly.
Prevalences of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are similar in C282Y homozygotes without previous hemochromatosis diagnoses and controls. In controls, there is a significant positive association of SF with free T4. We conclude that there is no rationale for routine measurement of TSH or free T4 levels in hemochromatosis or iron overload screening programs.
The ferroportin polymorphism SLC40A1 Q248H (exon 6, cDNA 744G→T; Gln248His) occurs in persons of sub-Saharan African descent with and without iron overload, and is associated with elevated serum ferritin concentrations (SF). However, the risk of iron overload associated with Q248H has not been defined. We tabulated previously reported Q248H allele frequency estimates in African Americans and Native Africans, and computed the risk of iron overload associated with Q248H in subjects who lacked HFE C282Y. The aggregate Q248H allele frequency in 1,038 African Americans in two cohorts from Alabama and one cohort each from Washington, D.C. and California was 0.0525 (95% CI: 0.0451, 0.0652); there was no significant difference in frequencies across these cohorts. The aggregate frequency in 259 Natives from southeast Africa in two cohorts was 0.0946 (95% CI: 0.0694, 0.1198); the difference between the frequencies of these cohorts was not significant. The aggregate Q248H frequencies in African Americans and Native Africans differed significantly (0.0525 vs. 0.0946, respectively; p = 0.0021). There were reports of 24 unrelated African Americans and 15 unrelated Native Africans without HFE C282Y who had iron overload. In African Americans, the odds ratio (OR) of Q248H-associated risk of iron overload using 610 C282Y-negative control subjects unselected for SF was 1.57 (95% CI: 0.52, 4.72; p = 0.29). In Native Africans, the OR using 208 control subjects unselected for SF was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.28, 3.90; p = 0.58). We conclude that the frequency of SLC40A1 Q248H is significantly lower in African Americans than in Native Africans. Although OR estimates of iron overload in African Americans and Native Africans with Q248H were greater than unity, the increased OR were not statistically significant.
ferroportin; genetics; hemojuvelin A310G; mutation
In age-matched cohorts of screening study participants recruited from primary care clinics, mean serum transferrin saturation values were significantly lower and mean serum ferritin concentrations were significantly higher in Native Americans than in whites. Twenty-eight percent of 80 Alabama white hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity previously reported having Native American ancestry, but the possible effect of this ancestry on hemochromatosis phenotypes was unknown.
We compiled observations in these 80 probands and used univariate and multivariate methods to analyze associations of age, sex, Native American ancestry (as a dichotomous variable), report of ethanol consumption (as a dichotomous variable), percentage transferrin saturation and loge serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis, quantities of iron removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, and quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy.
In a univariate analysis in which probands were grouped by sex, there were no significant differences in reports of ethanol consumption, transferrin saturation, loge serum ferritin concentration, quantities of iron removed to achieve iron depletion, and quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy in probands who reported Native American ancestry than in those who did not. In multivariate analyses, transferrin saturation (as a dependent variable) was not significantly associated with any of the available variables, including reports of Native American ancestry and ethanol consumption. The independent variable quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy was significantly associated with loge serum ferritin used as a dependent variable (p < 0.0001), but not with reports of Native American ancestry or reports of ethanol consumption. Loge serum ferritin was the only independent variable significantly associated with quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy used as a dependent variable (p < 0.0001) (p < 0.0001; ANOVA of regression).
We conclude that the iron-related phenotypes of hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity are similar in those with and without Native American ancestry reports.
It has been reported that some persons with hemochromatosis have low total blood lymphocyte counts, but the reason for this is unknown.
We measured total blood lymphocyte counts using an automated blood cell counter in 146 hemochromatosis probands (88 men, 58 women) with HFE C282Y homozygosity who were diagnosed in medical care. Univariate and multivariate analyses of total blood lymphocyte counts were evaluated using these variables: sex; age, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis; units of blood removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion; and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and -B alleles and haplotypes.
The mean age at diagnosis was 49 ± 14 years (range 18 – 80 years) in men and 50 ± 13 years (range 22 – 88 years) in women. The correlations of total blood lymphocyte counts with sex, age, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis, and units of blood removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion were not significant at the 0.05 level. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations between total blood lymphocyte counts and presence of the HLA-A*01, -B*08, and -B*14 alleles, and the A*01-B*08 haplotype. Presence of the A*01 allele, B*08 allele, or A*01-B*08 haplotype were associated with a lower total blood lymphocyte count, whereas presence of the B*14 allele was associated with a greater total blood lymphocyte count. There was an inverse association of total blood lymphocyte count with units of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, serum ferritin concentration, and with presence of the A*01-B*08 haplotype.
We conclude that there is a significant inverse relationship of total blood lymphocyte counts and severity of iron overload in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity. The presence of the HLA-A*01 allele or the -B*08 allele was also associated with significantly lower total blood lymphocyte counts, whereas presence of the -B*14 allele was associated with significantly higher total blood lymphocyte counts. In univariate and multivariate analyses, total blood lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in probands with the HLA-A*01-B*08 haplotype than in probands without this haplotype.
Results of previous autopsy studies indicate that increased hepatic iron stores or hepatic iron overload is common in African Americans dying in hospitals, but there are no reports of hepatic iron content in other cohorts of African Americans.
We investigated the prevalence of heavy liver iron deposition in African American adults. Using established histochemical criteria, we graded Perls' acid ferrocyanide-reactive iron in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of 341 consecutive African American adults who were autopsied in the coroner/medical examiner office. Heavy staining was defined as grade 3 or 4 hepatocyte iron or grade 3 Kupffer cell iron.
There were 254 men and 85 women (mean age ± 1 SD: 44 ± 13 y vs. 48 ± 14 y, respectively; p = 0.0255); gender was unstated or unknown in two subjects. Approximately one-third of subjects died of natural causes. Heavy staining was observed in 10.2% of men and 4.7% of women. 23 subjects had heavy hepatocyte staining only, six had heavy Kupffer cell staining only, and one had a mixed pattern of heavy staining. 15 subjects had histories of chronic alcoholism; three had heavy staining confined to hepatocytes. We analyzed the relationships of three continuous variables (age at death in years, hepatocyte iron grade, Kupffer cell iron grade) and two categorical variables (sex, cause of death (natural and non-natural causes)) in all 341 subjects using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. This revealed two positive correlations: hepatocyte with Kupffer cell iron grades (p < 0.01), and male sex with hepatocyte iron grade (p < 0.05). We also analyzed the relationship of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis/cirrhosis in 30 subjects with heavy iron staining using a correlation matrix with Bonferroni correction. There were significant positive correlations of steatosis with inflammation (r = 0.5641; p < 0.01), and of inflammation with fibrosis/cirrhosis (r = 0.6124; p < 0.01).
The present results confirm and extend previous observations that heavy liver iron staining is relatively common in African Americans. The pertinence of these observations to genetic and acquired causes of iron overload in African Americans is discussed.
Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for coding region mutations of the hemojuvelin gene (HJV) in whites is a cause of early age-of-onset iron overload (juvenile hemochromatosis), and of hemochromatosis phenotypes in some young or middle-aged adults. HJV coding region mutations have also been identified recently in African American primary iron overload and control subjects. Primary iron overload unexplained by typical hemochromatosis-associated HFE genotypes is common in white and black adults in Alabama, and HJV I222N and G320V were detected in a white Alabama juvenile hemochromatosis index patient. Thus, we estimated the frequency of the HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V in adult whites and African Americans from Alabama general population convenience samples.
We evaluated the genomic DNA of 241 Alabama white and 124 African American adults who reported no history of hemochromatosis or iron overload to detect HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Analysis for HJV I222N was performed in 240 whites and 124 African Americans. Analysis for HJV G320V was performed in 241 whites and 118 African Americans.
One of 240 white control subjects was heterozygous for HJV I222N; she was also heterozygous for HFE C282Y, but had normal serum iron measures and bone marrow iron stores. HJV I222N was not detected in 124 African American subjects. HJV G320V was not detected in 241 white or 118 African American subjects.
HJV I222N and G320V are probably uncommon causes or modifiers of primary iron overload in adult whites and African Americans in Alabama. Double heterozygosity for HJV I222N and HFE C282Y may not promote increased iron absorption.
We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that the high incidence of cutaneous melanoma in white persons in central Alabama is associated with a predominance of Irish and Scots descent.
Frequencies of country of ancestry reports were tabulated. The reports were also converted to scores that reflect proportional countries of ancestry in individuals. Using the scores, we computed aggregate country of ancestry indices as estimates of group ancestry composition. HLA-DRB1*04 allele frequencies and relationships to countries of ancestry were compared in probands and controls. Results were compared to those of European populations with HLA-DRB1*04 frequencies.
Ninety evaluable adult white cutaneous melanoma probands and 324 adult white controls reported countries of ancestry of their grandparents. The respective frequencies of Ireland, and Scotland and "British Isles" reported countries of ancestry were significantly greater in probands than in controls. The respective frequencies of Wales, France, Italy and Poland were significantly greater in controls. 16.7% of melanoma probands and 23.8% of controls reported "Native American" ancestry; the corresponding "Native American" country of ancestry index was not significantly different in probands and controls. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 was significantly greater in probands, but was not significantly associated with individual or aggregate countries of ancestry. The frequency of DRB1*04 observed in Alabama was compared to DRB1*04 frequencies reported from England, Wales, Ireland, Orkney Island, France, Germany, and Australia.
White adults with cutaneous melanoma in central Alabama have a predominance of Irish, Scots, and "British Isles" ancestry and HLA-DRB1*04 that likely contributes to their high incidence of cutaneous melanoma.
We sought to compare frequencies of HFE C282Y and H63D alleles and associated odds ratios (OR) in 100 consecutive unrelated white adults with malignancy to those in 318 controls.
Data from patients with more than one malignancy were analyzed according to each primary malignancy. For the present study, OR ≥2.0 or ≤0.5 was defined to be increased or decreased, respectively.
There were 110 primary malignancies (52 hematologic neoplasms, 58 carcinomas) in the 100 adult patients. Allele frequencies were similar in patients and controls (C282Y: 0.0850 vs. 0.0896, respectively (OR = 0.9); H63D: 0.1400 vs. 0.1447, respectively (OR = 0.9)). Two patients had hemochromatosis and C282Y homozygosity. With C282Y, increased OR occurred in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloproliferative disorders, and adenocarcinoma of prostate (2.0, 2.8, and 3.4, respectively); OR was decreased in myelodysplasia (0.4). With H63D, increased OR occurred in myeloproliferative disorders and adenocarcinomas of breast and prostate (2.4, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively); OR was decreased in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (0.5 and 0.4, respectively).
In 100 consecutive adults with malignancy evaluated in a community medical oncology practice, frequencies of HFE C282Y or H63D were similar to those in the general population. This suggests that C282Y or H63D is not associated with an overall increase in cancer risk. However, odds ratios computed in the present study suggest that increased (or decreased) risk for developing specific types of malignancy may be associated with the inheritance of HFE C282Y or H63D. Study of more patients with these specific types of malignancies is needed to determine if trends described herein would remain and yield significant differences.
breast cancer; C282Y; cancer; iron; hemochromatosis; HFE; H63D; malignancy; myeloma; myeloproliferative disorder; non-Hodgkin lymphoma