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2.  Preventing Prescription Opioid Overdose Deaths 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2013;28(10):1258-1259.
doi:10.1007/s11606-013-2390-8
PMCID: PMC3785643  PMID: 23463455
3.  2012 Update in addiction medicine for the generalist 
This article presents an update on addiction-related medical literature for the calendar years 2010 and 2011, focusing on studies that have implications for generalist practice. We present articles pertaining to medical comorbidities and complications, prescription drug misuse among patients with chronic pain, screening and brief interventions (SBIs), and pharmacotherapy for addiction.
doi:10.1186/1940-0640-8-6
PMCID: PMC3602093  PMID: 23497615
Primary care; Alcoholism; Addictive behavior; Drug abuse; Substance-related disorders; Screening and brief intervention
4.  Learner feedback and educational outcomes with an internet-based ambulatory curriculum: a qualitative and quantitative analysis 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:55.
Background
Online medical education curricula offer new tools to teach and evaluate learners. The effect on educational outcomes of using learner feedback to guide curricular revision for online learning is unknown.
Methods
In this study, qualitative analysis of learner feedback gathered from an online curriculum was used to identify themes of learner feedback, and changes to the online curriculum in response to this feedback were tracked. Learner satisfaction and knowledge gains were then compared from before and after implementation of learner feedback.
Results
37,755 learners from 122 internal medicine residency training programs were studied, including 9437 postgraduate year (PGY)1 residents (24.4 % of learners), 9864 PGY2 residents (25.5 %), 9653 PGY3 residents (25.0 %), and 6605 attending physicians (17.0 %). Qualitative analysis of learner feedback on how to improve the curriculum showed that learners commented most on the overall quality of the educational content, followed by specific comments on the content. When learner feedback was incorporated into curricular revision, learner satisfaction with the instructive value of the curriculum (1 = not instructive; 5 = highly instructive) increased from 3.8 to 4.1 (p < 0.001), and knowledge gains (i.e., post test scores minus pretest scores) increased from 17.0 % to 20.2 % (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Learners give more feedback on the factual content of a curriculum than on other areas such as interactivity or website design. Incorporating learner feedback into curricular revision was associated with improved educational outcomes. Online curricula should be designed to include a mechanism for learner feedback and that feedback should be used for future curricular revision.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-55
PMCID: PMC3418189  PMID: 22788677
Online education; Curriculum development; Feedback; Learner satisfaction
5.  Criminal charges prior to and after initiation of office-based buprenorphine treatment 
Background
There is little data on the impact of office-based buprenorphine therapy on criminal activity. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of primary care clinic-based buprenorphine maintenance therapy on rates of criminal charges and the factors associated with criminal charges in the 2 years after initiation of treatment.
Methods
We collected demographic and outcome data on 252 patients who were given at least one prescription for buprenorphine. We searched a public database of criminal charges and recorded criminal charges prior to and after enrollment. We compared the total number of criminal cases and drug cases 2 years before versus 2 years after initiation of treatment.
Results
There was at least one criminal charge made against 38% of the subjects in the 2 years after initiation of treatment; these subjects were more likely to have used heroin, to have injected drugs, to have had any prior criminal charges, and recent criminal charges. There was no significant difference in the number of subjects with any criminal charge or a drug charge before and after initiation of treatment. Likewise, the mean number of all cases and drug cases was not significantly different between the two periods. However, among those who were opioid-negative for 6 or more months in the first year of treatment, there was a significant decline in criminal cases. On multivariable analysis, having recent criminal charges was significantly associated with criminal charges after initiation of treatment (adjusted odds ratio 3.92); subjects who were on opioid maintenance treatment prior to enrollment were significantly less likely to have subsequent criminal charges (adjusted odds ratio 0.52).
Conclusions
Among subjects with prior criminal charges, initiation of office-based buprenorphine treatment did not appear to have a significant impact on subsequent criminal charges.
doi:10.1186/1747-597X-7-10
PMCID: PMC3359252  PMID: 22429821
Opioid-related disorders; Crime; Primary health care; Buprenorphine
6.  Update in Addiction Medicine for the Generalist 
doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1461-3
PMCID: PMC3024103  PMID: 20697971
review; substance-related disorders; primary health care; primary care; alcoholism and addictive behavior; drug abuse; smoking cessation
7.  Entry into primary care-based buprenorphine treatment is associated with identification and treatment of other chronic medical problems 
Background
Buprenorphine is an effective treatment for opioid dependence that can be provided in a primary care setting. Offering this treatment may also facilitate the identification and treatment of other chronic medical conditions.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 168 patients who presented to a primary care clinic for treatment of opioid dependence and who received a prescription for sublingual buprenorphine within a month of their initial visit.
Results
Of the 168 new patients, 122 (73%) did not report having an established primary care provider at the time of the initial visit. One hundred and twenty-five patients (74%) reported at least one established chronic condition at the initial visit. Of the 215 established diagnoses documented on the initial visit, 146 (68%) were not being actively treated; treatment was initiated for 70 (48%) of these within one year. At least one new chronic medical condition was identified in 47 patients (28%) during the first four months of their care. Treatment was initiated for 39 of the 54 new diagnoses (72%) within the first year.
Conclusions
Offering treatment for opioid dependence with buprenorphine in a primary care practice is associated with the identification and treatment of other chronic medical conditions.
doi:10.1186/1940-0640-7-22
PMCID: PMC3509402  PMID: 23186008
8.  T Cell Dynamics and The Response to HAART in a Cohort of HIV-1 Infected Elite Suppressors 
Elite controllers or suppressors (ES) are untreated HIV-1-infected patients who maintain undetectable viral loads. In this study, we show that most ES do not experience significant changes in T-cell counts over a 10 year period. Interestingly, treatment of an ES with HAART led to a marked decline in immune activation.
doi:10.1086/648081
PMCID: PMC2783537  PMID: 19857162
10.  Survey of physician knowledge regarding antiretroviral medications in hospitalized HIV-infected patients 
Background
Antiretroviral prescribing errors are common among hospitalized patients. Inadequate medical knowledge is likely one of the factors leading to these errors. Our objective was to determine the proportion of hospital physicians with knowledge gaps about prescribing antiretroviral medications for hospitalized HIV-infected patients and to correlate knowledge with length and type of medical training and experience.
Methods
We conducted an electronic survey comprising of ten clinical scenarios based on antiretroviral-prescribing errors seen at two community teaching hospitals. It also contained demographic questions regarding length and type of medical training and antiretroviral prescribing experience. Three hundred and forty three physicians at both hospitals were asked to anonymously complete the survey between February 2007 and April 2007.
Results
One hundred and fifty-seven physicians (46%) completed at least one question. The mean percentage of correct responses was 33% for resident physicians, 37% for attending physicians, and 93% for Infectious Diseases or HIV (ID/HIV) specialist physicians. Higher scores were independently associated with ID/HIV specialty, number of outpatients seen per month and physician reported comfort level in managing HIV patients (P < .001).
Conclusion
Non-ID/HIV physicians had uniformly poor knowledge of common antiretroviral medication regimens. Involvement of ID/HIV specialists in the prescribing of antiretrovirals in hospitalized patients might mitigate prescribing errors stemming from knowledge deficits.
doi:10.1186/1758-2652-12-1
PMCID: PMC2649037  PMID: 19183506

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