Nonunion and large bone defects present a therapeutic challenge to the surgeon and are often associated with significant morbidity. These defects are expensive to both the health care system and society. However, several surgical procedures have been developed to maximise patient satisfaction and minimise health-care-associated and socioeconomic costs. Integrating recent evidence into the diamond concept leads to one simple conclusion that not only provides us with answers to the “open questions” but also simplifies our entire understanding of bone healing. It has been shown that a combination of neo-osteogenesis and neovascularisation will restore tissue deficits, and that the optimal approach includes a biomaterial scaffold, cell biology techniques, a growth factor and optimisation of the mechanical environment. Further prospective, controlled, randomised clinical studies will determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of treatment with mesenchymal stem cells, not in comparison to other conventional surgical approaches but in direct conjunction with them.
Background and Purpose
Thoracoscopic-assisted ventral stabilisation for thoracolumbar fractures has been shown to be associated with decreased recovery time and less morbidity when compared with open procedures. However, there are a limited number of studies evaluating late clinical and radiological results after thoracoscopic spinal surgery.
We performed an analysis of the late outcomes of thoracolumbar fractures after minimally invasive thoracoscopic ventral instrumentation. Between August 2003 and December 2008, 70 patients with thoracolumbar fractures (T5-L2) underwent ventral thoracoscopic stabilisation. Tricortical bone grafts, anterior plating systems (MACS-System), and cage implants were used for stabilisation. Outcomes measured include radiologic images (superior inferior endplate angle), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), VAS Spine Score, quality of life scores SF-36 and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).
Forty seven patients (67%, 47 out of 70) were recruited for the follow up evaluation (2.2 ± 1.5 years). Lower VAS Spine scores were calculated in patients with intra- or postoperative complications (44.7 (± 16.7) vs. 65.8 (± 24.5), p=0.0447). There was no difference in outcome between patients treated with bone graft vs. cage implants. Loss of correction was observed in both bone graft and titanium cage groups.
The present study demonstrates diminished long-term quality of life in patients treated with thoracoscopic ventral spine when compared with the outcome of german reference population. In contrast to the other patients, those patients without intra-operative or post-operative complications were associated with improved outcome. The stabilisation method (bone graft versus spinal cage) did not affect the long-term clinical or radiographic results in this series.
Spine; Thoracoscopic surgery; Thoracolumbar fractures; Outcome
Trauma is a leading cause of death and although the gut is recognized as the “motor” of post-traumatic systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ failure, studies on the gastrointestinal tract are few. Our objectives were to create a precisely controllable tissue injury model in which gastrointestinal motility, systemic inflammation and wound fluid can be analyzed.
A non-narcotic murine trauma model was developed by the subcutaneous dorsal trans-implantation of a devitalized donor syngeneic harvested tissue-bone matrix (TBX), which was precisely adjusted to % total body weight and studied after 21 hrs. Gastrointestinal transit histograms were plotted after the oral administration of non-digestible FITC-dextran and geometric centers calculated. Organ bath evaluated jejunal circular muscle contractility. Multiplex electrochemiluminescence measurements of serum and TBX wound fluid inflammatory mediators were performed.
Increasing TBX amounts progressively delayed transit, whereas TBX heat denaturation or decellularization prevented ileus and death. In the TBX17.5% model, jejunal muscle contractility was suppressed and a systemic inflammatory response developed as significant serum elevations in IL-6, keratinocyte cytokine and IL-10 compared to sham. Additionally, inflammatory responses within the wound fluid showed elevated levels of preformed IL-1β and TNF-α, whereas, 21 hours after implantation IL-1β, IL-6 and keratinocyte cytokine were significantly increased in the wound.
Conclusions & Inferences
A novel donor tissue-bone matrix trauma model was developed that is precisely adjustable and recapitulates important clinical phenomena. The non-narcotic model demonstrated that increasing tissue injury progressively caused ileus, initiated a systemic inflammatory response and developed inflammatory changes within the wound.
trauma; inflammation; ileus; tissue injury; wound fluid; gastrointestinal motility
Traumatic injury is an important public health problem secondary to high levels of mortality and morbidity. Injured survivors face several physical, emotional, and financial repercussions that can significantly impact their lives as well as their family. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are the most common psychiatric sequelae associated with traumatic injury. Factors affecting the prevalence of these psychiatric symptoms include: concomitant TBI, the timing of assessment of depression and PTSD, the type of injury, premorbid, sociodemographic, and cultural factors, and co-morbid medical conditions and medication side effects. The appropriate assessment of depression and PTSD is critical to an understanding of the potential consequences of these disorders as well as the development of appropriate behavioral and pharmacological treatments. The reliability and validity of screening instruments and structured clinical interviews used to assess depression and PTSD must be considered. Common self-report instruments and structured clinical interviews used to assess depression and PTSD and their reliability and validity are described. Future changes in diagnostic criteria for depression and PTSD and recent initiatives by the National Institute of Health regarding patient-reported outcomes may result in new methods of assessing these psychiatric sequelae of traumatic injury.
Several studies report immunomodulatory effects of endogenous IL-10 after trauma. The present study investigates the effect of inhalative IL-10 administration on systemic and pulmonary inflammation in hemorrhagic shock.
Male C57/BL6 mice (8 animals per group) were subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock for 1.5 hrs followed by resuscitation and inhalative administration of either 50 μL PBS (Shock group) or 50 μg/kg recombinant mouse IL-10 dissolved in 50 μL PBS (Shock + IL-10 group). Animals were sacrificed after 4.5 hrs of recovery and serum IL-6, IL-10, KC, and MCP-1 concentrations were measured with ELISA kits. Acute pulmonary inflammation was assessed by pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and pulmonary H&E histopathology. Inhalative IL-10 administration decreased pulmonary inflammation without altering the systemic concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and KC. Serum MCP-1 levels were significantly reduced following inhalative IL-10 administration. These findings suggest that inhalative IL-10 administration may modulate the pulmonary microenvironment without major alterations of the systemic inflammatory response, thus minimizing the potential susceptibility to infection and sepsis.
With greater technological developments in the care of musculoskeletal patients, we are entering an era of rapid change in our understanding of the pathophysiology of traumatic injury; assessment and treatment of polytrauma and related disorders; and treatment outcomes. In developed countries, it is very likely that we will have algorithms for the approach to many musculoskeletal disorders as we strive for the best approach with which to evaluate treatment success. This debate article is founded on predictions of future health care needs that are solely based on the subjective inputs and opinions of the world's leading orthopedic surgeons.
Hence, it functions more as a forum-based rather than a scientific-based presentation. This exposé was designed to stimulate debate about the emerging patients' needs in the future predicted by leading orthopedic surgeons that provide some hint as to the right direction for orthopedic care and outlines the important topics in this area.
The authors aim to provide a general overview of orthopedic care in a typical developed country setting. However, the regional diversity of the United States and every other industrialized nation should be considered as a cofactor that may vary to some extent from our vision of improved orthopedic and trauma care of the musculoskeletal patient on an interregional level.
In this forum, we will define the current and future barriers in developed countries related to musculoskeletal trauma, total joint arthroplasty, patient safety and injuries related to military conflicts, all problems that will only increase as populations age, become more mobile, and deal with political crisis.
It is very likely that the future will bring a more biological approach to fracture care with less invasive surgical procedures, flexible implants, and more rapid rehabilitation methods. This international consortium challenges the trauma and implants community to develop outcome registries that are managed through health care offices and to prepare effectively for the many future challenges that lie in store for those who treat musculoskeletal conditions.
Global perspective; Future trends and needs; Algorithms of patient care; Quality assurance in Patient care; Registries
Adaptive immune responses are induced in liver after major stresses such as hemorrhagic shock (HS) and trauma. There is emerging evidence that the inflammasome, the multiprotein platform that induces caspase-1 activation and promotes interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 processing, is activated in response to cellular oxidative stress, such as after hypoxia, ischemia and HS. Additionally, damage-associated molecular patterns, such as those released after injury, have been shown to activate the inflammasome and caspase-1 through the NOD-like receptor (NLR) NLRP3. However, the role of the inflammasome in organ injury after HS and trauma is unknown. We therefore investigated inflammatory responses and end-organ injury in wild-type (WT) and caspase-1−/−mice in our model of HS with bilateral femur fracture (HS/BFF). We found that caspase-1−/− mice had higher levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines than WT mice. This result corresponded to higher levels of liver damage, cell death and neutrophil influx in caspase-1−/− liver compared with WT, although there was no difference in lung damage between experimental groups. To determine if hepatoprotection also depended on NLRP3, we subjected NLRP3−/− mice to HS/BFF, but found inflammatory responses and liver damage in these mice was similar to WT. Hepatoprotection was also not due to caspase-1–dependent cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. Altogether, these data suggest that caspase-1 is hepatoprotective, in part through regulation of cell death pathways in the liver after major trauma, and that caspase-1 activation after HS/BFF does not depend on NLRP3. These findings may have implications for the treatment of trauma patients and may lead to progress in prevention or treatment of multiple organ failure (MOF).
Several large studies have identified factors associated with long-term outcome after orthopaedic injuries. However, long-term social and economic implications have not been published so far. The aim of this investigation is to study the long-term socio-economic consequences of patients sustaining severe trauma.
Patients treated at a level one trauma center were invited for a follow-up (at least 10 years) examination. There were 637 patients who responded and were examined. Inclusion criteria included injury severity score (ISS) ≥ 16 points, presence of lower and upper extremity fractures, and age between 3 and 60 years. Exclusion criteria included the presence of amputations and paraplegia. The socio-economic outcome was evaluated in three age groups: group I (< 18 years), group II (19 - 50 years), and group III (> 50 years). The following parameters were analyzed using a standardized questionnaire: financial losses, net income losses, pension precaution losses, need for a bank loan, and the decrease in number of friends.
510 patients matched all study criteria, and breakdown of groups were as follows: 140 patients in group I, 341 patients in group II, and 29 patients in group III. Financial losses were reported in all age groups (20%-44%). Younger patients (group I) were associated with less income losses when compared with other groups (p < 0.05). Financial deterioration was more frequently reported in age group II (p < 0.05). Social consequences (number of friends decreased) were predominantly stated in patients younger than 18 years old (p < 0.05).
Economic consequences are reported by polytraumatized patients even ten or more years after injury. Financial losses appear to be common in patients between 19 and 50 years. In contrast, social deprivation appears to be most pronounced in the younger age groups. Early socio-economic support and measures of injury prevention should focus on these specific age groups.
Gun violence is on the rise in some European countries, however most of the literature on gunshot injuries pertains to military weaponry and is difficult to apply to civilians, due to dissimilarities in wound contamination and wounding potential of firearms and ammunition. Gunshot injuries in civilians have more focal injury patterns and should be considered distinct entities.
A search of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database was performed using PubMed.
Craniocerebral gunshot injuries are often lethal, especially after suicide attempts. The treatment of non space consuming haematomas and the indications for invasive pressure measurement are controversial. Civilian gunshot injuries to the torso mostly intend to kill; however for those patients who do not die at the scene and are hemodynamically stable, insertion of a chest tube is usually the only required procedure for the majority of penetrating chest injuries. In penetrating abdominal injuries there is a trend towards non-operative care, provided that the patient is hemodynamically stable. Spinal gunshots can also often be treated without operation. Gunshot injuries of the extremities are rarely life-threatening but can be associated with severe morbidity.
With the exception of craniocerebral, bowel, articular, or severe soft tissue injury, the use of antibiotics is controversial and may depend on the surgeon's preference.
The treatment strategy for patients with gunshot injuries to the torso mostly depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient. Whereas hemodynamically unstable patients require immediate operative measures like thoracotomy or laparotomy, hemodynamically stable patients might be treated with minor surgical procedures (e.g. chest tube) or even conservatively.
The pelvic C-clamp traditionally is reserved for the temporizing stabilization of posterior ring injuries and reportedly has assisted in closed reduction of sacroiliac diastases, for patients who are in the supine position. We report a patient with a severely displaced Zone II sacral fracture and associated acetabular fracture who initially underwent fixation of the acetabulum in the prone position. By using the pelvic C-clamp as a tool for successfully reducing the sacrum, definitive closed fixation of the pelvic wing subsequently was performed without having to reposition the patient. In this case report, we review the literature on this device and for alternative reduction maneuvers for disrupted sacral injuries. The C-clamp may be a useful adjunct in select cases to facilitate closed reduction of sacral or sacroiliac joint disruptions, as may particularly apply in cases of severe displacement or when a reduction is hampered by obesity.
Symptomatic heterotopic ossification (HO) in multiple trauma patients may lead to follow up surgery, furthermore the long-term outcome can be restricted. Knowledge of the effect of surgical treatment on formation of symptomatic heterotopic ossification in polytrauma is sparse. Therefore, we test the effects of surgical treatment (plate osteosynthesis or intramedullary nailing) on the formation of heterotopic ossification in the multiple trauma patient.
We retrospectively analysed prospectively documented data of blunt multiple trauma patients with long bone fractures which were treated at our level-1 trauma centre between 1997 and 2005. Patients were distributed to 2 groups: Patients treated by intramedullary nails (group IMN) or plate osteosynthesis (group PLATE) were compared. The expression and extension of symptomatic heterotopic ossifications on 3-6 months follow-up x-rays in antero-posterior (ap) and lateral views were classified radiologically and the maximum expansion was measured in millimeter (mm). Additionally, ventilation time, prophylactic medication like indomethacine and incidence and correlation of head injuries were analysed.
101 patients were included in our study, 79 men and 22 women. The fractures were treated by intramedullary nails (group IMN n = 50) or plate osteosynthesis (group PLATE n = 51). Significantly higher radiologic ossification classes were detected in group PLATE (2.9 ± 1.3) as compared to IMN (2.2 ± 1.1; p = 0.013). HO size in mm ap and lateral showed a tendency towards larger HOs in the PLATE group. Additionally PLATE group showed a higher rate of articular fractures (63% vs. 28% in IMN) while IMN demonstrated a higher rate of diaphyseal fractures (72% vs. 37% in PLATE; p = 0.003). Ventilation time, indomethacine and incidence of head injuries showed no significant difference between groups.
Fracture care with plate osteosynthesis in polytrauma patients is associated with larger formations of symptomatic heterotopic ossifications (HO) while intramedullary nailing was associated with a higher rate of remote HO. For future fracture care of multiply injured patients these facts may be considered by the responsible surgeon.
Work-hour limitations have been implemented by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) in July 2003 in order to minimize fatigue related medical adverse events. The effects of this regulation are still under intense debate. In this literature review, data of effects of limited work-hours on the quality of life, surgical education, and patient care was summarized, focusing on surgical subspecialities.
Studies that assessed the effects of the work-hour regulation published following the implementation of ACGME guidelines (2003) were searched using PubMed database. The following search modules were selected: work-hours, 80-hour work week, quality of life, work satisfaction, surgical education, residency training, patient care, continuity of care. Publications were included if they were completed in the United States and covered the subject of our review. Manuscrips were analysed to identify authors, year of publication, type of study, number of participants, and the main outcomes.
Twenty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies demonstrate that the residents quality of life has improved. The effects on surgical education are still unclear due to inconsistency in studies. Furthermore, according to several objective studies there were no changes in mortality and morbidity following the implementation.
Further studies are necessary addressing the effects of surgical education and studying the objective methods to assess the technical skill and procedural competence of surgeons. In addition, patient surveys analysing their satisfaction and concerns can contribute to recent discussion, as well.
We asked whether coagulopathy worsened during femoral intramedullary nailing in the presence of lung contusion and hemorrhagic shock and whether reamed or unreamed nailing influenced these results. In 30 Merino sheep, we induced hemorrhagic shock and/or standardized lung contusion followed by femoral nailing. Six groups of five each were assigned as follows: thoracotomy control groups treated with reamed or unreamed nailing, lung contusion groups treated with reamed or unreamed nailing, and shock and lung contusion groups treated with reamed or unreamed nailing. After lung contusion alone (first hit), the serum values of antithrombin III, factor V, and fibrinogen were considerably altered after reamed and unreamed femoral nailing (second hit) 4 hours postoperatively. In the lung contusion and shock groups, we found a substantial reduction for all serum coagulative parameters between baseline and fixation after reamed and unreamed nailing. The magnitude of the first hit is increased if hemorrhagic shock is added to a lung contusion determined by hemostatic reactions. The magnitude of the injury appears equally important as the type of subsequent surgery and should be considered in planning for fracture fixation in patients at high risk for complications.
Overlooked injuries and delayed diagnoses are still common problems in the treatment of polytrauma patients. Therefore, ongoing documentation describing the incidence rates of missed injuries, clinically significant missed injuries, contributing factors and outcome is necessary to improve the quality of trauma care. This review summarizes the available literature on missed injuries, focusing on overlooked muscoloskeletal injuries.
Manuscripts dealing with missed injuries after trauma were reviewed. The following search modules were selected in PubMed: Missed injuries, Delayed diagnoses, Trauma, Musculoskeletal injuires. Three time periods were differentiated: (n = 2, 1980–1990), (n = 6, 1990–2000), and (n = 9, 2000-Present).
We found a wide spread distribution of missed injuries and delayed diagnoses incidence rates (1.3% to 39%). Approximately 15 to 22.3% of patients with missed injuries had clinically significant missed injuries. Furthermore, we observed a decrease of missed pelvic and hip injuries within the last decade.
The lack of standardized studies using comparable definitions for missed injuries and clinically significant missed injuries call for further investigations, which are necessary to produce more reliable data. Furthermore, improvements in diagnostic techniques (e.g. the use of multi-slice CT) may lead to a decreased incidence of missed pelvic injuries. Finally, the standardized tertiary trauma survey is vitally important in the detection of clinically significant missed injuries and should be included in trauma care.
The exponential growth of image-based diagnostic and minimally invasive interventions requires a detailed three-dimensional anatomical knowledge and increases the demand towards the undergraduate anatomical curriculum. This randomized controlled trial investigates whether musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) or arthroscopic methods can increase the anatomical knowledge uptake.
Second-year medical students were randomly allocated to three groups. In addition to the compulsory dissection course, the ultrasound group (MSUS) was taught by eight, didactically and professionally trained, experienced student-teachers and the arthroscopy group (ASK) was taught by eight experienced physicians. The control group (CON) acquired the anatomical knowledge only via the dissection course. Exposure (MSUS and ASK) took place in two separate lessons (75 minutes each, shoulder and knee joint) and introduced standard scan planes using a 10-MHz ultrasound system as well as arthroscopy tutorials at a simulator combined with video tutorials. The theoretical anatomic learning outcomes were tested using a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ), and after cross-over an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Differences in student’s perceptions were evaluated using Likert scale-based items.
The ASK-group (n = 70, age 23.4 (20–36) yrs.) performed moderately better in the anatomical MC exam in comparison to the MSUS-group (n = 84, age 24.2 (20–53) yrs.) and the CON-group (n = 88, 22.8 (20–33) yrs.; p = 0.019). After an additional arthroscopy teaching 1% of students failed the MC exam, in contrast to 10% in the MSUS- or CON-group, respectively. The benefit of the ASK module was limited to the shoulder area (p < 0.001). The final examination (OSCE) showed no significant differences between any of the groups with good overall performances. In the evaluation, the students certified the arthroscopic tutorial a greater advantage concerning anatomical skills with higher spatial imagination in comparison to the ultrasound tutorial (p = 0.002; p < 0.001).
The additional implementation of arthroscopy tutorials to the dissection course during the undergraduate anatomy training is profitable and attractive to students with respect to complex joint anatomy. Simultaneous teaching of basic-skills in musculoskeletal ultrasound should be performed by medical experts, but seems to be inferior to the arthroscopic 2D-3D-transformation, and is regarded by students as more difficult to learn. Although arthroscopy and ultrasound teaching do not have a major effect on learning joint anatomy, they have the potency to raise the interest in surgery.
Arthroscopy; Education, Anatomic competence, Randomized controlled trial, Knee joint, Shoulder joint, Students; Medical, Musculoskeletal ultrasound
Posttraumatic inflammatory changes have been identified as major causes of altered organ function and failure. Both hemorrhage and soft tissue damage induce these inflammatory changes. Exposure to heterologous bone in animal models has recently been shown to mimic this inflammatory response in a stable and reproducible fashion. This follow-up study tests the hypothesis that inflammatory responses are comparable between a novel trauma model (“pseudofracture”, PFx) and a bilateral femur fracture (BFF) model.
Materials and Methods
In C57BL/6 mice, markers for remote organ dysfunction and inflammatory responses were compared in 4 groups (control/sham/BFF/PFx) at the time points 2, 4, and 6 hours.
Hepatocellular damage in BFF and PFx was highly comparable in extent and evolution, as shown by similar levels of NFκB activation and plasma ALT. Pulmonary inflammatory responses were also comparably elevated in both trauma models as early as 2h after trauma as measured by myeloperoxidase activity (MPO). Muscle damage was provoked in both BFF and PFx mice over the time course, although BFF induced significantly higher AST and CK levels. IL-6 levels were also similar with early and sustained increases over time in both trauma models.
Both BFF and PFx create similar reproducible inflammatory and remote organ responses. PFx will be a useful model to study longer term inflammatory effects that cannot be studied using BFF.
long bone fracture; soft tissue injury; pseudofracture; liver dysfunction; acute lung injury; systemic inflammation