PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (27)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
more »
author:("dornase, Tim")
1.  Peer tutoring in a medical school: perceptions of tutors and tutees 
BMC Medical Education  2016;16:85.
Background
Peer tutoring has been described as “people from similar social groupings who are not professional teachers helping each other to learn and learning themselves by teaching”. Peer tutoring is well accepted as a source of support in many medical curricula, where participation and learning involve a process of socialisation. Peer tutoring can ease the transition of the junior students from the university class environment to the hospital workplace. In this paper, we apply the Experienced Based Learning (ExBL) model to explore medical students’ perceptions of their experience of taking part in a newly established peer tutoring program at a hospital based clinical school.
Methods
In 2014, all students at Sydney Medical School – Central, located at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital were invited to voluntarily participate in the peer tutoring program. Year 3 students (n = 46) were invited to act as tutors for Year 1 students (n = 50), and Year 4 students (n = 60) were invited to act as tutors for Year 2 students (n = 51). Similarly, the ‘tutees’ were invited to take part on a voluntary basis. Students were invited to attend focus groups, which were held at the end of the program. Framework analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes.
Results
In total, 108/207 (52 %) students participated in the program. A total of 42/106 (40 %) of Year 3 and 4 students took part as tutors; and of 66/101 (65 %) of Year 1 and 2 students took part as tutees. Five focus groups were held, with 50/108 (46 %) of students voluntarily participating. Senior students (tutors) valued the opportunity to practice and improve their medical knowledge and teaching skills. Junior students (tutees) valued the opportunity for additional practice and patient interaction, within a relaxed, small group learning environment.
Conclusion
Students perceived the peer tutoring program as affording opportunities not otherwise available within the curriculum. The peer teaching program provided a framework within the medical curriculum for senior students to practice and improve their medical knowledge and teaching skills. Concurrently, junior students were provided with a valuable learning experience that they reported as being qualitatively different to traditional teaching by faculty.
doi:10.1186/s12909-016-0589-1
PMCID: PMC4784332  PMID: 26956642
3.  Losing touch? 
Canadian Family Physician  2015;61(12):1041-1043.
PMCID: PMC4677934  PMID: 26668277
4.  What supervisors say in their feedback: construction of CanMEDS roles in workplace settings 
The CanMEDS framework has been widely adopted in residency education and feedback processes are guided by it. It is, however, only one of many influences on what is actually discussed in feedback. The sociohistorical culture of medicine and individual supervisors’ contexts, experiences and beliefs are also influential. Our aim was to find how CanMEDS roles are constructed in feedback in a postgraduate curriculum-in-action. We applied a set of discourse analytic tools to written feedback from 591 feedback forms from 7 hospitals, including 3150 feedback comments in which 126 supervisors provided feedback to 120 residents after observing their performance in authentic settings. The role of Collaborator was constructed in two different ways: a cooperative discourse of equality with other workers and patients; and a discourse, which gave residents positions of power—delegating, asserting and ‘taking a firm stance’. Efficiency—being fast and to the point emerged as an important attribute of physicians. Patients were seldom part of the discourses and, when they were, they were constructed as objects of communication and collaboration rather than partners. Although some of the discourses are in line with what might be expected, others were in striking contrast to the spirit of CanMEDS. This study’s findings suggest that it takes more than a competency framework, evaluation instruments, and supervisor training to change the culture of workplaces. The impact on residents of training in such demanding, efficiency-focused clinical environments is an important topic for future research.
doi:10.1007/s10459-015-9634-9
PMCID: PMC4801985  PMID: 26342599
CanMEDS; Competency-based medical education; Feedback; Discourse analysis; Patient-centred care; Postgraduate training; Residency; Workplace learning
5.  Exploring the causes of junior doctors' prescribing mistakes: a qualitative study 
Aims
Prescribing errors are common and can be detrimental to patient care and costly. Junior doctors are more likely than consultants to make a prescribing error, yet there is only limited research into the causes of errors. The aim of this study was to explore the causes of prescribing mistakes made by doctors in their first year post graduation.
Methods
As part of the EQUIP study, interviews using the critical incident technique were carried out with 30 newly qualified doctors. Participants were asked to discuss in detail any prescribing errors they had made. Participants were purposely sampled across a range of medical schools (18) and hospitals (15). A constant comparison approach was taken to analysis and Reason's model of accident causation was used to present the data.
Results
More than half the errors discussed were prescribing mistakes (errors due to the correct execution of an incorrect plan). Knowledge-based mistakes (KBMs) appeared to arise from poor knowledge of practical aspects of prescribing such as dosing, whereas rule-based mistakes (RBMs) resulted from inappropriate application of knowledge. Multiple error-producing and latent conditions were described by participants for RBMs and KBMs. Poor/absent senior support and a fear of appearing incompetent occurred with KBMs. Following erroneous routines or seniors' orders were major contributory factors in RBMs.
Conclusions
Although individual factors such as knowledge and expertise played a role in prescribing mistakes, there were many perceived interrelated factors contributing to error. We conclude that multiple interventions are necessary to address these and further research is essential.
doi:10.1111/bcp.12332
PMCID: PMC4137823  PMID: 24517271
critical incident technique; hospitalists; internship; medication errors; qualitative research
6.  Beyond work-hour restrictions: a qualitative study of residents’ subjective workload 
Introduction
Following the introduction of work-hour restrictions, residents’ workload has become an important theme in postgraduate training. The efficacy of restrictions on workload, however, remains controversial, as most research has only examined objective workload. The purpose of this study was to explore the less clearly understood component of subjective workload and, in particular, the factors that influenced residents’ subjective workload.
Method
This study was conducted in Japan at three community teaching hospitals. We recruited a convenience sample of 31 junior residents in seven focus groups at the three sites. Audio-recorded and transcribed data were read iteratively and analyzed thematically, identifying, analyzing and reporting themes within the data and developing an interpretive synthesis of the topic.
Results
Seven factors influenced residents’ subjective workload: (1) interaction within the professional community, (2) feedback from patients, (3) being in control, (4) professional development, (5) private life, (6) interest and (7) protected free time.
Discussion and conclusion
Our findings indicate that residents who have good interaction with colleagues and patients, are competent enough to control their work, experience personal development through working, have greater interest in their work, and have fulfilling private lives will have the least subjective workload.
doi:10.1007/s40037-015-0198-4
PMCID: PMC4530534  PMID: 26228738
Subjective workload; Work-hour restrictions; Professionalism
7.  Prevalence, Nature, Severity and Risk Factors for Prescribing Errors in Hospital Inpatients: Prospective Study in 20 UK Hospitals 
Drug Safety  2015;38(9):833-843.
Introduction
It has been suggested that doctors in their first year of post-graduate training make a disproportionate number of prescribing errors.
Objective
This study aimed to compare the prevalence of prescribing errors made by first-year post-graduate doctors with that of errors by senior doctors and non-medical prescribers and to investigate the predictors of potentially serious prescribing errors.
Methods
Pharmacists in 20 hospitals over 7 prospectively selected days collected data on the number of medication orders checked, the grade of prescriber and details of any prescribing errors. Logistic regression models (adjusted for clustering by hospital) identified factors predicting the likelihood of prescribing erroneously and the severity of prescribing errors.
Results
Pharmacists reviewed 26,019 patients and 124,260 medication orders; 11,235 prescribing errors were detected in 10,986 orders. The mean error rate was 8.8 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.6–9.1) errors per 100 medication orders. Rates of errors for all doctors in training were significantly higher than rates for medical consultants. Doctors who were 1 year (odds ratio [OR] 2.13; 95 % CI 1.80–2.52) or 2 years in training (OR 2.23; 95 % CI 1.89–2.65) were more than twice as likely to prescribe erroneously. Prescribing errors were 70 % (OR 1.70; 95 % CI 1.61–1.80) more likely to occur at the time of hospital admission than when medication orders were issued during the hospital stay. No significant differences in severity of error were observed between grades of prescriber. Potentially serious errors were more likely to be associated with prescriptions for parenteral administration, especially for cardiovascular or endocrine disorders.
Conclusion
The problem of prescribing errors in hospitals is substantial and not solely a problem of the most junior medical prescribers, particularly for those errors most likely to cause significant patient harm. Interventions are needed to target these high-risk errors by all grades of staff and hence improve patient safety.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40264-015-0320-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s40264-015-0320-x
PMCID: PMC4562000  PMID: 26115701
8.  Preparing to prescribe: How do clerkship students learn in the midst of complexity? 
Prescribing tasks, which involve pharmacological knowledge, clinical decision-making and practical skill, take place within unpredictable social environments and involve interactions within and between endlessly changing health care teams. Despite this, curriculum designers commonly assume them to be simple to learn and perform. This research used mixed methods to explore how undergraduate medical students learn to prescribe in the ‘real world’. It was informed by cognitive psychology, sociocultural theory, and systems thinking. We found that learning to prescribe occurs as a dynamic series of socially negotiated interactions within and between individuals, communities and environments. As well as a thematic analysis, we developed a framework of three conceptual spaces in which learning opportunities for prescribing occur. This illustrates a complex systems view of prescribing education and defines three major system components: the “social space”, where the environmental conditions influence or bring about a learning experience; the “process space”, describing what happens during the learning experience; and the intra-personal “cognitive space”, where the learner may develop aspects of prescribing expertise. This conceptualisation broadens the scope of inquiry of prescribing education research by highlighting the complex interplay between individual and social dimensions of learning. This perspective is also likely to be relevant to students’ learning of other clinical competencies.
doi:10.1007/s10459-015-9606-0
PMCID: PMC4639576  PMID: 25980553
Medical students; Clinical competence; Prescriptions; Systems theory; Clinical medicine; Education
9.  Diagnostic performance on briefly presented digital pathology images 
Background:
Identifying new and more robust assessments of proficiency/expertise (finding new “biomarkers of expertise”) in histopathology is desirable for many reasons. Advances in digital pathology permit new and innovative tests such as flash viewing tests and eye tracking and slide navigation analyses that would not be possible with a traditional microscope. The main purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of time-restricted testing of expertise in histopathology using digital images.
Methods:
19 novices (undergraduate medical students), 18 intermediates (trainees), and 19 experts (consultants) were invited to give their opinion on 20 general histopathology cases after 1 s and 10 s viewing times. Differences in performance between groups were measured and the internal reliability of the test was calculated.
Results:
There were highly significant differences in performance between the groups using the Fisher's least significant difference method for multiple comparisons. Differences between groups were consistently greater in the 10-s than the 1-s test. The Kuder–Richardson 20 internal reliability coefficients were very high for both tests: 0.905 for the 1-s test and 0.926 for the 10-s test. Consultants had levels of diagnostic accuracy of 72% at 1 s and 83% at 10 s.
Conclusions:
Time-restricted tests using digital images have the potential to be extremely reliable tests of diagnostic proficiency in histopathology. A 10-s viewing test may be more reliable than a 1-s test. Over-reliance on “at a glance” diagnoses in histopathology is a potential source of medical error due to over-confidence bias and premature closure.
doi:10.4103/2153-3539.168517
PMCID: PMC4639946  PMID: 26605121
Digital pathology; expertise; overconfidence bias; premature closure; time-restricted test
10.  A realist review of educational interventions to improve the delivery of nutrition care by doctors and future doctors 
Systematic Reviews  2014;3:148.
Background
Dietary interventions are considered an important aspect of clinical practice, more so in the face of the rising prevalence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases globally. Routinely, most doctors do not provide such intervention to their patients, and several barriers, present during both training and clinical practice, have been identified. Educational interventions to improve nutrition care competencies and delivery have been implemented but with variable success, probably, due to the complex nature of such interventions. Using traditional methods only to investigate whether interventions are effective or not could not provide appropriate lessons. It is therefore pertinent to conduct a realist review that investigates how the interventions work. This realist review aims at determining what sort of educational interventions work, how, for whom, and in what circumstances, to improve the delivery of nutrition care by doctors and future doctors.
Methods/design
This realist review will be conducted according to Pawson’s five practical steps for conducting a realist review: (1) clarifying the scope of the review, (2) determining the search strategy, including adopting broad inclusion/exclusion criteria and purposive snowballing techniques, (3) ensuring proper article selection and study quality assessment using multiple methods, (4) extracting and organising data through the process of note taking, annotation and conceptualization and (5) synthesising the evidence and drawing conclusions through a process of reasoning. This realist review protocol has not been registered in any database before now.
Discussion
Findings will be reported according to the publication criteria outlined by the realist and meta-narrative evidence synthesis (RAMESES) group.
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-148
PMCID: PMC4290450  PMID: 25528058
Realist review; Realist synthesis; Educational interventions; Nutrition care; Future doctors; Improve; Delivery
11.  Community perceptions of a rural medical school: a pilot qualitative study 
Background
This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school.
Methods
An advertisement in the local newspaper invited volunteers to participate in a telephone interview about the new medical school. An independent researcher external to the medical school conducted the interviews using a topic guide. Audio recordings were not made, but detailed notes including verbatim statements were recorded. At least two research team members analyzed interview records for emergent themes. Human research ethics approval was obtained.
Results
Twelve interviews were conducted. Participants offered rich imaginings on the role of the school and expectations and opportunities for students. Most participants expressed strong and positive views, especially in addressing long-term health workforce issues. It was considered important that students live, mix, and study in the community. Some participants had very clear ideas about the need of the school to address specified needs, such as indigenous health, obesity, aging, drug and alcohol problems, teenage pregnancy, ethnic diversity, and working with people of low socioeconomic status.
Conclusion
This study has initiated a dialogue with potential partners in the community, which can be built upon to shape the medical school’s mission and contribution to the society it serves. The telephone interview approach and thematic analysis yielded valuable insights and is recommended for further studies. Our study was limited by its small study size and the single recruitment source. The community is a rich resource for medical education, but there is a dearth of literature on the perspectives of the community and its role in medical education.
doi:10.2147/AMEP.S70876
PMCID: PMC4230173  PMID: 25404864
community engagement; medical education; medical school; community-based education; rural; curriculum development
12.  Who needs beds? 
doi:10.1007/s40037-014-0146-8
PMCID: PMC4235810  PMID: 25300338
13.  How could undergraduate education prepare new graduates to be safer prescribers? 
This review examines the extent to which undergraduate prescribing education prepares graduates for the complexities of prescribing in the workplace context. In order to prescribe safely, it is important for medical students to acquire prescribing expertise. We have developed a theoretical model, based on theories of expertise development, which acknowledges the inherent complexity of the task itself, the social context and the relationship between the two. We have examined the empirical evidence on educational interventions for prescribing by reviewing the extent to which the interventions acknowledge the different components of our theoretical model. Fifteen empirical studies met our inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. All the studies were conducted between 2002 and 2010, six were controlled trials, six were before and after studies and three were prospective observational studies. We found that most studies focused on improving and evaluating students' knowledge and skills, although they used different approaches to doing so. These aspects of prescribing only constitute a small part of our theoretical model of prescribing expertise. Other important components, such as social context, metacognition and training transfer, were neglected. We suggest that educational interventions need to account for the integrated nature of learning to prescribe and take a more contextualized approach which considers the task as a whole, rather than isolated constituent parts. In doing so, prescribing education could equip graduates with the necessary expertise to judge and respond to situations, enabling them to prescribe safely, or seek the help to do so, in the unpredictable and complex context of workplaces.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04271.x
PMCID: PMC3477328  PMID: 22420765
expertise development; medical education; medical students; prescribing; safe prescribing
14.  Medical students’ reactions to an experience-based learning model of clinical education 
An experience-based learning (ExBL) model proposes: Medical students learn in workplaces by ‘supported participation’; affects are an important dimension of support; many learning outcomes are affective; supported participation influences students’ professional identity development. The purpose of the study was to check how the model, which is the product of a series of earlier research studies, aligned with students’ experiences, akin to the ‘member checking’ stage of a qualitative research project. In three group discussions, a researcher explained ExBL to 19 junior clinical students, who discussed how it corresponded with their experiences of clinical learning and were given a written précis of it to take away. One to 3 weeks later, they wrote 500-word reflective pieces relating to their subsequent experiences with ExBL. Four researchers conducted a qualitative analysis. Having found many instances of responses ‘resonating’ to the model, the authors systematically identified and coded respondents’ ‘resonances’ to define how they aligned with their experiences. 120 resonances were identified. Seventy (58 %) were positive experiences and 50 (42 %) negative ones. Salient experiences were triggered by the learning environment in 115 instances (96 %) and by learners themselves in 5 instances (4 %), consistent with a strong effect of environment on learning processes. Affective support was apparent in 129 of 203 statements (64 %) of resonances and 118 learning outcomes (58 %) were also affective. ExBL aligns with medical students’ experiences of clinical learning. Subject to further research, these findings suggest ExBL could be used to support the preparation of faculty and students for workplace learning.
doi:10.1007/s40037-013-0061-4
PMCID: PMC3656171  PMID: 23670698
Clerkship education; Experience based learning; Qualitative analysis
15.  Medical students’ reactions to an experience-based learning model of clinical education 
An experience-based learning (ExBL) model proposes: Medical students learn in workplaces by ‘supported participation’; affects are an important dimension of support; many learning outcomes are affective; supported participation influences students’ professional identity development. The purpose of the study was to check how the model, which is the product of a series of earlier research studies, aligned with students’ experiences, akin to the ‘member checking’ stage of a qualitative research project. In three group discussions, a researcher explained ExBL to 19 junior clinical students, who discussed how it corresponded with their experiences of clinical learning and were given a written précis of it to take away. One to 3 weeks later, they wrote 500-word reflective pieces relating to their subsequent experiences with ExBL. Four researchers conducted a qualitative analysis. Having found many instances of responses ‘resonating’ to the model, the authors systematically identified and coded respondents’ ‘resonances’ to define how they aligned with their experiences. 120 resonances were identified. Seventy (58 %) were positive experiences and 50 (42 %) negative ones. Salient experiences were triggered by the learning environment in 115 instances (96 %) and by learners themselves in 5 instances (4 %), consistent with a strong effect of environment on learning processes. Affective support was apparent in 129 of 203 statements (64 %) of resonances and 118 learning outcomes (58 %) were also affective. ExBL aligns with medical students’ experiences of clinical learning. Subject to further research, these findings suggest ExBL could be used to support the preparation of faculty and students for workplace learning.
doi:10.1007/s40037-013-0061-4
PMCID: PMC3656171  PMID: 23670698
Clerkship education; Experience based learning; Qualitative analysis
16.  Does reflection have an effect upon case-solving abilities of undergraduate medical students? 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:75.
Background
Reflection on professional experience is increasingly accepted as a critical attribute for health care practice; however, evidence that it has a positive impact on performance remains scarce. This study investigated whether, after allowing for the effects of knowledge and consultation skills, reflection had an independent effect on students’ ability to solve problem cases.
Methods
Data was collected from 362 undergraduate medical students at Ghent University solving video cases and reflected on the experience of doing so. For knowledge and consultation skills results on a progress test and a course teaching consultation skills were used respectively. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to test the relationship between the quality of case-solving (dependent variable) and reflection skills, knowledge, and consultation skills (dependent variables).
Results
Only students with data on all variables available (n = 270) were included for analysis. The model was significant (Anova F(3,269) = 11.00, p < 0.001, adjusted R square 0.10) with all variables significantly contributing.
Conclusion
Medical students’ reflection had a small but significant effect on case-solving, which supports reflection as an attribute for performance. These findings suggest that it would be worthwhile testing the effect of reflection skills training on clinical competence.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-75
PMCID: PMC3492041  PMID: 22889271
17.  Using video-cases to assess student reflection: Development and validation of an instrument 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:22.
Background
Reflection is a meta-cognitive process, characterized by: 1. Awareness of self and the situation; 2. Critical analysis and understanding of both self and the situation; 3. Development of new perspectives to inform future actions. Assessors can only access reflections indirectly through learners’ verbal and/or written expressions. Being privy to the situation that triggered reflection could place reflective materials into context. Video-cases make that possible and, coupled with a scoring rubric, offer a reliable way of assessing reflection.
Methods
Fourth and fifth year undergraduate medical students were shown two interactive video-cases and asked to reflect on this experience, guided by six standard questions. The quality of students’ reflections were scored using a specially developed Student Assessment of Reflection Scoring rubric (StARS®). Reflection scores were analyzed concerning interrater reliability and ability to discriminate between students. Further, the intra-rater reliability and case specificity were estimated by means of a generalizability study with rating and case scenario as facets.
Results
Reflection scores of 270 students ranged widely and interrater reliability was acceptable (Krippendorff’s alpha = 0.88). The generalizability study suggested 3 or 4 cases were needed to obtain reliable ratings from 4th year students and ≥ 6 cases from 5th year students.
Conclusion
Use of StARS® to assess student reflections triggered by standardized video-cases had acceptable discriminative ability and reliability. We offer this practical method for assessing reflection summatively, and providing formative feedback in training situations.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-22
PMCID: PMC3426495  PMID: 22520632
18.  Workplace learning 
This critical review found Dutch research to be strong at the undergraduate and residency levels and more or less absent in continuing medical education. It confirms the importance of coaching medical students, giving constructive feedback, and ensuring practice environments are conducive to learning though it has proved hard to improve them. Residents learn primarily from experiences encountered in the course of clinical work but the fine balance between delivering clinical services and learning can easily be upset by work pressure. More intervention studies are needed. Qualitative research designs need to be more methodologically sophisticated and use a wider range of data sources including direct observation, audio-diaries, and text analysis. Areas for improvement are clear but achieving results will require persistence and patience.
doi:10.1007/s40037-012-0005-4
PMCID: PMC3540354  PMID: 23316455
Workplace learning; Undergraduate medical education; Residency; Continuing medical education; Qualitative research
19.  Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI). Conditions for medical students’ learning in hospital and community placements 
The drive to quality-manage medical education has created a need for valid measurement instruments. Validity evidence includes the theoretical and contextual origin of items, choice of response processes, internal structure, and interrelationship of a measure’s variables. This research set out to explore the validity and potential utility of an 11-item measurement instrument, whose theoretical and empirical origins were in an Experience Based Learning model of how medical students learn in communities of practice (COPs), and whose contextual origins were in a community-oriented, horizontally integrated, undergraduate medical programme. The objectives were to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in both hospital and community COPs and provide validity evidence to support using it to measure the quality of placements. The instrument was administered twice to students learning in both hospital and community placements and analysed using exploratory factor analysis and a generalizability analysis. 754 of a possible 902 questionnaires were returned (84% response rate), representing 168 placements. Eight items loaded onto two factors, which accounted for 78% of variance in the hospital data and 82% of variance in the community data. One factor was the placement learning environment, whose five constituent items were how learners were received at the start of the placement, people’s supportiveness, and the quality of organisation, leadership, and facilities. The other factor represented the quality of training—instruction in skills, observing students performing skills, and providing students with feedback. Alpha coefficients ranged between 0.89 and 0.93 and there were no redundant or ambiguous items. Generalisability analysis showed that between 7 and 11 raters would be needed to achieve acceptable reliability. There is validity evidence to support using the simple 8-item, mixed methods Manchester Clinical Placement Index to measure key conditions for undergraduate medical students’ experience based learning: the quality of the learning environment and the training provided within it. Its conceptual orientation is towards Communities of Practice, which is a dominant contemporary theory in undergraduate medical education.
doi:10.1007/s10459-011-9344-x
PMCID: PMC3490061  PMID: 22234383
Workplace learning; Learning environment; Evaluation; Communities of practice; Experience based learning
20.  Factors confounding the assessment of reflection: a critical review 
BMC Medical Education  2011;11:104.
Background
Reflection on experience is an increasingly critical part of professional development and lifelong learning. There is, however, continuing uncertainty about how best to put principle into practice, particularly as regards assessment. This article explores those uncertainties in order to find practical ways of assessing reflection.
Discussion
We critically review four problems: 1. Inconsistent definitions of reflection; 2. Lack of standards to determine (in)adequate reflection; 3. Factors that complicate assessment; 4. Internal and external contextual factors affecting the assessment of reflection.
Summary
To address the problem of inconsistency, we identified processes that were common to a number of widely quoted theories and synthesised a model, which yielded six indicators that could be used in assessment instruments. We arrived at the conclusion that, until further progress has been made in defining standards, assessment must depend on developing and communicating local consensus between stakeholders (students, practitioners, teachers, supervisors, curriculum developers) about what is expected in exercises and formal tests. Major factors that complicate assessment are the subjective nature of reflection's content and the dependency on descriptions by persons being assessed about their reflection process, without any objective means of verification. To counter these validity threats, we suggest that assessment should focus on generic process skills rather than the subjective content of reflection and where possible to consider objective information about the triggering situation to verify described reflections. Finally, internal and external contextual factors such as motivation, instruction, character of assessment (formative or summative) and the ability of individual learning environments to stimulate reflection should be considered.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-104
PMCID: PMC3268719  PMID: 22204704
21.  The self critical doctor: helping students become more reflective 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2008;336(7648):827-830.
Reflection underpins learning from experience, so how do you foster reflection in your students? This article explores the best ways to do this
doi:10.1136/bmj.39503.608032.AD
PMCID: PMC2292362  PMID: 18403547
22.  Lifelong learning at work 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2008;336(7645):667-669.
The importance of lifelong learning in medicine is well recognised. This article explores how junior doctors can develop learning strategies for use throughout their working life
doi:10.1136/bmj.39434.601690.AD
PMCID: PMC2270942  PMID: 18356236
23.  Students’ perceptions of patient safety during the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate training: an activity theory analysis 
Evidence that medical error can cause harm to patients has raised the attention of the health care community towards patient safety and influenced how and what medical students learn about it. Patient safety is best taught when students are participating in clinical practice where they actually encounter patients at risk. This type of learning is referred to as workplace learning, a complex system in which various factors influence what is being learned and how. A theory that can highlight potential difficulties in this complex learning system about patient safety is activity theory. Thirty-four final year undergraduate medical students participated in four focus groups about their experiences concerning patient safety. Using activity theory as analytical framework, we performed constant comparative thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts to identify important themes. We found eight general themes relating to two activities: learning to be a doctor and delivering safe patient care. Simultaneous occurrence of these two activities can cause contradictions. Our results illustrate the complexity of learning about patient safety at the workplace. Students encounter contradictions when learning about patient safety, especially during a transitional phase of their training. These contradictions create potential learning opportunities which should be used in education about patient safety. Insight into the complexities of patient safety is essential to improve education in this important area of medicine.
doi:10.1007/s10459-010-9266-z
PMCID: PMC3139877  PMID: 21132361
Activity theory; Communities of practice; Patient safety; Workplace learning
24.  Early practical experience and the social responsiveness of clinical education: systematic review 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;331(7513):387-391.
Objectives To find how early experience in clinical and community settings (“early experience”) affects medical education, and identify strengths and limitations of the available evidence.
Design A systematic review rating, by consensus, the strength and importance of outcomes reported in the decade 1992-2001.
Data sources Bibliographical databases and journals were searched for publications on the topic, reviewed under the auspices of the recently formed Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) collaboration.
Selection of studies All empirical studies (verifiable, observational data) were included, whatever their design, method, or language of publication.
Results Early experience was most commonly provided in community settings, aiming to recruit primary care practitioners for underserved populations. It increased the popularity of primary care residencies, albeit among self selected students. It fostered self awareness and empathic attitudes towards ill people, boosted students' confidence, motivated them, gave them satisfaction, and helped them develop a professional identity. By helping develop interpersonal skills, it made entering clerkships a less stressful experience. Early experience helped students learn about professional roles and responsibilities, healthcare systems, and health needs of a population. It made biomedical, behavioural, and social sciences more relevant and easier to learn. It motivated and rewarded teachers and patients and enriched curriculums. In some countries, junior students provided preventive health care directly to underserved populations.
Conclusion Early experience helps medical students learn, helps them develop appropriate attitudes towards their studies and future practice, and orientates medical curriculums towards society's needs. Experimental evidence of its benefit is unlikely to be forthcoming and yet more medical schools are likely to provide it. Effort could usefully be concentrated on evaluating the methods and outcomes of early experience provided within non-experimental research designs, and using that evaluation to improve the quality of curriculums.
PMCID: PMC1184253  PMID: 16096306

Results 1-25 (27)