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1.  Segmental increases in force application during colonoscope insertion: quantitative analysis using force monitoring technology 
Gastrointestinal endoscopy  2012;76(4):867-872.
Background
Colonoscopy is a frequently performed procedure that requires extensive training and a high skill level.
Objective
Quantification of forces applied to the external portion of the colonoscope insertion tube during the insertion phase of colonoscopy.
Design
Observational cohort study of 7 expert and 9 trainee endoscopists for analysis of colonic segment force application in 49 patients. Forces were measured by using the colonoscopy force monitor, which is a wireless, handheld device that attaches to the insertion tube of the colonoscope.
Setting
Academic gastroenterology training programs.
Patients
Patients undergoing routine screening or diagnostic colonoscopy with complete segment force recordings.
Main Outcome Measurements
Axial and radial force and examination time.
Results
Both axial and radial force increased significantly as the colonoscope was advanced from the rectum to the cecum. Analysis of variance demonstrated highly significant operator-independent differences between segments of the colon (zones) in all axial and radial forces except average torque. Expert and trainee endoscopists differed only in the magnitude of counterclockwise force, average push/pull force rate used, and examination time.
Limitations
Small study, observational design, effect of prototype device on insertion tube manipulation.
Conclusion
Axial and radial forces used to advance the colonoscope increase through the segments of the colon and are operator independent.
doi:10.1016/j.gie.2012.05.030
PMCID: PMC3530197  PMID: 22840291
2.  Impact of subspecialty elective exposures on outcomes on the American board of internal medicine certification examination 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:94.
Background
The American Board of Internal Medicine Certification Examination (ABIM-CE) is one of several methods used to assess medical knowledge, an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competency for graduating internal medicine residents. With recent changes in graduate medical education program directors and internal medicine residents are seeking evidence to guide decisions regarding residency elective choices. Prior studies have shown that formalized elective curricula improve subspecialty ABIM-CE scores. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of subspecialty elective exposures or the specific subspecialties which residents complete electives in impact ABIM-CE scores.
Methods
ABIM-CE scores, elective exposures and demographic characteristics were collected for MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine residents who were first-time takers of the ABIM-CE in 2006–2010 (n=152). Elective exposures were defined as a two-week period assigned to the respective subspecialty. ABIM-CE score was analyzed using the difference between the ABIM-CE score and the standardized passing score (delta-SPS). Subspecialty scores were analyzed using percentage of correct responses. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Windows.
Results
Paired elective exposure and ABIM-CE scores were available in 131 residents. There was no linear correlation between ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS and the total number of electives or the number of unique elective exposures. Residents with ≤14 elective exposures had higher ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS than those with ≥15 elective exposures (143.4 compared to 129.7, p=0.051). Repeated electives in individual subspecialties were not associated with significant difference in mean ABIM-CE delta-SPS.
Conclusions
This study did not demonstrate significant positive associations between individual subspecialty elective exposures and ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS score. Residents with ≤14 elective exposures had higher ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS than those with ≥15 elective exposures suggesting there may be an “ideal” number of elective exposures that supports improved ABIM-CE performance. Repeated elective exposures in an individual specialty did not correlate with overall or subspecialty ABIM-CE performance.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-94
PMCID: PMC3480921  PMID: 23057635
Resident education; Gender; Elective; Subspecialty; Graduate medical education

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