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1.  Factors associated with intern noncompliance with the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education’s 30-hour duty period requirement 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:33.
Background
In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated work hour restrictions. Violations can results in a residency program being cited or placed on probation. Recurrent violations could results in loss of accreditation. We wanted to determine specific intern and workload factors associated with violation of a specific mandate, the 30-hour duty period requirement.
Methods
Retrospective review of interns’ performance against the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations at a pediatric residency program between June 24, 2008 and June 23, 2009. The analytical plan included both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses.
Results
Twenty of the 26 (77%) interns had 80 self-reported episodes of continuous work hours greater than 30 hours. In multivariable analysis, noncompliance was inversely associated with the number of prior inpatient rotations (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (0.38, 0.64) per rotation) but directly associated with the total number of patients (odds ratio: 1.30 (1.10, 1.53) per additional patient). The number of admissions on-call, number of admissions after midnight and number of discharges post-call were not significantly associated with noncompliance. The level of noncompliance also varied significantly between interns after accounting for intern experience and workload factors. Subject to limitations in statistical power, we were unable to identify specific intern characteristics, such as demographic variables or examination scores, which account for the variation in noncompliance between interns.
Conclusions
Both intern and workload factors were associated with pediatric intern noncompliance with the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations. Residency programs must develop information systems to understand the individual and experience factors associated with noncompliance and implement appropriate interventions to ensure compliance with the duty hour regulations.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-33
PMCID: PMC3398848  PMID: 22621439
2.  D8/17 and CD19 Expression on Lymphocytes of Patients with Acute Rheumatic Fever and Tourette's Disorder 
D8/17, an alloantigen found on B lymphocytes, has been reported to be elevated in patients susceptible to rheumatic fever and may be associated with autoimmune types of neuropsychiatric disorders. The pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorders-associated-with-streptococci model is a putative model of pathogenesis for a group of children whose symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette's disorder (TD) are abrupt and may be triggered by an infection with group A streptococci. As a test of this model, we have examined D8/17 levels on the B cells of patients with TD and acute rheumatic fever (ARF) along with those on the B cells of normal controls by flow cytometry. We have utilized several different preparations of D8/17 antibody along with a variety of secondary antibodies but have been unable to show an association with an elevated percentage of D8/17-positive, CD19-positive B cells in either ARF or TD. We did find, however, that the percentages of CD19-positive B cells in ARF and TD patients were significantly elevated compared to those in normal controls. Group A streptococcal pharyngitis patients also had an elevated percentage of CD19 B cells, however. These studies failed to confirm the utility of determining the percentage of B cells expressing the D8/17 alloantigen in ARF patients or our sample of TD patients. In contrast, the percentage of CD19-positive B cells was significantly elevated in ARF and TD patients, as well as group A streptococcal pharyngitis patients, suggesting a role for inflammation and/or autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of these disorders.
doi:10.1128/CDLI.11.2.330-336.2004
PMCID: PMC371196  PMID: 15013984
3.  Characterization of Human Cytomegalovirus Strains by Analysis of Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(6):2219-2226.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains display genetic polymorphisms, and these polymorphisms can be analyzed to study viral transmission and pathogenesis. Recently, short tandem repeat (STR) length polymorphisms have been identified in the HCMV genome. We assessed the utility of STRs in characterizing HCMV strains and found that a multiplexed PCR assay using primers based upon these STRs accurately maps HCMV strains. Using primers for 10 microsatellite regions, the STR profiles of 44 wild-type and 2 laboratory strains of HCMV were characterized. The results of STR analysis were compared with those for strain characterization using nucleotide sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In each instance, STR analysis accurately and specifically identified strains that were indistinguishable or distinct by conventional molecular analysis. Analysis of short tandem repeats also detected polymorphisms that supported simultaneous excretion of two HCMV strains. These results indicate that STR analysis allows rapid, precise molecular characterization of HCMV strains.
doi:10.1128/JCM.39.6.2219-2226.2001
PMCID: PMC88114  PMID: 11376060

Results 1-3 (3)