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1.  Appropriate treatment of acute sigmoid volvulus in the emergency setting 
AIM: To investigate an appropriate strategy for the treatment of patients with acute sigmoid volvulus in the emergency setting.
METHODS: A retrospective review of 28 patients with acute sigmoid volvulus treated in the Department of Colorectal Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai from January 2001 to July 2012 was performed. Following the diagnosis of acute sigmoid volvulus, an initial colonoscopic approach was adopted if there was no evidence of diffuse peritonitis.
RESULTS: Of the 28 patients with acute sigmoid volvulus, 19 (67.9%) were male and 9 (32.1%) were female. Their mean age was 63.1 ± 22.9 years (range, 21-93 years). Six (21.4%) patients had a history of abdominal surgery, and 17 (60.7%) patients had a history of constipation. Abdominal radiography or computed tomography was performed in all patients. Colonoscopic detorsion was performed in all 28 patients with a success rate of 92.8% (26/28). Emergency surgery was required in the other two patients. Of the 26 successfully treated patients, seven (26.9%) had recurrent volvulus.
CONCLUSION: Colonoscopy is the primary emergency treatment of choice in uncomplicated acute sigmoid volvulus. Emergency surgery is only for patients in whom nonoperative treatment is unsuccessful, or in those with peritonitis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i30.4979
PMCID: PMC3740429  PMID: 23946604
Sigmoid colon; Volvulus; Emergency; Colonoscopy
2.  Preoperative carcinoembryonic antibody is predictive of distant metastasis in pathologically T1 colorectal cancer after radical surgery 
AIM: To identify the predictors of distant metastasis in pathologically T1 (pT1) colorectal cancer (CRC) after radical resection.
METHODS: Variables including age, gender, preoperative carcinoembryonic antibody (CEA) level, tumor location, tumor size, lymph node status, and histological grade were recorded. Patients with and without metastasis were compared with regard to age, gender, CEA level and pathologic tumor characteristics using the independent t test or χ2 test, as appropriate. Risk factors were determined by logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Metastasis occurred in 6 (3.8%) of the 159 patients during a median follow-up of 67.0 (46.5%) mo. The rates of distant metastasis in patients with pT1 cancer of the colon and rectum were 6.7% and 2.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). The rates of distant metastasis between male and female patients with T1 CRC were 6.25% and 1.27%, respectively (P < 0.001). The most frequent site of distant metastasis was the liver. Age (P = 0.522), gender (P = 0.980), tumor location (P = 0.330), tumor size (P = 0.786), histological grade (P = 0.509), and high serum CEA level (P = 0.262) were not prognostic factors for lymph node metastasis. Univariate analysis revealed that age (P = 0.231), gender (P = 0.137), tumor location (P = 0.386), and tumor size (P = 0.514) were not risk factors for distant metastasis after radical resection for T1 colorectal cancer. Postoperative metastasis was only significantly correlated with high preoperative serum CEA level (P = 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, high preoperative serum CEA level (P = 0.004; odds ratio 15.341; 95%CI 2.371-99.275) was an independent predictor for postoperative distant metastasis.
CONCLUSION: The preoperative increased serum CEA level is a predictive risk factor for distant metastasis in CRC patients after radical resection. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be necessary in such patients, even if they have pT1 colorectal cancer.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i3.389
PMCID: PMC3554824  PMID: 23372362
Colorectal cancer; Risk factor; Metastasis; Pathologically T1; Carcinoembryonic antigen
3.  Systematic Review of Anastomotic Leakage Rate According to an International Grading System Following Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75519.
Background
A generally acceptable definition and a severity grading system for anastomotic leakages (ALs) following rectal resection were not available until 2010, when the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer (ISGRC) proposed a definition and a grading system for AL.
Methods
A search for published data was performed using the MEDLINE database (2000 to December 5, 2012) to perform a systematic review of the studies that described AL, grade AL according to the grading system, pool data, and determine the average rate of AL for each grade after anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer.
Results
A total of 930 abstracts were retrieved; 40 articles on AR, 25 articles on low AR (LAR), and 5 articles on ultralow AR (ULAR) were included in the review and analysis. The pooled overall AL rate of AR was 8.58% (2,085/24,288); the rate of the asymptomatic leakage (Grade A) was 2.57%, that of AL that required active intervention without relaparotomy (Grade B) was 2.37%, and that of AL that required relaparotomy (Grade C) was 5.40%. The pooled rate of AL that required relaparotomy was higher in AR (5.40%) than in LAR (4.70%) and in ULAR (1.81%), which could be attributed to the higher rate of protective defunctioning stoma in LAR (40.72%) and ULAR (63.44%) compared with that in AR (30.11%).
Conclusions
The new grading system is simple that the ALs of each grade can be easily extracted from past publications, therefore likely to be accepted and applied in future studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075519
PMCID: PMC3783382  PMID: 24086552
4.  CD133+CXCR4+ colon cancer cells exhibit metastatic potential and predict poor prognosis of patients 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:85.
Background
Colorectal cancer (CRC), which frequently metastasizes to the liver, is one of the three leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that a subset of cells exists among cancer stem cells. This distinct subpopulation is thought to contribute to liver metastasis; however, it has not been fully explored in CRC yet.
Methods
Flow cytometry analysis was performed to detect distinct subsets with CD133 and CXCR4 markers in human primary and metastatic CRC tissues. The 'stemness' and metastatic capacities of different subpopulations derived from the colon cancer cell line HCT116 were compared in vitro and in vivo. The roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the metastatic process were also investigated. A survival curve was used to explore the correlation between the content of CD133+CXCR4+ cancer cells and patient survival.
Results
In human specimens, the content of CD133+CXCR4+ cells was higher in liver metastases than in primary colorectal tumors. Clonogenic and tumorigenic cells were restricted to CD133+ cells in the HCT116 cell line, with CXCR4 expression having no impact on the 'stemness' properties. We found that CD133+CXCR4+ cancer cells had a high metastatic capacity in vitro and in vivo. Compared with CD133+CXCR4- cells, CD133+CXCR4+ cancer cells experienced EMT, which contributed partly to their metastatic phenotype. We then determined that SDF-1/CXCL12 treatment could further induce EMT in CD133+CXCR4+ cancer cells and enhance their invasive behavior, while this could not be observed in CD133+CXCR4- cancer cells. Blocking SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction with a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 (1,10-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]bis-1,4,8,11 -tetraazacyclotetradecane octahydrochloride), inhibited metastatic tumor growth in a mouse hepatic metastasis model. Finally, a high percentage of CD133+CXCR4+ cells in human primary CRC was associated with a reduced two-year survival rate.
Conclusions
Strategies targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction may have important clinical applications in the suppression of colon cancer metastasis. Further investigations on how high expression of CXCR4 and EMT occur in this identified cancer stem cell subset are warranted to provide insights into our understanding of tumor biology.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-85
PMCID: PMC3424958  PMID: 22871210
colorectal cancer; cancer stem cell; CXCR4; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; liver metastasis

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