Innovative strategies are needed to combat drug resistance associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we investigate the potential of wall teichoic acid (WTA) biosynthesis inhibitors as combination agents to restore β-lactam efficacy against MRSA. Performing a whole cell pathway-based screen we identified a series of WTA inhibitors (WTAIs) targeting the WTA transporter protein, TarG. Whole genome sequencing of WTAI resistant isolates across two methicillin-resistant Staphylococci spp. revealed TarG as their common target, as well as a broad assortment of drug resistant bypass mutants mapping to earlier steps of WTA biosynthesis. Extensive in vitro microbiological analysis and animal infection studies provide strong genetic and pharmacological evidence of the potential effectiveness of WTAIs as anti-MRSA β-lactam combination agents. This work also highlights the emerging role of whole genome sequencing in antibiotic mode-of-action and resistance studies.
Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; MRSE; imipenem; wall teichoic acid; antibiotic resistance; β-lactam potentiation; combination agent; chemical biology; Next Generation Sequencing
Side population (SP) cells are previously identified from bone marrow based on their capacity to efflux of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. Recent studies demonstrate that SP cells isolated from various cancer cell lines and primary tumors possess stem-cell-like properties. Thus, targeting tumor SP cells may provide new strategies for treatment in clinic. We previously showed that 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone (emodin), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator, enhanced sensitivity of gallbladder cancer SGC-996 cells to cisplatin (CDDP) via generation of ROS and downregulation of multidrug-resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). To determine whether emodin also acts effectively on cancer stem cells of gallbladder carcinoma, we use SP cells as a model of cancer stem-cell-like cells. Here, we found that emodin, via ROS-related mechanism and suppressing the function of ATP-binding cassette super-family G member (ABCG2), which is known to be associated with Hoechst dye efflux activity of SP cells, not only reduced the ratio, inhibited clone formation, and eliminated sphere formation of SP cells effectively, but also promoted obviously the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, the main substrate of the efflux pump ABCG2. In addition, emodin could sensitize CDDP, via inhibition of expression of ABCG2, to overcome chemoresistance of SP cells. Importantly, similar to the experiment in vitro, emodin/CDDP co-treatment in vivo suppressed the tumor growth derived from SP cells through downregulating ABCG2 expression. Our results suggest that emodin is an effective agent targeting cancer stem-like SP cells of gallbladder carcinoma, either alone or acts as a chemotherapy enhancer.
Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite.
High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. P16 immunohistochemistry and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcomes data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 non- or partially-keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV negative tumors were p16 positive (p < .0001). The HPV-related carcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean 54). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. While non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma. The distinctiveness of these HPV-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract with respect to risk factors, clinical behavior, and response to therapy remains to be clarified.
Human papillomavirus; sinonasal carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; adenoid cystic carcinoma; sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma
Age-related decreases in tongue muscle mass and strength have been reported. It may be possible to prevent age-related tongue muscle changes using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Our hypothesis was that alterations in muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain composition would be found following NMES.
Fifty-four young, middle-aged and old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats were included. Twenty-four rats underwent bilateral electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves for 8 weeks and were compared with control or sham rats. Muscle contractile properties and myosin heavy chain (MHC) in the genioglossus (GG), styloglossus (SG) and hyoglossus (HG) muscles were examined.
In comparison with unstimulated control rats, we found reduced muscle fatigue, increased contraction and half decay times and increased twitch and tetanic tension. Increased Type I MHC was found, except for GG in old and middle-aged rats.
Transitions in tongue muscle contractile properties and phenotype were found following NMES.
muscle contraction; tongue; electrical stimulation; aging; swallowing
The chiral BINOL-phosphoric acid catalyzed allylboration and propargylation reactions are studied with density functional theory (B3LYP and B3LYP-D3). Two different models were recently proposed for these reactions by Goodman and our group, respectively. In Goodman's model for allylborations, the catalyst interacts with the boronate pseudo-axial oxygen. By contrast, our model for propargylations predicts that the catalyst interacts with the boronate pseudo-equatorial oxygen. In both models, the phosphoric acid stabilizes the transition state by forming a strong hydrogen bond with the oxygen of the boronate, and is oriented by a formyl hydrogen bond (Goodman model), and by other electrostatic attractions in our model. Both of these models have now been reinvestigated for both allylborations and propargylations. For the most effective catalyst for these reactions, the lowest energy transition state corresponds to Goodman's axial model, while the best transition state leading to minor enantiomer involves the equatorial model. The high enantioselectivity observed with only the bulkiest catalyst arises from the steric interactions between the substrates and the bulky groups on the catalyst, and the resulting necessity for distortion of the catalyst in the disfavored transition state.
We examined the antihypertensive effects of valsartan, aliskiren or both drugs combined on circulating, cardiac and renal components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in congenic mRen2.Lewis hypertensive rats assigned to: vehicle (n=9), valsartan (via drinking water, 30 mg/kg/day; n=10), aliskiren (s.c. by osmotic mini-pumps, 50 mg/kg/day; n=10), or valsartan (30 mg/kg/day) combined with aliskiren (50 mg/kg/day; n=10). Arterial pressure and heart rate were measured by telemetry before and during two weeks of treatment; trunk blood, heart, urine and kidneys were collected for measures of RAS components. Arterial pressure and left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio were reduced by monotherapy of valsartan, aliskiren and further reduced by the combination therapy. Urinary protein excretion was reduced by valsartan and further reduced by the combination. The increases in plasma Ang II induced by valsartan were reversed by the treatment of aliskiren and partially suppressed by the combination. The decreases in plasma Ang-(1–7) induced by aliskiren recovered in the combination group. Kidney Ang-(1–12) was increased by the combination therapy while the increases in urinary creatinine mediated by valsartan were reversed by addition of aliskiren. The antihypertensive and antiproteinuric actions of the combined therapy were associated with marked worsening of renal parenchymal disease and increased peritubular fibrosis. The data show that despite improvements in the surrogate endpoints of blood pressure, ventricular mass and proteinuria, dual blockade of Ang II receptors and renin activity is accompanied by worsening of renal parenchymal disease reflecting a renal homeostatic stress response due to loss of tubuloglomerular feedback by Ang II.
angiotensin-(1–12); aliskiren; arterial remodeling; direct renin inhibitors; urinary protein; valsartan
Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.
Studies of smoking behavior commonly use the time-line follow-back (TLFB) method, or periodic retrospective recall, to gather data on daily cigarette consumption. TLFB is considered adequate for identifying periods of abstinence and lapse but not for measurement of daily cigarette consumption, thanks to substantial recall and digit preference biases. With the development of the hand-held electronic diary (ED), it has become possible to collect cigarette consumption data using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), or the instantaneous recording of each cigarette as it is smoked. EMA data, because they do not rely on retrospective recall, are thought to more accurately measure cigarette consumption. In this article we present an analysis of consumption data collected simultaneously by both methods from 236 active smokers in the pre-quit phase of a smoking cessation study. We define a statistical model that describes the genesis of the TLFB records as a two-stage process of mis-remembering and rounding, including fixed and random effects at each stage. We use Bayesian methods to estimate the model, and we evaluate its adequacy by studying histograms of imputed values of the latent remembered cigarette count. Our analysis suggests that both mis-remembering and heaping contribute substantially to the distortion of self-reported cigarette counts. Higher nicotine dependence, white ethnicity and male sex are associated with greater remembered smoking given the EMA count. The model is potentially useful in other applications where it is desirable to understand the process by which subjects remember and report true observations.
Bayesian analysis; heaping; latent variables; longitudinal data; smoking cessation
The liver is the primary organ for storing iron and plays a central role in the regulation of body iron levels by secretion of the hormone Hamp1. Although many factors modulate Hamp1 expression, their regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we used conditional knockout mice for the iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) to modulate tissue iron in specific tissues in combination with iron-deficient or iron-rich diets and transferrin (Tf) supplementation to investigate the mechanisms underlying Hamp1 expression. Despite liver iron overload, expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6), a potent-stimulator of Hamp1 expression that is expressed under iron-loaded conditions, was decreased. We hypothesized that factors other than liver iron must play a role in controlling Bmp6 expression. Our results show that erythropoietin and Tf-bound iron do not underlie the down-regulation of Bmp6 in our mice models. Moreover, Bmp6 was down-regulated under conditions of high iron demand, irrespective of the presence of anemia. We therefore inferred that the signals were driven by high iron demand. Furthermore, we also confirmed previous suggestions that Tf-bound iron regulates Hamp1 expression via Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation without affecting Bmp6 expression, and the effect of Tf-bound iron on Hamp1 regulation appeared before a significant change in Bmp6 expression. Together, these results are consistent with novel mechanisms for regulating Bmp6 and Hamp1 expression.
A practical route to optically pure syn-homocrotylation reagents is described, including highly diastereo-and enantioselective preparation of numerous syn-homocrotyl products, as well as several matched mismatched pairs. NMR experiments suggest that the active homocrotylating species is a cyclopropylcarbinyldichloroborane generated by chloride exchange from the PhBCl2 activator. Computational studies support the intermediacy of chloroboranes, and suggest that homoal-lyl/homocrotyl transfers occur through Zimmerman-Traxler transition states.
To assess the efficacy of intraoperative ultrasound-guided implantation of 125I seeds for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, and analyze the associated prognostic factors.
Twenty-eight patients with pancreatic carcinoma who underwent laparotomy and were considered to have unresectable tumors were included in this study. Nine patients were pathologically diagnosed with Stage II disease, and nineteen patients with Stage III disease. Twenty-eight patients received intraoperative ultrasound-guided 125I seed implantation and received a D90 (at least 90% of the tumor volume received the reference dose) ranging from 60 to 163 Gy, with a median of 120 Gy. Seven patients received an additional 35–50 Gy external beam radiotherapy after seed implantation, and ten patients received two to ten cycles of chemotherapy. Overall survival of the patients was calculated and prognostic factors were evaluated.
Of the patients, 94.1% (16/17) achieved good to medium pain relief. The tumor response rate was 78.6% (22/28), and local control was achieved in 85.7% (24/28) of patients. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 30%, 11% and 4%, and the median survival was 10.1 months (95% CI: 9.0-10.9). Analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model suggested that patients younger than 60 years and patients who received a D90 higher than 110 Gy may survive for a longer period.
I seed implantation provides a safe and effective method to relieve pain, control local tumor growth and, to some extent, prolong the survival of patients with stage II and III pancreatic disease, without additional complications. Age and accumulated dose may be factors predictive of a favorable outcome for patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma treated with 125I seeds. These findings need to be validated by conducting further studies with larger cohorts.
125I seed; Intraoperative implantation; Ultrasound-guided; Unresectable; Pancreatic carcinoma
There is an urgent need for improved therapy for advanced ovarian carcinoma, which may be met by administering immune-modulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to generate a tumor-destructive immune response. Using the ID8 mouse ovarian cancer model, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of various mAb combinations in mice with intraperitoneal (i.p.) tumor established by transplanting 3 × 106 ID8 cells 10 days previously. While most of the tested mAbs were ineffective when given individually or together, the data confirm our previous finding that 2 i.p. injections of a combination of anti-CD137 with anti-PD-1 mAbs doubles overall survival. Mice treated with this mAb combination have a significantly increased frequency and total number of CD8+ T cells both in the peritoneal lavage and spleens, and these cells are functional as demonstrated by antigen-specific cytolytic activity and IFN-γ production. While administration of anti-CD137 mAb as a single agent similarly increases CD8+ T cells, these have no functional activity, which may be attributed to up-regulation of co-inhibitory PD-1 and TIM-3 molecules induced by CD137. Addition of the anti-cancer drug cisplatin to the 2 mAb combination increased overall survival >90 days (and was probably curative) by a mechanism which included a systemic CD8+ T cell response with tumor specificity and immunological memory. Strikingly, combined treatment of cisplatin and CD137/PD-1 mAb also gave rise to the long-term survival of mice with established TC1 lung tumors. A similar combination of the 2 mAbs and cisplatin should be considered for clinical ‘translation’.
Complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences with duplicate control regions (CRs) have been detected in various animal species. In Testudines, duplicate mtCRs have been reported in the mtDNA of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum, which has three living subspecies. However, the evolutionary pattern of these CRs remains unclear. In this study, we report the completed sequences of duplicate CRs from 20 individuals belonging to three subspecies of this turtle and discuss the micro-evolutionary analysis of the evolution of duplicate CRs. Genetic distances calculated with MEGA 4.1 using the complete duplicate CR sequences revealed that within turtle subspecies, genetic distances between orthologous copies from different individuals were 0.63% for CR1 and 1.2% for CR2app:addword:respectively, and the average distance between paralogous copies of CR1 and CR2 was 4.8%. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed from the CR sequences, excluding the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) at the 3′ end using three methods: neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood algorithm, and Bayesian inference. These data show that any two CRs within individuals were more genetically distant from orthologous genes in different individuals within the same subspecies. This suggests independent evolution of the two mtCRs within each P. megacephalum subspecies. Reconstruction of separate phylogenetic trees using different CR components (TAS, CD, CSB, and VNTRs) suggested the role of recombination in the evolution of duplicate CRs. Consequently, recombination events were detected using RDP software with break points at ≈290 bp and ≈1,080 bp. Based on these results, we hypothesize that duplicate CRs in P. megacephalum originated from heterological ancestral recombination of mtDNA. Subsequent recombination could have resulted in homogenization during independent evolutionary events, thus maintaining the functions of duplicate CRs in the mtDNA of P. megacephalum.
Rice false smut caused by Villosiclava virens is a devastating fungal disease that spreads in major rice-growing regions throughout the world. However, the genomic information for this fungal pathogen is limited and the pathogenic mechanism of this disease is still not clear. To facilitate genetic, molecular and genomic studies of this fungal pathogen, we constructed the first BAC-based physical map and performed the first genome survey for this species.
High molecular weight genomic DNA was isolated from young mycelia of the Villosiclava virens strain UV-8b and a high-quality, large-insert and deep-coverage Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library was constructed with the restriction enzyme HindIII. The BAC library consisted of 5,760 clones, which covers 22.7-fold of the UV-8b genome, with an average insert size of 140 kb and an empty clone rate of lower than 1%. BAC fingerprinting generated successful fingerprints for 2,290 BAC clones. Using the fingerprints, a whole genome-wide BAC physical map was constructed that contained 194 contigs (2,035 clones) spanning 51.2 Mb in physical length. Bidirectional-end sequencing of 4,512 BAC clones generated 6,560 high quality BAC end sequences (BESs), with a total length of 3,030,658 bp, representing 8.54% of the genome sequence. Analysis of the BESs revealed general genome information, including 51.52% GC content, 22.51% repetitive sequences, 376.12/Mb simple sequence repeat (SSR) density and approximately 36.01% coding regions. Sequence comparisons to other available fungal genome sequences through BESs showed high similarities to Metarhizium anisopliae, Trichoderma reesei, Nectria haematococca and Cordyceps militaris, which were generally in agreement with the 18S rRNA gene analysis results.
This study provides the first BAC-based physical map and genome information for the important rice fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. The BAC clones, physical map and genome information will serve as fundamental resources to accelerate the genetic, molecular and genomic studies of this pathogen, including positional cloning, comparative genomic analysis and whole genome sequencing. The BAC library and physical map have been opened to researchers as public genomic resources (http://gresource.hzau.edu.cn/resource/resource.html).
Rice false smut; Villosiclava virens; BAC library; BAC end sequencing; BAC fingerprinting; Physical map
Comparing with the traditional therapeutic methods, newly developed cancer therapy based on the nanoparticulates attracted extensively interest due to its unique advantages. However, there are still some drawbacks such as the unfavorable in vivo performance for nanomedicine and undesirable tumor escape from the immunotherapy. While as we know that the in vivo performance strongly depended on the nanocarrier structural properties, thus, the big gap between in vitro and in vivo can be overcome by nanocarrier's structural tailoring by fine chemical design and microstructural tuning. In addition, this fine nanocarrier's engineering can also provide practical solution to solve the problems in traditional cancer immunotherapy. In this paper, we review the latest development in nanomedicine, cancer therapy, and nanoimmunotherapy. We then give an explanation why fine nanocanrrie's engineering with special focus on the unique pathology of tumor microenvironments and properties of immunocells can obviously promote the in vivo performance and improve the therapeutic index of nanoimmunotherapy.
Increasing seed oil content is one of the most important goals in breeding of rapeseed (B. napus L.). To dissect the genetic basis of oil content in B. napus, a large and new double haploid (DH) population containing 348 lines was obtained from a cross between ‘KenC-8’ and ‘N53-2’, two varieties with >10% difference in seed oil content, and this population was named the KN DH population. A genetic linkage map consisting of 403 markers was constructed, which covered a total length of 1783.9 cM with an average marker interval of 4.4 cM. The KN DH population was phenotyped in eight natural environments and subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for oil content. A total of 63 identified QTLs explaining 2.64–17.88% of the phenotypic variation were identified, and these QTLs were further integrated into 24 consensus QTLs located on 11 chromosomes using meta-analysis. A high-density consensus map with 1335 marker loci was constructed by combining the KN DH map with seven other published maps based on the common markers. Of the 24 consensus QTLs in the KN DH population, 14 were new QTLs including five new QTLs in A genome and nine in C genome. The analysis revealed that a larger population with significant differences in oil content gave a higher power detecting new QTLs for oil content, and the construction of the consensus map provided a new clue for comparing the QTLs detected in different populations. These findings enriched our knowledge of QTLs for oil content and should be a potential in marker-assisted breeding of B. napus.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p16 [a surrogate marker of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection] expression are strong prognostic factors in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
We examined expression levels of total and nuclear EGFR as well as p16 status based on evidence that nuclear EGFR may have a role in DNA damage repair.
A HPV-negative (SQ20B) and a HPV-positive (UMSCC47) HNSCC cell line were examined for EGFR and γH2AX expression. A tissue microarray (TMA) containing 123 cores obtained from 101 HNSCC tumors was analyzed for EGFR expression by automated quantitative analysis and p16 expression by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and these results were correlated with available clinical data.
SQ20B had higher EGFR expression than UMSCC47. Nuclear localization of EGFR upon activation with transforming growth factor-alpha was observed in SQ20B, but not in UMSCC47. SQ20B also had increased γH2AX foci compared to UMSCC47 suggesting that SQ20B has more DNA damage compared to UMSCC47. Total and nuclear EGFR was reliably obtained from 80 of 101 patients. p16 levels were determined in 87 of 101 patients. p16 levels were strongly associated with the oropharyngeal subsite and poorly differentiated histology. Expression of total and nuclear EGFR was higher in p16-negative tumors compared to p16-positive tumors (Wilcoxon Rank Test, p=0.038 and p=0.014, respectively).
Further studies are required to determine a mechanistic link between these two prognostic factors, and the significance of EGFR localization to nucleus has in DNA damage repair upon pathway activation.
HNSCC; nuclear EGFR; p16
The exact molecular mechanism that mediates hypoxia-induced pulmonary fibrosis needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of angiotensin II (Ang II) on collagen synthesis in hypoxic human lung fibroblast (HLF) cells. The HLF-1 cell line was used for in vitro studies. Angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression levels in human lung fibroblasts were analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after hypoxic treatment. Additionally, the collagen type I (Col-I), AT1R and nuclear factor κappaB (NF-κB) protein expression levels were detected using Western blot analysis, and NF-κB nuclear translocation was measured using immunofluorescence localization analysis. Ang II levels in HLF-1 cells were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that hypoxia increased Col-I mRNA and protein expression in HLF-1 cells, and this effect could be inhibited by an AT1R or AT2R inhibitor. The levels of NF-κB, RAS components and Ang II production in HLF-1 cells were significantly increased after the hypoxia exposure. Hypoxia or Ang II increased NF-κB-p50 protein expression in HLF-1 cells, and the special effect could be inhibited by telmisartan (TST), an AT1R inhibitor, and partially inhibited by PD123319, an AT2R inhibitor. Importantly, hypoxia-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation could be nearly completely inhibited by an AT1R or AT2R inhibitor. Furthermore pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a NF-κB blocker, abolished the expression of hypoxia-induced AT1R and Col-I in HLF-1 cells. Our results indicate that Ang II-mediated NF-κB signalling via ATR is involved in hypoxia-induced collagen synthesis in human lung fibroblasts.
angiotensin II; hypoxic HLF-1; collagen synthesis; nuclear factor κappaB
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) play important roles in carcinogenesis. MiR-126 has been shown to be down-regulated in CRC. In this study, we identified the potential effects of miR-126 on some important biological properties of CRC cells and clarified the regulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and its possible signaling pathway by miR-126.
The effect of miR-126 on IRS-1, AKT, and ERK1/2 expression was assessed in the CRC cell lines HT-29 and HCT-116 with a miR-126 mimic or inhibitor to increase or decrease miR-126 expression. Furthermore, the roles of miR-126 in regulation of the biological properties of CRC cells were analyzed with miR-126 mimic or inhibitor-transfected cells. The 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of IRS-1 regulated by miR-126 was analyzed by using a dual-luciferase reporter assay.
We found that IRS-1 is the functional downstream target of miR-126 by directly targeting the 3′-UTR of IRS-1. Endogenous miR-126 and exogenous miR-126 mimic inhibited IRS-1 expression. Furthermore, gain-of-function or loss-of-function studies showed that over-expression of miR-126 down-regulated IRS-1, suppressed AKT and ERK1/2 activation, CRC cells proliferation, migration, invasion, and caused cell cycle arrest, but had no effect on cell apoptosis. Knockdown of miR-126 promoted these processes in HCT-116 cells and promoted AKT and ERK1/2 activation by up-regulating the expression of the IRS-1 protein.
MiR-126 may play roles in regulation of the biological behavior of CRC cells, at least in part, by targeting IRS-1 via AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula network including 362 TCM formulas was built by using complex network methodologies. The properties of this network were analyzed including network diameter, average distance, clustering coefficient, and average degree. Meanwhile, we built a TCM chemical space and a TCM metabolism room under the theory of chemical space. The properties of chemical space and metabolism room were calculated and analyzed. The properties of the medicine pairs in “eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors,” an ancient rule for TCM incompatibility, were studied based on the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The results showed that the properties of these incompatible medicine pairs are different from those of the other TCM based on the analysis of the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The lines of evidence derived from our work demonstrated that the ancient rule of TCM incompatibility, “eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors,” is probably scientifically based.
Ultra-thin solid-state nanopore with good wetting property is strongly desired to achieve high spatial resolution for DNA sequencing applications. Atomic thick hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer provides a promising two-dimensional material for fabricating solid-state nanopores. Due to its good oxidation resistance, the hydrophilicity of h-BN nanopore device can be significantly improved by UV-Ozone treatment. The contact angle of a KCl-TE droplet on h-BN layer can be reduced from 57° to 26° after the treatment. Abundant DNA translocation events have been observed in such devices, and strong DNA-nanopore interaction has been revealed in pores smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The 1/f noise level is closely related to the area of suspended h-BN layer, and it is significantly reduced in smaller supporting window. The demonstrated performance in h-BN nanopore paves the way towards base discrimination in a single DNA molecule.
Perioperative blood transfusions have been associated with poor clinical outcomes in the context of oncological surgery. Current literature is inconclusive whether blood transfusions are linked to shorter recurrence free and overall survival after lung cancer surgery. We hypothesize that blood transfusions in patients undergoing surgery for non-small cell lung cancer are associated with poor oncological survival.
After IRB approval, perioperative data from 636 patients who underwent lung cancer surgery was collected. Patients were evaluated for time to tumor recurrence and overall survival.
60 patients were transfused and 576 subjects were not. Patients who received transfusion were more likely to have more advanced disease (p = 0.018), and preoperative low hemoglobin concentrations (p < 0.0001) compared to non-transfused patients. In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, blood transfusion was associated with a significant reduction in recurrence free survival (p = 0.025), HR: 1.55 (95% CI: 1.06-2.27) and overall survival (p = 0.0002) HR: 2.04 (95% CI: 1.41-2.97). However, analysis after propensity score matching between the two groups revealed that the effect of blood transfusion was significant for reduction in overall survival (p = 0.0356), HR: 1.838 (95% CI: 1.04-3.22) but not for recurrence free survival (p = 0.1460), HR: 1.493 (95% CI: 0.87-2.56).
Perioperative administration of red blood cells appears be associated with a decreased overall survival but not recurrence free survival after lung cancer surgery. Our study has the limitations of a retrospective review. Hence, our results should be confirmed by a prospective randomized control trial.
Because of rapidly increasing market demand and rising cost pressure, the innovator of etanercept (Enbrel®) will inevitably face competition from biosimilar versions of the product. In this study, to elucidate the differences between the reference etanercept and its biosimilars, we characterized and compared the quality attributes of two commercially available, biosimilar TNF receptor 2-Fc fusion protein products. Biosimilar 1 showed high similarity to Enbrel® in critical quality attributes including peptide mapping, intact mass, charge variant, purity, glycosylation and bioactivity. In contrast, the intact mass and MS/MS analysis of biosimilar 2 revealed a mass difference indicative of a two amino acid residue variance in the heavy chain (Fc) sequences. Comprehensive glycosylation profiling confirmed that biosimilar 2 has significantly low sialylated N-oligosaccharides. Biosimilar 2 also displayed significant differences in charge attributes compared with the reference product. Interestingly, biosimilar 2 exhibited similar affinity and bioactivity levels compared with the reference product despite the obvious difference in primary structure and partial physiochemical properties. For a biosimilar development program, comparative analytical data can influence decisions about the type and amount of animal and clinical data needed to demonstrate biosimilarity. Because of the limited clinical experience with biosimilars at the time of their approval, a thorough knowledge surrounding biosimilars and a case-by-case approach are needed to ensure the appropriate use of these products.
etanercept; biosimilar; TNF receptor 2-Fc fusion protein; N-Glycosylation; sialic acid; intact mass; MS/MS; charge variant; CE-LIF
Multiple biomarker testing is necessary to facilitate individualized treatment of lung cancer patients. More than 80% of lung cancers are diagnosed based on very small tumor samples. Often there is not enough tissue for molecular analysis. We compared three minimal invasive sampling methods with respect to RNA quantity for molecular testing.
106 small biopsies were prospectively collected by three different methods forceps biopsy, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), and CT-guided core biopsy. Samples were split into two halves. One part was formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for standard pathological evaluation. The other part was put in RNAlater for immediate RNA/DNA extraction. If the pathologist confirmed the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC), the following molecular markers were tested: EGFR mutation, ERCC1, RRM1 and BRCA1.
Overall, RNA-extraction was possible in 101 out of 106 patients (95.3%). We found 49% adenocarcinomas, 38% squamouscarcinomas, and 14% non-otherwise-specified(NOS). The highest RNA yield came from endobronchial ultrasound guided needle aspiration, which was significantly higher than bronchoscopy (37.74±41.09 vs. 13.74±15.53 ng respectively, P = 0.005) and numerically higher than CT-core biopsy (37.74±41.09 vs. 28.72±44.27 ng respectively, P = 0.244). EGFR mutation testing was feasible in 100% of evaluable patients and its incidence was 40.8%, 7.9% and 14.3% in adenocarcinomas, squamouscarcinomas and NSCLC NOS subgroup respectively. There was no difference in the feasibility of molecular testing between the three sampling methods with feasibility rates for ERCC1, RRM1 and BRCA1 of 91%, 87% and 81% respectively.
All three methods can provide sufficient tumor material for multiple biomarkers testing from routinely obtained small biopsies in lung cancer patients. In our study EBUS guided needle aspiration provided the highest amount of tumor RNA compared to bronchoscopy or CT guided core biopsy. Thus EBUS should be considered as an acceptable option for tissue acquisition for molecular testing.