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1.  Treatment of adhesive capsulitis: a review 
Summary
Adhesive capsulitis is a condition “difficult to define, difficult to treat and difficult to explain from the point of view of pathology”. This Codman’s assertion is still actual because of a variable nomenclature, an inconsistent reporting of disease staging and many types of treatment. There is no consensus on how the best way best to manage patients with this condition, so we want to provide an evidence-based overview regarding the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions to treat adhesive capsulitis.
PMCID: PMC3666515  PMID: 23738277
adhesive capsulitis; frozen shoulder; review; conservative treatment
2.  ISMuLT Guidelines for muscle injuries 
Summary
Muscle injuries are frequent in high demand sports. No guidelines are available in the scientific literature. ISMuLT, the “Italian Society of Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons”, in line with its multidisciplinary mission, is proud to cover this gap.
PMCID: PMC3940495  PMID: 24596685
muscles injuries; classification; guidelines
3.  Surgical repair of muscle laceration: biomechanical properties at 6 years follow-up 
Summary
Muscle injuries are challenging problems for surgeons. Muscle trauma is commonly treated conservatively with excellent outcome results while surgical repair is advocated for larger tears/lacerations, where the optimal goal is restore of function. Repair of muscle belly lacerations is technically demanding because the sutures pull out and the likelihood of clinical failure is high. Different suture techniques have been described but still the best suture is debated. We show a case of a pure vastus medialis muscle laceration surgically repaired at 6 years of follow-up.
PMCID: PMC3940505  PMID: 24596695
muscle belly lesion; skeletal muscle laceration; muscle repair; epimysium; fibrous scar
5.  Physiopathology of intratendinous calcific deposition 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:95.
In calcific tendinopathy (CT), calcium deposits in the substance of the tendon, with chronic activity-related pain, tenderness, localized edema and various degrees of decreased range of motion. CT is particularly common in the rotator cuff, and supraspinatus, Achilles and patellar tendons. The presence of calcific deposits may worsen the clinical manifestations of tendinopathy with an increase in rupture rate, slower recovery times and a higher frequency of post-operative complications. The aetiopathogenesis of CT is still controversial, but seems to be the result of an active cell-mediated process and a localized attempt of the tendon to compensate the original decreased stiffness. Tendon healing includes many sequential processes, and disturbances at different stages of healing may lead to different combinations of histopathological changes, diverting the normal healing processes to an abnormal pathway. In this review, we discuss the theories of pathogenesis behind CT. Better understanding of the pathogenesis is essential for development of effective treatment modalities and for improvement of clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-95
PMCID: PMC3482552  PMID: 22917025
Calcific Tendinopathy; Calcific Deposits; Tendons; Review
6.  Short-term effectiveness of bi-phase oscillatory waves versus hyperthermia for isolated long head biceps tendinopathy 
Summary
Introduction:
Long head biceps (LHB) tendinopathy is a common cause of anterior shoulder pain. Isolated LHB pathology is most common among younger people who practise overhead sports. The authors conducted a short-term prospective randomised study to test the effectiveness of two different methods for the treatment of isolated LHB tendinopathy: biphasic oscillatory waves and hyperthermia.
Study design:
The study is a prospective randomised study (Level II).
Material and methods:
The authors identified 20 patients who had clinical and ultrasound (US) evidence of LHB tendinopathy. No patient was a high-level athlete. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A (10 patients) was treated with bi-phasic oscillatory waves, while Group B received hyperthermia. During the treatment period, no other electromedical therapy, injections with corticosteroids, oral analgesics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were allowed. All the patients were assessed at baseline (T0), immediately after the end of the treatment period (T1) and 6 months after the end of treatment (T2) using a visual analogic scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley Score (CMS). Furthermore, all patients underwent US examinations at T0 and at T1. All the US examinations were performed by the same radiologist.
Results:
The VAS scores showed a highly statistically significant reduction of pain at T1 both in Group A (65%; p=0,004) and in Group B (50%; p=0,0002). The CMS also showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-intervention, the post-treatment and the short-term follow-up in both groups. In addition, the peritendinous fluid evident on US examination at T0 was no longer present in all cases at T1.
Conclusion:
These findings suggest that both bi-phasic oscillatory waves and hyperthermia are able to relieve pain in patients with isolated LHB tendinopathy. This is a Class II level of evidence.
PMCID: PMC3666475  PMID: 23738257
biphasic oscillatory waves; InterX; hyperthermia; long head biceps; rehabilitation; tendinopathy

Results 1-6 (6)