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1.  Cutaneous lupus erythematosus: An update 
Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a chronic, autoimmune, multisystem disease that displays many diverse symptoms in which localized cutaneous LE (CLE) is on one end of the spectrum and severe systemic LE (SLE) on the other end. The underlying cause of LE is unknown but the etiology is thought to be multifactorial and polygenic. CLE is a disfiguring, chronic skin disease, with a significant impact on the patients’ everyday life. CLE are further divided into three main subsets: Acute CLE (ACLE), subacute CLE (SCLE) and chronic CLE (CCLE), where classic discoid LE (DLE) is the most common form. These subsets are defined by clinical symptoms, average duration of symptoms and histological and serological findings, although, the three subtypes can have overlapping clinical features. CLE patients display well-defined skin lesions, often in sun-exposed areas. The disease often has a chronic and relapsing course that can be induced or aggravated by UV light. It is important to confirm a CLE diagnosis histopathologically by a biopsy and in that there are several differential diagnoses and because CLE is a chronic disease in which regular follow-up is important and systemic treatment is sometimes indicated.
doi:10.4103/2229-5178.126020
PMCID: PMC3937495  PMID: 24616847
Acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus; chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus; cutaneous lupus erythematosus; cutaneous; discoid lupus erythematosus; erythematosus; lupus; subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus
2.  Gender and the treatment of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis: an observational study 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:82.
Background
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and psoriasis are immune-mediated inflammatory diseases with similarities in pathophysiology, and all can be treated with similar biological agents. Previous studies have shown that there are gender differences with regard to disease characteristics in RA and IBD, with women generally having worse scores on pain and quality of life measurements. The relationship is less clear for psoriasis. Because treatment differences between men and women could explain the dissimilarities, we investigated gender differences in the disease characteristics before treatment initiation and in the biologic treatment prescribed.
Methods
Data on patients with RA or IBD were collected from two registries in which patients treated with biologic medication were enrolled. Basic demographic data and disease activity parameters were collected from a time point just before the initiation of the biologic treatment. For patients with psoriasis, the data were taken from the 2010 annual report of the Swedish Psoriasis Register for systemic treatment, which included also non-biologic treatment. For all three diseases, the prescribed treatment and disease characteristics were compared between men and women.
Results
In total, 4493 adult patients were included in the study (1912 with RA, 131 with IBD, and 2450 with psoriasis). Most of the treated patients with RA were women, whereas most of the patients with IBD or psoriasis were men. There were no significant differences between men and women in the choice of biologics. At treatment start, significant gender differences were seen in the subjective disease measurements for both RA and psoriasis, with women having higher (that is, worse) scores than men. No differences in objective measurements were found for RA, but for psoriasis men had higher (that is, worse) scores for objective disease activity measures. A similar trend to RA was seen in IBD.
Conclusions
Women with RA or psoriasis scored significantly higher on subjective, but not on objective, disease activity measures than men, and the same trend was seen in IBD. This indicates that at the same level of treatment, the disease has a greater effect in women. These findings might suggest that in all three diseases, subjective measures are discounted to some extent in the therapeutic decision-making process, which could indicate undertreatment in female patients.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-82
PMCID: PMC3414735  PMID: 22853635
3.  Polymorphisms of the ITGAM Gene Confer Higher Risk of Discoid Cutaneous Than of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(12):e14212.
Background
Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear.
Principal Findings
To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM coding variant rs1143679 showed highly significant association to DLE in patients without signs of systemic disease (P-value  = 4.73×10−11, OR  = 3.20, 95% CI  = 2.23–4.57). Significant association was also detected to SLE patients (P-value  = 8.29×10−6, OR  = 2.14, 95% CI  = 1.52–3.00), and even stronger association was found when stratifying SLE patients by presence of discoid rash (P-value  = 3.59×10−8, OR  = 3.76, 95% CI  = 2.29–6.18).
Significance
We propose ITGAM as a novel susceptibility gene for cutaneous DLE. The risk effect is independent of systemic involvement and has an even stronger genetic influence on the risk of DLE than of SLE.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014212
PMCID: PMC2996302  PMID: 21151989

Results 1-3 (3)