PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-2 (2)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review 
BMC Medicine  2012;10:75.
Background
Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective.
Methods
Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy.
Results
Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT) and three controlled clinical trials (CCT). Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR) statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.84) and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71) lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72) injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP) significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76) and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86) injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP) strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42). The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76) in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP) significantly reduces the incidence of anterior knee pain (RR 0.27, CI 0.14 to 0.54) in military recruits.
Conclusions
Effective implementation of practical neuromuscular warm-up strategies can reduce lower extremity injury incidence in young, amateur, female athletes and male and female military recruits. This is typically a warm-up strategy that includes stretching, strengthening, balance exercises, sports-specific agility drills and landing techniques applied consistently for longer than three consecutive months. In order to optimize these strategies, the mechanisms for their effectiveness require further evaluation.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-75
PMCID: PMC3408383  PMID: 22812375
neuromuscular training; lower limb; injuries; prevention
2.  Thicker Achilles tendons are a risk factor to develop Achilles tendinopathy in elite professional soccer players 
Summary
The primary aim of this prospective cohort study was to compare the incidence of Achilles tendinopathy symptoms in elite soccer players with and without baseline asymptomatic ultrasound abnormalities. This study also investigated the relationship between baseline tendon thickness and development of symptoms. Using ultrasonography, 18 players were examined in 2009 for the existence of hypoechoicity, paratenon blurring, focal thickening and/or neovascularisation, and anteroposterior tendon thickness was measured. Symptom development during the follow-up period was assessed by interview one year later. Baseline mid-tendon thickness was greater (p=0.041) in tendons that experienced symptoms [median (IQR): 0.53 (0.51–0.55) cm] in the following year than tendons remaining asymptomatic [0.48 (0.45–0.52) cm]. No association between the existence of baseline ultrasound signs and development of symptoms in the following year was observed (Chi-Square: 1.180, p=0.277). A thicker baseline mid-tendon thickness was identified as a risk indicator for the development of Achilles tendinopathy in elite soccer players.
PMCID: PMC3666468  PMID: 23738247
tendinopathy; sonography; ultrasound; football; Achilles

Results 1-2 (2)